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Mackintosh, Malcolm. Juggernaut: A history of the Soviet Armed Forces, London: Secker & Warburg, 1967, p. 64-65 wrote:The Far Eastern crisis of 1929 had its origins in the arrangements which the Soviet Government, following in the footsteps of the Imperial Russian Government, had made with the Chinese over the ownership and rights of operation of the Chinese Eastern Railroad, which linked the Trans-Siberian line with Vladivostok across Manchuria. The Chinese had frequently objected to Soviet rights over this railway, but the rising power of the Nationalist Government in China under General Chiang Kai-shek and Chiang's thorough defeat of his Communist allies in 1927 led him to believe that he could bring military pressure to bear on the Soviet Union itself. In 1928-1929 Chiang's authority did not extent to Manchuria, which was ruled by the provincial warlord Chang Hsueh-liang, but the success of the Nationalists in south and central China brought about a meeting between the two leaders in which they plotted joint action against the Soviet concessions in Chang Hsueg-liang's province. For once, the interests of the Soviet Government and the Japanese temporarily coincided, for the Japanese, who intended to occupy Manchuria themselves, had no objection to Soviet military action to weaken the provincial Manchurian Army, which was concentrated on the Soviet border by the summer of 1929, and threatened the security of the Soviet-operated railway.
Reasonably assured, therefore, that the Japanese would not intervene against the Red Army, the Soviet leaders prepared their forces for operations in Manchuria in July-August 1929. On August 7 the Revolutionary Military Council established the Special Far Eastern Army in the eastern part of the Siberian Military District, with its headquarters in Khabarovsk. Blukher, who had returned from China in 1927, was placed in command, and two new rifle corps were formed, the 18th in the Transbaikal sector and the 19th in the Maritime Territory. The new army had a strength of six rifle divisions and two cavalry brigades, which were still forming up when the Manchurian forces began to raid Soviet territory and installations. The Red Army, however, waited until the autumn before launching its counterattacks. On October 12 Soviet troops, assisted by the Amur River Flotilla, landed on the Manchurian side of the river south of Khabarovsk and approached the town of Fukdin, a center of Manchurian military power. The Soviet assault began on October 31, and by November 3, the town was in Soviet hands and the Manchurian units destroyed. The Red Army then withdrew to Soviet territory.
A larger operation was mounted by the 18th Corps at the junction of the Soviet, Chinese and outher Mongolian frontlines, where a concentration of Chang Hsueh-liang's troops threatened the railway at Manchouli. Here three Soviet divisions and a cavalry brigade crossed the frontier on November 17, cut the railway between Dalainor and Hailar, and surrounded the Manchurian forces in the area. Heavy fighting to destroy the encircled enemy followed, in which cooperation among the Soviet infantry, tanks, and artillery broke down, resulting in heavy casualties. Some of the Manchurian units succeeded in breaking out of the encirclement, but the majority capitulated, and by November 27 the operations were over. Simultaniously, troops of the 19th Corps broke up a Manchurian concentration at Mishan, near Lake Khanka, 100 miles north of Vladivostok, although the Red Army, largely out of willingness to antagonize the Japanese, did not pursue their opponents beyond the confines of the immediate zone of operations.
Mackintosh, Malcolm. Juggernaut: A history of the Soviet Armed Forces, London: Secker & Warburg, 1967, p. 64-65 wrote:On October 12 Soviet troops, assisted by the Amur River Flotilla, landed on the Manchurian side of the river south of Khabarovsk and approached the town of Fukdin, a center of Manchurian military power. The Soviet assault began on October 31, and by November 3, the town was in Soviet hands and the Manchurian units destroyed. The Red Army then withdrew to Soviet territory.
Nie-junmen wrote: The guy on the right wore Russian army coat, the guy on the left had Manlicher rifle (Austrian one).
oirob wrote:would you mind to post the link to the "italian collection" you mentioned?
WestSand wrote:Hello Nie-junmen,
Would you please post some of the photos of Russian gunboats you mentioned?
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