Chinese and Korean Participation in the Russian Civil War

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Borianm
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Postby Borianm » 05 Jan 2008 14:54

The Whites in Siberia (ataman Annenkov for example) also has chinese troops, famoust for their cruelty. Often they were used as executioners.

in russian

"Ñèòóàöèþ óñóãóáëÿëî òî, ÷òî â äèâèçèþ Àííåíêîâà âõîäèëè ïîäðàçäåëåíèÿ, ñôîðìèðîâàííûå íà òåððèòîðèè êèòàéñêîé ïðîâèíöèè Ñèíüöçÿí èç êèòàéöåâ è óéãóð. Ñîëäàòû ýòèõ ÷àñòåé, âñòàâøèå ïîä ðóæüå èñêëþ÷èòåëüíî â öåëÿõ ãðàáåæà è íàæèâû, îòëè÷àëèñü îñîáîé æåñòîêîñòüþ â îáðàùåíèè ñ ìèðíûì íàñåëåíèåì. Íà ïîñëåäíåì ýòàïå âîéíû, â óñëîâèÿõ îáùåãî ïàäåíèÿ äèñöèïëèíû, ãðàáåæ ñòàë èõ îñíîâíûì çàíÿòèåì.  òîì æå äîêëàäå íà÷àëüíèêà Îñîáîé êàíöåëÿðèè îñîáî îòìå÷àëîñü, ÷òî ":êèòàéöû àòàìàíà Àííåíêîâà íàâîäÿò íà æèòåëåé ñòðàõ è çàñòàâëÿþò æèòåëåé ïîêèäàòü ñâîè äîìà". Äàëåå àâòîð äîêëàäà öèòèðóåò ïèñüìî îäíîãî èç ñîëäàò: "Èç Àíäðååâêè âñå óøëè, áîÿëèñü êèòàéöåâ Àííåíêîâà, êîòîðûå îáðàùàþòñÿ íå ïî-÷åëîâå÷åñêè" "

my translation (sorry for my bad english):

" The situation was aggravated with that Annenkov's division included the units conscripted on territory of Chinese province Ñèíüöçÿí from Chineses and the Uigur. The soldiers of these units who joined the army exclusively to robb and make profit, differed enormous cruelty in relations with the peace population. At last stage of war, when conditions of discipline generali fall , the robbery became their basic employment. In the same report of the chief of Special office (Whites) it was especially marked, thatat a chineese men of Annenkov direct fear on inhabitants and force them to leave the houses ". Further the author of the report quotes the letter of one of the soldier: " From Andreevka all leave away, were afraid Annenkov's Chineses who are not humanly "

More:

Òàì áûë áàòàëüîí êèòàéöåâ è àôãàíöåâ è ñåðáû. Ýòî óêðåïëÿëî ïîëîæåíèå àòàìàíà: â ñëó÷àå íåîáõîäèìîñòè êèòàéöû áåç îñîáîãî ñìóùåíèÿ ðàññòðåëèâàþò ðóññêèõ, àôãàíöû — êèòàéöåâ, è íàîáîðîò»

There were Chinese batallion, Afgan batallion and Serbs. It forces the ataman's position: in case chinese without any moral problems
shoot russians, afgan shoot chinese and vise versa

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Alex Yeliseenko
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Postby Alex Yeliseenko » 05 Jan 2008 17:56

BIGpanzer wrote:Also it should be noted that Chinese troops participated on the side of Far-East White Russian forces against Bolshevists. Chinese Army didn't participate active in Russian civil war but Chinese border units, guard troops and cavalry squadrons guarded railways and military storehouses under the control of White Russian Forces. Also Chinese battalion (from Chinese workers from Murmansk and Arkhangelsk) was formed in 1918 in Russian North under the control of British occupation administration.
Later, many Russian White officers ran to China in 1920s and established there quite strong Russian Diaspora and Imperial officer committee, quite many ex-White Russian officers in China supported Japan in conflicts with USSR (1938, 1939, 1945) and participated in military operations against Soviet troops on Japanese side.


Large battles between Russian (Red and White) and Chineses were in Mongolia and Tuva.

Borianm
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Red Koreans

Postby Borianm » 08 Jan 2008 17:56

I've found some info on Koreans fighting for Reds

http://www.tparents.org/Library/Religio ... J/bury.jpg

Aug. 28, 1919 - A Czarist guerrilla unit captures and executes key leaders of Soviet-Koreans. Gen. Yi escapes to Shanghai where he joins the Korean Provisional Government as defense minister. This puts an end to the Korean People's Socialist Party. The survivors join the Russian Communist Party - Korean Chapter (commonly known as the Irkutsk group).

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Kim Sung
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Re: Red Koreans

Postby Kim Sung » 09 Jan 2008 03:17

Borianm wrote:I've found some info on Koreans fighting for Reds

http://www.tparents.org/Library/Religio ... J/bury.jpg

Aug. 28, 1919 - A Czarist guerrilla unit captures and executes key leaders of Soviet-Koreans. Gen. Yi escapes to Shanghai where he joins the Korean Provisional Government as defense minister. This puts an end to the Korean People's Socialist Party. The survivors join the Russian Communist Party - Korean Chapter (commonly known as the Irkutsk group).


Thanks for your info. But soldiers in the link that you provided seem to be Japanese soldiers executing Chinese civilians during the Sino-Japanese War. And General Yi you mentioned is Yi Dong-Hwi (이동휘, 李東輝, August 2,1873~January 31,1935), the most famous Korean resistance activist in the Far East of Russia.

In 1907, he rose up against the Japanese in Kanghwa island and was arrested by the Japanese police. He exiled to Manchuria in 1911 and moved to Primorsky Krai in 1913 where he established a Korean Parliament-in-exile (대한국민의회, 大韓國民議會) and a military academy for Korean refugees.

On May 18, 1918, he and other Korean socialists founded the first Korean socialist political party named Korean Socialist Party (한인사회당, 韓人社會黨) in Khabarovsk. This party got a big blow and suspended its operations when the Japanese army landed in Vladivostok and bagan to massacre ethnic Koreans in Primorsky Krai. Later. it changed its name into Koryo Communist Party (고려공산당, 高麗共産黨) in 1921 and continued anti-Japanese struggle.

Yi Dong-Hwi moved to Shanghai in 1919 and worked as defense minister at the Korean Government-in-exile. In 1921, he resigned his post when his secretary Kim Rip(김 립, 金立)'s use of 400,000 rubles for other purposes which the Korean Government-in-exile borrowed from Lenin.

Yi Dong-Hwi passed away at a Koreatown named Shinhanchon (신한촌, 新韓村) in Vladivostok on January 31, 1935 and his remains were returned to Korea on January 31, 2007, 72 years after his death.

http://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?mod ... 0001535465


Image

http://narasarang.mpva.go.kr/data/inde_ ... sp?idx=298

His interview with 'Innovation Times' (혁신공보) on November 4, 1919

이천만 동포는 다 최후의 일인(一人)이 필사(畢死)하기까지 최후의 일인(一人)의 혈점(血點)이 필적(畢滴)하기까지 독립을 필성(必成)코야 말 줄로 확신하노라.
정의(正義)와 인도(人道)를 표방하여 우리 독립을 국제연맹에 요(要)함도 물론 외교상에 일수단(一手段)이어니와 나는 우리 독립을 단순한 외인(外人)의 찬조(贊助)에 의뢰함보다도 내가 혈(血)로써 우리 자손 억만대(億萬代)의 광영(光榮)이요 행복되는 완전무결(完全無缺)한 독립을 사려하는 마음 다시 말하면 최후혈전(血戰)이라야 반드시 영원한 독립을 성공하리라 하노라.
단언하는 바 이천만은 그 나의 결심을 찬동하야 적극 전진하되 전자(前者) 부(仆)이어든 후자(後者) 계(繼)하고, 남(男)이 원수의 독수(毒手)에 사(死)하거든 여(女)가 진(進)하고, 노(老)가 원수의 참해(慘害)를 피(被)하거든 해자(孩子)일지라도 나아가기를 바라노라.


For translation, please use Babel Fish.

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Kim Sung
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Postby Kim Sung » 09 Jan 2008 07:27

The Irkutsk Group (이르쿠츠크 그룹, Иркутская Группа) mentioned by Borianm was called 'Noryongpa' (노령파, 露領派), meaning the Russian Group. This Korean partisan group was formed under general Smetsky, the commander of the Red 5th Corps by Kim Chul-Hoon (김철훈, 金哲勳), Moon Chang-Bum (문창범, 文昌範), Oh Ha-Mook (오하묵, 吳夏默), Kim Ha-Sok (김하석, 金河錫), Han Myung-Seo (한명서, 韓明瑞), who were members of the Korean Parliament-in-exile founded by the above-mentioned Yi Dong-Hwi. General Smetsky was replaced by Nestor Kalandarashvili (Нестор Каландарашвили.1876-1922), who seems to be a Georgian from his name.

The official name of the Irkutsk Group was 'The All-Russian Party of Korean Communists' (전로한인공산당, 全露韓人共産黨, Всероссийской Партии Коммунистов Кореи) and later changed into 'The All-Russian Koryo Communist Party' (전로고려공산당, 全露高麗共産黨, Всероссийской Партии Кореи) in 1921 when it got an order to unite with the Koryo Communist Party in Shanghai (so-called the Shanghai Group) from Komintern.

Первыми жертвами корейского коммунизма были сами коммунисты. Сражавшиеся с японцами партизаны из так называемой иркутской группы Всероссийской партии коммунистов Кореи одновременно боролись с партизанами другой группировки, образовавшей в июне 1921 года Корейскую коммунистическую партию. Эта вражда, стоившая жизни нескольким сотням человек, вынудила Коминтерн вмешаться в события и попытаться объединить корейское коммунистическое движение.

http://blackrotbook.narod.ru/pages/27.htm

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Kim Sung
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Postby Kim Sung » 09 Jan 2008 07:40

Korean partisan operations in the Far Eastern Russia and their plan to advance into and liberate Korea

Корейские партизаны рассматривали советскую Россию не столько как проводника коммунистических идей, сколько как союзника в борьбе с Японией. Именно поэтому они враждебно относились к белому движению, которое пыталось ограничивать антияпонскую деятельность корейцев с тем, чтобы они боролись с Японией только на корейской территории. Так, например, когда корейцы пытались добиться перехода через линию фронта для следования на международную конференцию, правительство Колчака отказало им в разрешении. Не приветствовало оно и переход корейцев в русское подданство .

Насколько эффективно партизаны наносили японцам урон, неясно. Доподлинно известны только две их победы над японцами – при Понъодоне (кит. Фэнъудун) и Чхонсанри (кит. Циншаньли). Оба произошли в 1920 г. В первом сражении Армия Независимости Кореи под водительством Хон Бом До и Чхве Дон Джина окружила карательный отряд японцев и нанесла им потери в 160 убитых и более 300 раненых. Во втором сражении, которое состоялось в октябре 1920 г., корейцами командовали Ким Чва Чжин и Ли Бом Сок. Японцы потеряли более тысячи солдат, невзирая на преимущество в численности и вооружении.

В 1921 г. в районе пос. Свободный, где группировались вооруженные силы корейских партизан, произошли столкновения. Этот инцидент одни трактуют как попытку советских властей разоружить корейских партизан-националистов , а другие – как разборку между иркутскими коммунистами и корейскими партизанами, базировавшимися в Маньчжурии и Сибири. Дело дошло до перестрелки. В результате националисты перешли китайскую границу, а отряды под водительством коммунистов (О Хам Ук и др.) стали ядром двух полков РККА, состоящих исключительно из корейцев и расформированных на фоне борьбы с националистическими проявлениями только в 1935 г.

Существует точка зрения, согласно которой за корейскими партизанами Сибири и Приморья стоял Нестор Каландарашвили (1876-1922), бывший ссыльный анархист, а затем один из руководителей партизанского движения в Восточной Сибири. Достаточно известная личность, именем которой названы улицы в нескольких городах Сибири, как говорят, вынашивала идею формирования армии из числа корейских партизан на территории советского Дальнего Востока. Эта армия затем должна была вторгнуться в Корею, освободить ее от японцев и создать там социалистическое государство . Каландарашвили претендовал на руководство всеми корейскими партизанами, и инцидент в поселке Свободный был связан с его попыткой навязать свою волю всему сообществу. Однак, в конце концов, идеи Каландарашвили не встретили понимания в Москве, а после того как в феврале 1922 г. его отряд был уничтожен, идея заглохла сама собой.

http://makkawity.livejournal.com/52206.html

Borianm
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Postby Borianm » 09 Jan 2008 18:07

I think Mr. Asmolov is one of the best russian-speaking specialists in Korean history.
So if you understand russian can I just give you a links I will encounter?

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Kim Sung
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Postby Kim Sung » 10 Jan 2008 02:06

Borianm wrote:I think Mr. Asmolov is one of the best russian-speaking specialists in Korean history.
So if you understand russian can I just give you a links I will encounter?


Yes, Konstantin Asmolov (Константин Асмолов) is the best Russian expert in Korean matters. One of the two Russian articles I quoted in the above is written by him. He is frequently quoted in the Korean media. I know his e-mail address, so you don't have to give links on him. There are many. Thanks.

http://www.rian.ru/online/20061010/54679891.html
http://www.finansmag.ru/30828
http://www.kreml.org/interview/88831995
http://www.russ.ru/politics/docs/kakaya ... hna_kitayu

Borianm
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Postby Borianm » 10 Jan 2008 17:51

Makkawity is very interesting user in my LJfriends. I didn't mean giving you a links on another mr. Asmolov's articles or LJ but on another russian sourses.
Some time ago I have seen russian fiction book wrighten I think in 1950 or 1960-s about adventures of some Korean people had joined Reds in our Civil War in Russian Far East in one online library but to be honest I don't remember the name exactly. If you are interested in I can try to find the link.

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Kim Sung
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Postby Kim Sung » 12 Jan 2008 14:46

Borianm wrote:If you are interested in I can try to find the link.

It would be nice information. Thanks.

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Kim Sung
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Postby Kim Sung » 12 Jan 2008 14:53

Image
http://www.prometheus.co.kr/articles/12 ... 85800.html

Lenin's speech in front of Petrograd's Winter Palace on July 19, 1920 when the 2nd conference of Komintern was taking place. You can see a Korean flag here.

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Kim Sung
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Postby Kim Sung » 12 Jan 2008 15:06

I don't think Korean fighters including Yi Dong-Hwi who fought for the Reds were communists in a real sense. They just wanted to use the power of the Soviet Union to liberate the Koreans groaning under the Japanese yoke.

As you know, the Soviet Union was the only country in the world at the time which showed the will to liberate the Koreans. So-called western democracies like USA, Britain and France were tightlipped on or even assisted Japanese invasions in East Asia. It was not until Japan eroded on western colonial spheres that these western countries to curb Japanese expansion. That's why many non-communist Koreans joined the Red Army and fought bravely against Japanese invaders in the Far East.

These seemingly leftist Korean activists' devotion and sacrifice have been deliberately ignored in South Korea until recently due to the Cold War situations. They have been ignored in North Korea too because Kim Il-Sung wanted to make him seem to be the only communist who contributed to liberation of Korea from the Japanese yoke, while he did actually nothing and was just a Soviet follower. Now we know who the real heroes were and should not forget these Korean fighters who fought bravely and perished in barren fields of cold Siberia. It's time to evaluate these forgotten heroes' contribution rightly and let them restore their honor.

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Re: Chinese and Korean Participation in the Russian Civil War

Postby Borianm » 23 Mar 2008 11:02

Good new information on Red Chineese troops in Ukrain
http://varjag-2007.livejournal.com/146594.htm

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RCW Mark
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Re: Chinese and Korean Participation in the Russian Civil War

Postby RCW Mark » 23 Mar 2008 22:11

Interesting article: I was just reading recently how a unit of Chinese was sent after Grigoriev. But I think I've seen that photo labelled as something else.

The direct link didn't work though: http://varjag-2007.livejournal.com/146594.html#cutid1

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Kim Sung
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Re: Chinese and Korean Participation in the Russian Civil War

Postby Kim Sung » 24 Mar 2008 06:12

RCW Mark wrote:http://varjag-2007.livejournal.com/146594.html#cutid1

What an interesting link! Thanks!


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