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Sino-Soviet Border Clash 1929

Discussions on all aspects of China, from the beginning of the First Sino-Japanese War till the end of the Chinese Civil War.
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Sino-Soviet Border Clash 1929

Postby Peter H on 01 Mar 2003 07:22

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Re: Sino-Soviet Border Clash 1929

Postby Tomster on 21 Oct 2003 18:01

I found some additional information for who may find it interesting:

Mackintosh, Malcolm. Juggernaut: A history of the Soviet Armed Forces, London: Secker & Warburg, 1967, p. 64-65 wrote:The Far Eastern crisis of 1929 had its origins in the arrangements which the Soviet Government, following in the footsteps of the Imperial Russian Government, had made with the Chinese over the ownership and rights of operation of the Chinese Eastern Railroad, which linked the Trans-Siberian line with Vladivostok across Manchuria. The Chinese had frequently objected to Soviet rights over this railway, but the rising power of the Nationalist Government in China under General Chiang Kai-shek and Chiang's thorough defeat of his Communist allies in 1927 led him to believe that he could bring military pressure to bear on the Soviet Union itself. In 1928-1929 Chiang's authority did not extent to Manchuria, which was ruled by the provincial warlord Chang Hsueh-liang, but the success of the Nationalists in south and central China brought about a meeting between the two leaders in which they plotted joint action against the Soviet concessions in Chang Hsueg-liang's province. For once, the interests of the Soviet Government and the Japanese temporarily coincided, for the Japanese, who intended to occupy Manchuria themselves, had no objection to Soviet military action to weaken the provincial Manchurian Army, which was concentrated on the Soviet border by the summer of 1929, and threatened the security of the Soviet-operated railway.

Reasonably assured, therefore, that the Japanese would not intervene against the Red Army, the Soviet leaders prepared their forces for operations in Manchuria in July-August 1929. On August 7 the Revolutionary Military Council established the Special Far Eastern Army in the eastern part of the Siberian Military District, with its headquarters in Khabarovsk. Blukher, who had returned from China in 1927, was placed in command, and two new rifle corps were formed, the 18th in the Transbaikal sector and the 19th in the Maritime Territory. The new army had a strength of six rifle divisions and two cavalry brigades, which were still forming up when the Manchurian forces began to raid Soviet territory and installations. The Red Army, however, waited until the autumn before launching its counterattacks. On October 12 Soviet troops, assisted by the Amur River Flotilla, landed on the Manchurian side of the river south of Khabarovsk and approached the town of Fukdin, a center of Manchurian military power. The Soviet assault began on October 31, and by November 3, the town was in Soviet hands and the Manchurian units destroyed. The Red Army then withdrew to Soviet territory.

A larger operation was mounted by the 18th Corps at the junction of the Soviet, Chinese and outher Mongolian frontlines, where a concentration of Chang Hsueh-liang's troops threatened the railway at Manchouli. Here three Soviet divisions and a cavalry brigade crossed the frontier on November 17, cut the railway between Dalainor and Hailar, and surrounded the Manchurian forces in the area. Heavy fighting to destroy the encircled enemy followed, in which cooperation among the Soviet infantry, tanks, and artillery broke down, resulting in heavy casualties. Some of the Manchurian units succeeded in breaking out of the encirclement, but the majority capitulated, and by November 27 the operations were over. Simultaniously, troops of the 19th Corps broke up a Manchurian concentration at Mishan, near Lake Khanka, 100 miles north of Vladivostok, although the Red Army, largely out of willingness to antagonize the Japanese, did not pursue their opponents beyond the confines of the immediate zone of operations.
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Postby Heinrich George on 28 Oct 2003 21:36

According to "Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses in the Twentieth Century", the USSR sustained losses of 143 KIA, 4 MIA, and 665 WIA during the course of these operations. The book states that around 18,000 troops were engaged.
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Postby Shaara on 23 Dec 2003 15:47

After the division of Kuomintang and Communist, the relation between Soviet and China deteriorated badly. Soviet also tied to get Mongolia out of China's border, then make Mongolia a satellite state.
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Re: Sino-Soviet Border Clash 1929

Postby Peter H on 20 Mar 2010 00:38

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Re: Sino-Soviet Border Clash 1929

Postby Nie-junmen on 05 Apr 2010 15:01

Mackintosh, Malcolm. Juggernaut: A history of the Soviet Armed Forces, London: Secker & Warburg, 1967, p. 64-65 wrote:On October 12 Soviet troops, assisted by the Amur River Flotilla, landed on the Manchurian side of the river south of Khabarovsk and approached the town of Fukdin, a center of Manchurian military power. The Soviet assault began on October 31, and by November 3, the town was in Soviet hands and the Manchurian units destroyed. The Red Army then withdrew to Soviet territory.


It is wrong. I am a descendant of Red Army officer who took part in this clash.

There were 3 separate operations - Sungari operation (subdivided by 2 stages - Laha-Susu operation and Fujing operation), Zhalainoer operation and Mishan operation.

My grandgrandfather was a commander of a training company in 6th Khabarovsky rifle regiment located in Blagoveschensk (on AMur river). As the main purpose of this company was to prepare sergeants that company was sent for battle to get necessary experience. At that time my grandgrandfather got a lot of military experience since 1918 but all his experience was related to the Civil War in Russia. So it was the first time when he fought against foreign troops.

There were Amur river flotilla and 2 rifle regiments of the 2-nd Priamurskaya rifle division of Special Far East Army - 6th Khabarovsky and 4th Volochaevsky regiments with a lot of avircrafts (com[aring to Chinese forces). They were prepared to land near the Laha-Susu in the mouth of Sungari River but at first aircrafts bombed Chinese men-of-war located in vicinity of Laha-Susuunder the flag of admiral Shen Lie. Some of them were sunk, some of them fled, several gunboats (originally Russian paddy-wheel steamers captured by Chinese after 1917) tried to resist but were sunk by Soviet gunboats after a duelling. Then the Soviet soldiers were landed under ramparts of Laha-Susu and after the bombardment of the forts from Soviet gunboats assaulted it. In the evening all Soviet troops were evacuated and did not stay in China even for a night.

Remnants of Sungari flotilla of Shen Lie gathered in Fujing (or Fugdin in Nanai languages as this fort was built by Qing authorities in 1880th to engage Nanai tribesmen into the Eight Banner system) and by the 29th of October it became obvious that the second blow to destroy Sungari flotilla is necessary. So Red Army troops were regrouped and 6th Khabarovsky rifle regiment was substituted by 5th Amursky rifle regiment. After strong bombing Chinese menof-war were sunk and soldiers destroyed most part of Chinese fortifications in Fugdin. In that time Soviet troops stayed in China for couple of days and then were evacuated.

All soldiers and officers got special badger "To the soldier of Special Far East Army from the Society of Assistance to Aircrafts and Chemistry". It was non-official badger, but it was of big honor and respect in Soviet Far East. Here is a sample:
Image

I also get a lot of photos of Soviet gunboats and aircrafts engaged in that clash. It the topic is interesting I can post them here.
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Re: Sino-Soviet Border Clash 1929

Postby Nie-junmen on 05 Apr 2010 15:13

Image

Are these picturesque guys cavalrymen? I guess it is a kind of a lance they held?

Another one photo - from an Italian collection (by the inscription "Soldati Cinesi") of the same period:
Image
The guy on the right wore Russian army coat, the guy on the left had Manlicher rifle (Austrian one).
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Re: Sino-Soviet Border Clash 1929

Postby Peter H on 06 Apr 2010 00:32

Thanks,any more Soviet photos would be appreciated.

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Re: Sino-Soviet Border Clash 1929

Postby The Edge on 06 Apr 2010 08:25

Nie-junmen wrote: The guy on the right wore Russian army coat, the guy on the left had Manlicher rifle (Austrian one).

I believe this is a "Hanyang" Rifle - Chinese-made German "Gewehr 1888", the most common rifle in China during late 1920s & early 1930s.
http://www.oldrifles.com/China.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gewehr_1888
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Re: Sino-Soviet Border Clash 1929

Postby Nie-junmen on 06 Apr 2010 09:07

The Edge wrote: I believe this is a "Hanyang" Rifle - Chinese-made German "Gewehr 1888", the most common rifle in China during late 1920s & early 1930s.
http://www.oldrifles.com/China.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gewehr_1888


I don't think so - please pay attention to the opening in the surface of the magazine. It is a specific feature for Austrian rifles. In the end of XIX century they were supplied to Chinese Army and there were ammo production for them in Tianjin Arsenal. Russian troops captured the Arsenal in 1900 and so we can see the evidence for it.

A photo of Nanyang gunmen with Manlicher rifles are available too (dated autumn 1911).
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Re: Sino-Soviet Border Clash 1929

Postby oirob on 07 Apr 2010 13:14

Hi Nie-junmen,

would you mind to post the link to the "italian collection" you mentioned?

regards
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Re: Sino-Soviet Border Clash 1929

Postby Nie-junmen on 07 Apr 2010 18:45

oirob wrote:would you mind to post the link to the "italian collection" you mentioned?


Unfortunately it is sold and I bought 2 last photos by Russian molotok.ru system (like ebay.com).

One photo was the photo wuth soldiers and the other was the photo with beheading of a Communist (?) in Shanghai in summer 1927. Both photos have inscription made by the same hand.

I asked for the rest, but in wain. The only extra photo I got was the photo of execution of a landlord in 1953 in Guangzhou from the files of a newspaper.
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Re: Sino-Soviet Border Clash 1929

Postby YC Chen on 09 Apr 2010 12:47

Hello Nie-junmen,
Would you please post some of the photos of Russian gunboats you mentioned?
Many thanks!!
BTW, I also think the rifle is Manlicher.
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Re: Sino-Soviet Border Clash 1929

Postby Nie-junmen on 09 Apr 2010 13:55

WestSand wrote:Hello Nie-junmen,
Would you please post some of the photos of Russian gunboats you mentioned?


Soviet aircraft-carrier "Amur", aircrafts and pilots, took part in this clash:
http://www.bellabs.ru/Fotab/KVGD/KVGD.html
Gunboat "Sun Yatsen"
Image
Scheme of gunboats "project Storm" which were the core of the Soviet Amur flotilla in 1929:
Image

I will try to find more in my another PC.
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Re: Sino-Soviet Border Clash 1929

Postby Nie-junmen on 09 Apr 2010 14:30

BTW in the region of Mishanfu the success of Soviet troops in the battle with overwhelming masses of Chinese cavalry was achieved due to the assistance of Soviet aircrafts - 5 Chinese aircrafts Breguet-19 (of French origin) were destroyed on the ground and then 1 batallion of Soviet rifles stood for several regiments of Chinese cavalry with assistance of Soviet aircrafts.
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