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The Sino-Japanese War(Campaigns in detail)

Discussions on all aspects of China, from the beginning of the First Sino-Japanese War till the end of the Chinese Civil War.
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Whoops.

Postby asiaticus on 26 May 2006 06:58

12th Brigade/5th Division


Whoops. Typo.

Thanks for the ID on the General.
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Southern Kuangsi Campaign Part 2

Postby asiaticus on 27 May 2006 09:25

Here is a second part of the summary. It will take another to finish the subject.
Please feel free to comment or correct things here.

asiaticus

----------------------------------------------------------------
Summary of the Southern Kuangsi Campaign (Mid November 1939 - Late November 1940)

Part 2 Winter Offensive in Kwangtung and 2nd Battle for the Kunlun Pass


Kwangtung Winter Campaign
With the defeat of the 5th Division the situation of Nanning in early January was critical. Losses in the campaign would force retirement from Nanning or result in the encirclement and destruction of the Kuangsi force, unless it was reinforced by 21st Army. However 21st Army was at this time in the midst of an operation advancing into the uplands to the north of Canton and along the Canton - Henyang Railway.

It had begun on December 8th, a few days after the Japanese success in securing Nanning. Elements of 104th Division advancing in several columns under air cover, from Ying-chan-ao [Yinzhan'ao] to, penetrated the Chinese line at Chang-kang and occupied Ta-mao-shan. By December 17th about half the force broke through to a position just east of Yuan-tan [Yuantan].

While the Japanese force was so dispersed the Chinese 4th War Area ordered two divisions of its troops to attack them. 158th Division attacked the Japanese at Ying-chan-ao [Yinzhan'ao] and took it after heavy fighting. Having suffered heavy casualties, the Japanese sent 2000 reinforcements from Chun-tien [Juntien] to launch counterattacks against the Chinese. Despite fierce fighting that lasted until 19th of December the front remained along a line southwest of Ying-chan-ao [Yinzhan'ao].

On December 20th, 21st Army responded with an offensive by three forces, composed of elements of the 18th, 38th, and 104th Divisions and the Guards Mixed Brigade.

The Left Force composed of elements of 104th Division moved north on the Canton Hankow Railway via Yuan-tan [Yuantan]. After heavy fighting it took Yin-chan-ao [Yinzhan'ao] and Pa-chiang-kou [Pajiangkou] on December 24th. It then made a forced crossing of the North River and took Ying-teh [Yingde] on December 27th.

Center Force composed of the Guards Mixed Brigade and part of 38th Division moved north from Tai-ping-hsu to Tsung-hua. After it captured Liang-kou on the 25th of December it was attacked by Chinese forces at Lu-tien and Niu-pei-chi and made no further progress.

Right Force, with most of 18th Division moved north from Teng-chung along a tributary of the East River. It took Lung-men [Lungmen] and Tso-tan-hsu [Zuotan] to the west on December 23rd. On December 25th, one detachment fought against the Chinese in the vicinity of Mei-kang [Meikang] while another moved north to Wong-yuan [Longxian] taking it on December 30th.

Chinese Winter Offensive in Kwangtung
It was now when the debacle at Nanning became evident that the Chinese launched a major counterattack, part of a countrywide winter general offensive, making the transfer of reinforcements difficult from Kwangtung difficult. The goal was the capture of Chao-chow and Swatow and the main force was to clear the Japanese from the Canton-Kowloon Railway. In response the Japanese command halted the planned repatriation to Japan of the 106th Division in Central China and reassigned it to the 21st Army on December 29th.[3]

Upon being reinforced with the 54th Corps and 2nd Provincial Corps the forces of 4th War Area began its part of a general offensive in every War Area in China. [1]. 12th Army Group attacked Pa-ching-kou [Pajiangkou], Liang-kou-hsu [Liangkou], Lutien, and Mei-kang [Meikang], its 64th Corps against the Japanese forces that had reached Wong-yuan [Longxian]. And the 54th Corps and 2nd Provincial Corps against advanced position on the railroad at Ying-teh [Yingde]. A portion of 35th Army Group attacked south toward Tseng-cheng [Zhencheng] and Tsung-hua [Conghua]. Additionally Gen. Hsiang Han-ping's forces attacked Lung-men [Longmen] in the west. {I think this last may be in error and Gen. Hsiang Han-ping's forces were to attack the Swatow area.}

After routing the Japanese force coming from Wong-yuan [Longxian] on Jan. 1st, the 54th Corps recaptured that town on the 2nd. Kuan-tu [Guandu] fell on the 4th and Chin-tang [Qingtang] on January 5th. The Japanese retreated to Shatien while 54th Corps advanced southwest to Fu-kang [Shijiao]. On January 3rd the 2nd Provisional Corps laid siege to Ying-teh and took it on the 5th. It then continued to advance to Lien-chiang-kou [Lianjiangkou] while Japanese remnants fled southwest and took Ching-yuan [Qingcheng] on the north bank of the Lien River, linking up with Japanese forces across the river to the south. Subsequently portions of 64th Corps and 2nd Provisional Corps recovered Ching-yuan [Qingcheng] on the 10th of January. Across the river the next day 14th Division of 54th Corps recovered Pa-ching-kou [Pajiangkou] and to the east Tsung-hua [Conghua] fell to the detachment of 35th Army Group. Yuan-tan [Yuantan] along the Canton Hankow Railway fell the following day. Ying-chan-ao [Yinzhan'ao] fell on the 16th of January.

The Main force of 35th Army Group moved along the west bank of the North River near Chiang-hsin [Zhaoqing?], and 54th Corps and a portion of 12th Army Group moved to take up positions at Heng-shih, Liang-kou-hsu, Lutien and Mei-keng. 4th War Area reported more than 10,300 enemy killed, 100 rifles and large amount of supplies captured.

Japanese 2nd Offensive in Kwangzi
With the Chinese counteroffensive stalling in mid January the 21st Army was able to detach the Guards Mixed Brigade and the 18th Division to send as reinforcements from the Canton area and were in Nanning by January 25th 1940[1]. On that date a brigade of the 18th Division and a portion of the 5th Division moved up the Yung-Pin Highway to attack the Chinese defenses along the highway while the Guards Mixed Brigade moved along the Yung-Chun highway along the Yung River. The intention was to make a turning movement against the Chinese forces in the rugged Kunlun Pass area to strike at Pin-yang [Binzhou] in its rear. Chinese resistance was unable to halt the advance and the 38th Army Group Headquarters in Pin-yang [Binzhou] was bombed. On February 2nd Pin-yang [Binzhou] and Sze-lung [Silong] were captured.

However cut off Chinese forces fought on independently. The forces on the Kunlunkuan front (2nd and 36th Corps) and in the west (6th and 99th Corps) did not retreat and fought bitterly for 6 days inflicting heavy casualties. Later as supplies were disrupted they fell back to Lung-shan [Baishan], Tu-an [Anyang], and Hsin-cheng [Xincheng].

On February 3rd, the Japanese force at Pin-yang [Binzhou] advanced north to Tsou-hsu [Zouxu], confronting the New 33rd Division across the Ching-shui River. Next day a portion of the force moved from Pin-yang [Binzhou] and took Shang-lin [Dafeng].

Following reinforcement the Chinese began counter attacks on the more dispersed enemy. 64th Corps made a flank attack on Pin-yang [Binzhou] from Kuei Hsien [Guicheng]. After three days of heavy fighting they drove back the Japanese defenders, Kan-tang [Gantang] and Ku-la [Gula] were recovered on February 3rd and Yungshun [Luancheng] on the 4th, threatening the Japanese line of communication.

On February 9th the Japanese began to retreat toward Kunlunkuan and Nanning. A Japanese force that had taken Wu-ning on February 8th, retreated toward Kao-feng-ai and Nanning on February 11th. Pursuing Chinese units for a brief time captured Kao-feng-ai on February 18th. Chinese units then halted and refitted for later offensive action.


Sources:

[1] Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) 2nd Ed. ,1971. Translated by Wen Ha-hsiung , Chung Wu Publishing; 33, 140th Lane, Tung-hwa Street, Taipei, Taiwan Republic of China.

Pg. 311-318
Map 18
Pg. 325-327
Map 19

[3] IJA in China orbat, 1937 to 1945
http://www.china-defense.com/forum/show ... php?t=1168

21st Army (formed Sept. 19 1938)
- 5th Division to N. China 11/38, returned 10/16/39
- 18th Division
- 104th Division
- 38th division. Assigned 10/2/39
- Taiwan mixed brigade Assigned 1/39
- Hainan Island dispatch army Assigned 7/39
- 近卫 mixed brigade Assigned 11/15/39


Part 3 to follow.
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South China Front Army Feb. 9 1940 organization

Postby asiaticus on 28 May 2006 08:34

My sources are a little incomplete but I think the following is correct:

After the Japanese second offensive in Kwangzi ended, the 18th Division was returned to Canton. The Japanese had also reordered their forces in the South of China. 21st Army was abolished on the 9th of February,1940. In its place a new 22nd Army was created that I beleive commanded the forces in Kwangzi: 5th Division, Guards Mixed Brigade and Taiwan Mixed Brigade. 22nd Army was under the command of a new South China Front Army which also directly commanded the 18th, 38th, 104th Divisions and 21st Independent Aviation Corps.


So it should be thus:

South China Front Army - ?
- 22nd Army - General ?
-- 5th Division - General ?
-- Guards Mixed Brigade
-- Taiwan Mixed Brigade
-- 106th Division ? March 9, recalled to Japan
- 18th Division
- 38th Division
- 104th Division
- 21st Independent Aviation Corps.

Was 106th Division, formerly under 21st Army, assigned to 22nd Army or the Front Army in this change?.
Did it ever arrive in South China?
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Postby John W on 29 May 2006 09:11

This has been a most informative thread.

My heartfelt thanks to all contributors!


cheers,
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Re: South China Front Army Feb. 9 1940 organization

Postby Akira Takizawa on 29 May 2006 12:54

South China Front Army - General Rikichi Ando
- 22nd Army - General Seiichi Kuno
-- 5th Division - General Hitoshi Imamura

> Was 106th Division, formerly under 21st Army, assigned to 22nd Army or the Front Army in this change?

It was assigned to South China Area Army.

> Did it ever arrive in South China?

No. It was disbanded in Central China in April 1940.

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Thanks.

Postby asiaticus on 30 May 2006 16:43

Taki
Thanks for the clarification.
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Summary of the Southern Kuangsi Campaign Part 3

Postby asiaticus on 30 May 2006 16:53

Here is the last part. Mostly based on the Chinese history and what I could gleen from the IJA orbat in China.
As always comments or corrections welcome.

asiaticus
--------------------------

Summary of the Southern Kuangsi Campaign (Mid November 1939 - Late November 1940)

Part 3

Japanese Reoganization in South China
After the Japanese second offensive in Kwangzi ended, the 18th Division was returned to Canton. The Japanese had also reordered their forces in the South of China. 21st Army was abolished on the 9th of February,1940. In its place a new 22nd Army was created that commanded the forces in Kwangzi: 5th Division, Guards Mixed Brigade and Taiwan Mixed Brigade. The forces of 22nd Army held the cities of Nanning, Fangcheng, Chin Hsien[1][Yamhshien[2], Qinzhow] and strong points around them. 22nd Army was under the command of a new South China Front Army which also directly commanded the 18th, 38th, 104th, 106th Divisions and 21st Independent Aviation Corps in the Canton area.[3]

After 9th of February,1940:

South China Front Army (Canton) - Gen. Rikichi Ando1940[6]
- 18th Division - Lt. Gen. Seiichi Kuno[6]
- 38th Division - Lieutenant-General Yoji Fujii [1939-1941] [6]
- 104th Division - Gen. ?
- 106th Division - Gen. ? *
- 22nd Army (Nanning) - Lt. Gen Seiichi Kunou [6]
-- 5th Division - Lieutenant-General Akita Nakamura [6]
-- Guards Mixed Brigade , - Major Gen. Takeshi Sakurada [4]
becomes Guards Division June 3rd
-- Taiwan Mixed Brigade - Major Gen. Sadaichi Shioda [4]
- 21st Independent Aviation Corps.
* On March 9, the 106th division was recalled to Japan for demobilization[3]. It was disbanded in Central China in April 1940 never having reached South China[4].

Chinese Offensive March 12 - 25th
The Chinese for their part were organizing a new offensive to recover Nanning. The 64th Corps from the 35th Army Group was brought west from the now quiet Canton area. Their plan was to employ their main force east of the Yung-Chin highway (Yung-ning [Nanning]- Chin Hsien[Qinzhow]) and another force to the west to cut off the Japanese communications to the coast at Fangcheng, Chin Hsien [Qinzhow] assisting the direct attacks on Nanning from the Chinese forces north of the Yung River. On March 12th the 46th Corps began attacks on the Yung-Chin highway as the Chinese forces north of the Yung River began attacks on the outskirts of Nanning.[1]

Chinese Forces East of the Yung-Chin Highway[1]
- East Route Force
-- 46th Corps /16th Army Group - Ho Hsuan
--- 175th Divison
--- New 19th Divison
-- 3rd Advance Column [Guerrillas]
- 26th Army Group - Tsai Ting-kai
-- 1st Sep. Inf. Regt.
-- 2nd Sep. Inf. Regt.
-- 3rd Sep. Inf. Regt.
-- 4th Sep. Inf. Regt.
- 64th Corps/35th Army Group - Chen Kung-hsia
-- 155th Divison
-- 156th Divsion

To counter the attack on its communications the Japanese formed a force built around an infantry regiment with attached cavalry and artillery, that moved from Niu-kang[?] to Ping-chi[Pingji] to launch an attack on March 14th eastward up the valley toward Ling-shan [Lingshan]. At the same time 5th Division at Nanning sent a force east from Liang-ching [Liangqingn to Pu-chin [Yongning]. One group of about 2000 troops took Tai-ping [Taiping] while a regiment took Yung-shun [Luancheng]. On March 16th Chiu-chow [Juizhow] and Lu-wu [Luwu] fell in succession, while the Japanese force from Yung-shun [Luancheng] also reached the area southeast of Sha-ping [Shaping] engaging the 64th Corps. The southern force from Luwu [Luwu] took Ling-shan [Lingshan] on March 17th and reached a line from Fu-tze-ling [Fozi] to Feng-tang [Fengtang] where they engaged the East Route Force in heavy fighting in mountainous terrain. By the 20th the Chinese had fallen back to a line from Lo-feng [Dafeng?] to Shih-tang[Shitang].[1]

On March 21st, the Chinese 93rd Division crossed the Yung River near Heng-shan [Hengzhou] and advanced toward Ta-tang [Datang]. Subsequently the enemy fell back to the vicinity of Ling-shan [Lingshan], closely followed by the Chinese who burst into the town for a short time on the 22nd. On March 24-25th an enveloping attack by 156th Divison and 4th Corps recovered Ling-shan [Lingshan], and the 93rd Divison pursued enemy forces from Sha-ping [Shaping to Yen-tun [Yandun]. With their rear threatened Japanese forces then fell back toward the Yeng-chin highway.[1]


Lung-ching [Longzhou] Operation June 17 - July 2
On the 17th of June Japanese forces south of the Yung River moved west along the Yung-Lung [Nanning- Longzhou] highway and captured Sui-lou [Dongmen]at night. The Chinese 135th Division fell back to Pan-li [Banli] and Lo-pai [Luobai]. On June 23rd, the Japanese took Pan-li [Banli] and Lei-shih-hsu [?], as the Chinese 135th Division again fell back to Ming-chiang [Mingjiang] and west of Chiang-chou [Jiangzhou]. On June 24th Pei-chiang-hsu [Beijiang] was captured, on the 26th Ming-chiang [Mingjiang]. 135th Division withdrew to Ting-liang [Tingliang]. By June 29th 3,000 Japanese troops with over 100 vehilces massed in Ming-chiang began moving north while their planes bombed Lung-ching [Longzhou]. The main forc of 131st Division withdrew to the north bank of the Lung River after heavy fighting and casualties, to assist elements of the 181st Division in holding the areas north of Lung Chin while another force was left to prevent the Japanese from crossing the river. At dusk on July 2nd the Japanese crossed the Lung River on rafts and despite a Chinese ambush captured the city.[1]

Shortly afterward the Japanese reinforced 22nd Army with the Second Imperial Guard Brigade. It landed at Qinzhou on July 20th and was stationed on the Leichou Penninsula just north of Hainan Island.
As of July 25th the South China Front Army was separated from the Chinese Expeditionary Force order of battle and placed directly under Supreme Headquarters.[3]

Indochina Expedition
While the operation to seize Lanzhow was going on France had signed an armistice with Germany on June 22, 1940, leading to the establishment of the French Vichy puppet government in the unoccupied part of France.
It also controled most of French overseas possesions including Indochina, one of the last access points for China to the outside world. With the capture of Lanzhow the highway was now closed but a railline still permitted shipment of material from Haiphong to Yunnan.
Dispite bombing by the Japanese the Yunnan railway remained open.

Japan began preasuring the Vichy government to close the railway and on September 5th South China Front Army organized a West Indochina Expeditionary Force[3] or Indochina Expeditionary Army [8] under its command to be the Japanese garrison in Indochina. This unit was organized thus:
Indochina Expeditionary Army - Major Gen. Takuma Nishimura[3,8]
-Indochina Expeditionary Infantry Group - Major Gen. Takeshi Sakurada [8]
-2nd Imperial Guards Infantry Regiment [3,8]- Col. Kunio Osonoe [8]
-Indochina Expeditionary Tank Unit [3,8] (14th Tank Regiment) [8]
-Indochina Expeditionary AA Gun Unit[3,8], Signal Unit and others[8]

On September 22nd Japan and Vichy Indo-China signed an accord which granted basing and transit rights, limited to 6000 the number of Japanese troops which could be stationed in Indo-China, and set an overall cap of 25,000 on the total number of troops that could be in the colony at any given time. In addition, the final article of the agreement barred all Japanese land, air, and naval forces from Indo-Chinese territory except as authorized in the accord. [2]

Within a few hours columns from the 5th Division under General Nakamura moved over the border at three places and closed in on the railhead at Lang Son. This conravened the new agreement and fighting ensued with a brigade of French Colonial troops and Foreign Legionaries that lasted until the 25th when Lang Son was captured. This opened the way to Hanoi. Still Vichy had defenders in the north, south, and fresh battalions barring the route from Lang Son to Hanoi were in position. [2]

Japanese aircraft began flights for reconnaissance and intimidation from the Japanese task force offshore from Haiphong the in the morning of Sept. 24th. A Vichy envoy came to negotiate, but meantime shore defenses remained under orders to open fire against any attempt to force a landing. [2]

On September 26th Japanese forces came ashore at Dong Tac, south of Haiphong, and began moving on the port. A second landing put tanks ashore and Haiphong was bombed, causing some casualties. By early afternoon the Japanese force of some 4500 troops and a dozen tanks was outside Haiphong. [2]

Meanwhile on September 23rd Vichy had approached the government in Tokyo to protest breach of the agreements by the South China Front Army forces. On September 25th Emperor Hirohito ordered an end to hostilities, and by the evening of September 26th fighting had died down. Japan took possession of airfields at Gia Lam, Lao Kay, and Phu Lang Thuong and stationed 900 troops in the port of Haiphong and a further 600 in Hanoi. [2]

Evacuation of Kwangzi
With Indochina occupied only the Guard Mixed Brigade and Taiwan Mixed Brigade remained to hold the Qinzhow - Nanning sector. In late September Chinese forces started to exploit this weakness by repeatedly attacking the over extended Japanese lines of communications causing heavy casualties.[1]

On October 1st, 5th Division was ordered to move from Nanning to Shanghai coming under under Supreme Headquarters command on the 12th.October 1940, Guards Mixed Brigade joined other Japanese units occupying French Indo-China.[3]

On October 13th elements of the 188th Division, 31st Corps crossed the Lung River while the main body moved southeast from Wu-teh [Wude] and attacked the west gate of Lung-chin [Longzhou] at dawn the garrison fought back from positions within the city until releived by counterattacking reinforcements at 0900 which inflicted heavy casualities on the attackers. The Chinese fell back to to a line outside the city. Meanwhile the 46th Corps on the north bank of the Tso River crossed it and cleared the Japanese forces north of the Ming River. 2000 Japanese troops at Lung-chin[Longzhou] and Ping-hsiang [Pingxiang] along the Yung-Lung highway began the southward withdrawal into Indochina on October 26th. The Chinese 31st Corps immediately ordered its units to storm Lung-chin [Longzhou] recovering it on October 28th.[1]

4th War area now aimed at retaking Nanning directing 16th Army Group to clear Japanese troops from the Yung-Lung Highway and assist 35th Army Group in capturing Nanning. The main force of 35th Army Group was directed to move along the Yung-Wu Highway and Yung-Pin Highway, to attack and capture Nanning. Another force crossed the Yung River to cut off the Japanese line of retreat along the northern sector of the Yung-Chin Highway and assist the 16th Army Group in a converging attack on the this northern sector of the Highway.[1]

64th Corps captured Kao-feng-ai and San-tang and Chien-tao-hsu on October 29th. 155th Division crossed the Yung River at Yung-shun. Meanwhile the Japanese began to retreat toward the Yung-Chin Highway.
On October 30th, 35th Army Group recaptured Nanning then followed the retreating Japanese southward. Japanese forces evacuated Kwangzi by November 17th.[1]

With Indochina occupied the reason for holding the blockade at Nanning and the port of Qinzhou became strategicly unneccessary. Mid-November, the 22nd army headquarters and the Taiwan Mixed Brigade transfered to Taiwan. On November 19th, the 22nd armed force order of battle was abolished, its headquarters demobilized; the Imperial Guard Division was turned over to South China Front Army control.[3]

[1] Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) 2nd Ed. ,1971. Translated by Wen Ha-hsiung , Chung Wu Publishing; 33, 140th Lane, Tung-hwa Street, Taipei, Taiwan Republic of China.

Pg. 311-318
Map 18

[2] Vichy Indo-China vs Japan, 1940
http://stonebooks.com/history/vichyvsjapan.shtml

[3] IJA in China orbat, 1937 to 1945
http://www.china-defense.com/forum/show ... php?t=1168


[4]http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic.php?t=94112&postdays=0&postorder=asc&start=120
Posted: Mon May 22, 2006 8:06 am

[5]http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic.php?t=94112&start=135
Posted: Mon May 29, 2006 1:54 pm


[6] Generals from Japan (WWII)

http://www.generals.dk/nation/Japan/S.html

[8] viewtopic.php?t=102115
Posted: Tue May 30, 2006 6:43
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Postby VJK on 30 May 2006 18:11

Hi!

To supplement your excellent post:

Southern China Area Army (Canton)
- General Rikichi Ando (10 Feb 1940 - 5 Oct 1940)
- General Jun Ushiroku ( 5 Oct 1940 - 26 Jun 1941)

- 18th Division
- Lt. General Seiichi Kuno (25 Jul 1938 - 10 Feb 1940)
- Lt. General Seikichi Hyakutake (10 Feb 1940 - 10 Apr 1941)

- 38th Division - Lt. General Yoji Fujii (2 Oct 1939 - 20 Jun 1941)
- 104th Division - Lt. General Kisaburo Hamamoto (17 Nov 1938 - 2 Dec 1940)
- 106th Division - Lt. General Ryotaro Nakai (19 May 1939 - 9 Mar 1940 - disbanded)

- 22nd Army (Nanning) - Lt. Gen Seiichi Kuno (10 Feb 1940 - 19 Nov 1940 - disbanded)

-- 5th Division
- General Hitoshi Imamura (9 Nov 1938 - 9 Mar 1940)
- Lt. General Akita Nakamura (9 Mar 1940 - 15 Oct 1940)
- Lt. General Takuro Matsui (15 Oct 1940 - 11 May 1942)

Sources: http://imperialarmy.hp.infoseek.co.jp/index.html
http://homepage1.nifty.com/kitabatake/r ... untop.html

Regards,

VJK
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Japanese account of this campaign?

Postby asiaticus on 31 May 2006 17:04

Thanks for the info VJK.

It would be nice to get a Japanese account of this Kwangzi campaign.
Only thing I have heard about is a US Army Monograph on the Kunlungkuan battle. Havent seen it.
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Chinese Winter Offensive - Japanese positions

Postby asiaticus on 03 Jun 2006 09:37

Map 1 Shows the postitions of the Japanese forces at the end of 1939 when the Chinese began their offensive.
It is from:

Resistance and Revolution in China
Tetsuya Kataoka
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS

http://content.cdlib.org:8088/xtf/view? ... view=print
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Situation as 01 feb 1940

Postby tigre on 03 Jun 2006 13:53

Hello folks, great posts asiaticus.

Here goes a map showing the situation early 1940.

Source:The Sino-Japanese War. Lt Col E, M. BENITEZ Coast Artillery Corps. C.& G.S.S. Military Review Vol XX Nº 76.

Cheers. Tigre.
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Winter Offensive N. China

Postby asiaticus on 04 Jun 2006 18:55

Here is the upper half of map 19 showing the Winter offensive 1939-1940 from :

Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) 2nd Ed. ,1971. Translated by Wen Ha-hsiung , Chung Wu Publishing; 33, 140th Lane, Tung-hwa Street, Taipei, Taiwan Republic of China.

Page 319-334
Map 19

Note the Frozen Battleline map above shows the changed New Yellow River - Huai river as the boundry between N. China Front army and the rest of the China Expeditionary Army. This flooded area from 1938 still was a big obstacle to movement.
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Winter offensive Central and South China

Postby asiaticus on 04 Jun 2006 18:58

Here is the lower half of map 19 showing the Winter offensive 1939-1940 in Central and South China
from :

Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) 2nd Ed. ,1971. Translated by Wen Ha-hsiung , Chung Wu Publishing; 33, 140th Lane, Tung-hwa Street, Taipei, Taiwan Republic of China.

Page 319-334
Map 19
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Chinese Winter Offensive(Late Nov 1939 - Late March)Part 1

Postby asiaticus on 07 Jun 2006 02:36

Most of the following is taken from the narative in Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War
Page 319-334 and Map 19 posted above. I have tried to ID the current names of localities and if possible name the units involved if not mentioned in the text, since there was no orbat for either side listed there. The IJA in China orbat, 1937 to 1945, posted posted on the China Defense forum: http://www.china-defense.com/forum/show ... php?t=1168, was helpful in locating the Japanese units as was the map 1 from Resistance and Revolution posted at:
http://content.cdlib.org:8088/xtf/view? ... view=print

The Expedia find a map page:
http://www.expedia.com/pub/agent.dll?qscr=mmfn
is a great help in geting a good topo map to understand the situation and locate places named in the naritive.

As always contributions, corrections, comments welcome.

asiaticus
-------------

Chinese Winter Offensive (Late Nov 1939 - Late March 1940)

Part 1


Strategic situation
The Chinese had repulsed two Japanese offensives in the summer (Sui-Tsaoyang) and fall of 1939 (Changsha). They believed that the Japanese strength was now too dissipated to take and hold new territory and would not be able to launch large offensives unless they received more reinforcements. However defending on interior lines and with control of the lines of communication they could still shift forces and launch local offensives to damage Chinese forces or mop up guerillas in the rear areas. Additionally durning 1939, the Japanese where replacing many of their large four regiment square Divisions with the smaller three regiment triangular Divisions and weak Independent Mixed Brigades. This weakening of forces encouraged the Chinese to plan a large offensive to exploit that fact.

Chinese plan
Chinese objective in the offensive was to take the initiative by conducting multiple front attacks to tie down the Japanese forces. They intended to use their position of exterior lines to advantage to prevent the Japanese launching new local offensives or shifting their forces to concentrate for a large offensive. The main effort was to be by 2nd, 3rd, 5th, and 9th War Areas and recived the all the newly trained and reorganized units. Secondary efforts in support of the main efforts or as diversions were to be conducted by 1st, 4th, 8th, Shantung-Kiangsu and Hopei-Chahar War Areas with their existing units.

Offensive aginst North China Front Army

2nd War Area in north China was to cut off the communications of the Japanese 1st Army along the Cheng-tai [Chengting - Taiyuan] and Tung-pu [Tatung - to Puchow] Railways and mop up the their forces in the trianglular area formed by southern Shansi and the southern sector of the Tung-pu Railway. The other Corps were to attack the enemy where they were and destroy communications in aid of the main effort.

40th Corps and 27th Corps were to attack and pin down the Japanese 36th Division in the Chang-chih [Zhangzi] and Chang-tze [Changzhi] area of Shansi. To the southwest along Tung-pu [Tatung - to Puchow] Railway 4th Army Group, 5th Army Group and 14th Army Group were to attack from the east while the 34th Corps and 61st Corps attacked from the west to cut the Tung-pu Railway between between Yi-cheng and Yun-cheng [Yuncheng] at Chiang-Hsien [Jiangxian], Wen-hsi [Wenxi], An-yi [Anyi] with the object of severing the railway at Chu-wu [Quwo] and Hou-ma [Houma] isolating
37th Division at Yun-cheng [Yuncheng] and 41st Division at Linfeng.

China
2nd War Area
- 40th Corps
- 27th Corps
-- 46th Division
-- 8th New Division
- 14th Army Group
- 5th Army Group
- 4th Army Group
- 61st Corps
- 34th Corps

Japan
1st Army
- 36th Division in the Chang-chih [Zhangzi] and Chang-tze [Changzhi] area
- 37th Division in Yun-cheng [Yuncheng] area
- 41st Division in Linfeng area.


1st War Area was to support 2nd War Area with an attack on the Kaifeng and Po-ai [Bo'ai] area to tie down the Japanese forces of the 35th Division and 4th Cavalry Brigade of the North China Front Army.

South of the Yellow River 3rd Army Group was to cut off Lan-feng - Kai-feng Sector of Lung-hai Railway. 81st Divison main force was to attack Kai-feng while a few elements attacked Lanfeng allowing the Anhwei - Honan Border area Guerrillas (40,000 men) to cut the Lunghua railroad near Lo-wang [Luowang], Nei-huang [Neihuanggi], and East and west of Lanfeng [Lankao] plus the highways at Tung-hsu [Tongxu], Huai-yang [Huaiyang] and Lu-yi [Luyi]. To the southeast 2nd Cavalry Corps was to move east of Po-Hsien [Boxian], from Luyi attack Kuei-teh [Shangqiu] from the east. Another force to inercept and stop enemy releif forces from 21st Diviision at Tang-shan [Dangshan] and Hsuchow [Xuzhou].

Simaltaneously north of the Yellow River 36th Army Group would attack Po-ai [Bo'ai] and Hsin-hsiang [Xinxiang]. New 5th Corps would attack Japanese positions held by 1st Independent Mixed Brigade north and south of An-yang [Anyang]. Destroy bridges along the roads at Chi, Chun, Tang-yin, and Pao-lien Temple Station tieing up rail traffic. 47th Corps would cut rail traffic at Po-shan [?], Chang-kou [?], and clear Tai-hsing Shan [Taihang Mountains] of Japanese troops. Finally the 9th Corps was to attack 35th Division and 4th Cavalry Brigade troops at Po-ai [Bo'ai], Hsin-yang [Jixian], Wu-she [Mucheng] and area of Hsiu-wu [Xiuwu] and Po-ai [Bo'ai], south of the western Tao-tsing railroad.

China
1st War Area
- 3rd Army Group
-- 81st Divison
-- Anhwei - Honan Border area Guerrillas (40,000 men)
- 2nd Cavalry Corps
- 36th Army Group
-- New 5th Corps
-- 47th Corps
-- 9th Corps
--- 47th Division

Japan
N China Front Army
- 4th Cavalry Brigade Po-Hsien [Boxian] area
- 1st Independent Mixed Brigade in the Anyang region
- 35th Division troops at Kai-feng - Hsin-yang area
12th Army
- 21st Division Tang-shan, Hsuchou on Tao-tsing Railway



Hopei-Chahar War Area was to support 2nd War Area using its main force of 69th Corps with its New 6th Division and guerilla forces to cut the communications in the vicinity of Shih-chia-chuang [Shijiazhuang], Pao-ting [Bao-ding] held by 110th Division and Hsing-tai [Xingtai]held by the 8th Independent Mixed Brigade and along the Peiking- Hankow Railway. Other forces were to cut communications in the vicinity of Tsang-chow [Cangzhou] and Teh-chow [Dezhou] held by 27th Division along the Tientsin-Pukow Railway in this way preventing forces of the North China Front Army or its 12th Army from interfering with operations in Shansi against 1st Army.

China
Hopei Chahar War Area - 69th Corps
-- New 6th Division
-- guerilla forces

Japan
North China Front Army
- 110 Division in Shih-chia-chuang [Shijiazhuang] - Baoding area
- 8th Independent Mixed Brigade: in Xingtai area
- 1st Independent Mixed Brigade: in Handan area
- 27th Division: in Tianjin Tsang-chow [Cangzhou] and Teh-chow [Dezhou] along the Tientsin-Pukow Railway

8th War Area was to assist 2nd War Area in the north in Suiyuan by attacks on the Japanese Cavalry Group [2] of the Mongolian Army at Pao-tou [Baotou] and Kuei-sui [Hohhot]. The Main force of 35th Corps was to attack Pao-tou [Baotou].

- 35th Corps - ?
--New 4th Division
--New 31st Division
--11th Provisional Division
-- New 6th Bde
-- Wu-lin Garrison Bde

6th Cavalry Corps and the Advance Force was to cut the railroad between Kuei-sui [Hohhot] and Sa-la-chi [Salqin] to prevent IJA reinforcements from the 26th Division in the Tatung [Datung] area to relive Pao-tou.

- 6th Cavalry Corps - ?
-- 3rd Cavalry Division

81st Corps was to attack Anpei [Dashetai] while Guerilla Forces attacked Kuyang [Guyang] and various other sites to tie down outlieing garrisons.

- 81st Corps - attack Anpei [Dashetai]
--101st Division
-- New 32nd Division - Fu Zuoyi [4]
-- 3rd Regiment of Garrison Brigade [4]

Shantung Kiangsu War Area was to prevent movement between North or Central China along the Tientsin-Pukow Railway by attacking and sabotageing it. In Shantung portions of 51st Corps were to attack near Tai-an [Tai'an] and portions of 57th Corps near Teng Hsien [Tengxian] held both held by IJA 32nd Division. In Kiangsu portions of 89th Corps were to attack near Chu-hsien [Chuzhou ] held by 12th Independent Mixed Brigade in Kiangsu.


China
Shantung

- 51st Corps (portions )
- 57th Corps (portions )

Japan
Shantung

12th Army
- 32 Division in Tai-an [Tai'an] and Teng Hsien [Tengxian] area of Tientsin-Pukow Railway


Sources:
[1] Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) 2nd Ed. ,1971. Translated by Wen Ha-hsiung , Chung Wu Publishing; 33, 140th Lane, Tung-hwa Street, Taipei, Taiwan Republic of China.

[2] IJA in China orbat, 1937 to 1945
http://www.china-defense.com/forum/show ... php?t=1168

[3] http://content.cdlib.org:8088/xtf/view? ... view=print

Map 1 Shows the postitions of the Japanese forces at the end of 1939 when the Chinese began their offensive.
It is from:

Resistance and Revolution in China
Tetsuya Kataoka
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS

[4] From http://www.uglychinese.org/war.htm#Ichigo


Part 2 to follow. Plan of Central and South China Offensive
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asiaticus
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39-40 Central and South China Winter Offensive

Postby asiaticus on 12 Jun 2006 18:42

Most of the following is taken from the narrative in Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War
Page 319-334 and Map 19 posted above. I have tried to ID the current names of localities and if possible name the units involved if not mentioned in the text, since there was no orbat for either side listed there.

The IJA in China orbat, 1937 to 1945, posted posted on the China Defense forum:
http://www.china-defense.com/forum/show ... php?t=1168 , was helpful in locating the Japanese units

So too was the map 1 from Resistance and Revolution posted at:
http://content.cdlib.org:8088/xtf/view? ... view=print

The Expedia find a map page:
http://www.expedia.com/pub/agent.dll?qscr=mmfn
is a great help in geting a good topo map to understand the situation and locate places named in the narrative.

As always contributions, corrections, comments welcome.

asiaticus
-------------




Chinese Winter Offensive (Late Nov 1939 - Late March 1940)

Part 2 Central China and South China Offensive Plan



Central China Offensive
In Central China the Japanese 11th Army was to be subject to the concentrated attack of the 5th and 9th War Areas, and supporting attacks by 6th and 3rd War Area while 3rd War Area with support from Shantung Kiangsu War area isolated 11th Army from help from 13th Army downstream by its offensive on the Yangtze and at Hangchow.


3rd War Area was to attack 116th Division positions along the south bank of the Yangtze River between Wuhu and Hukou with its main force to cut communications and attack traffic along it with mines and artillery to prevent the forces of the 13th Army from giving aid to the 11th Army up river. Shantung Kiangsu War Area was to attack along the Tientsin-Pukow Railway on the north bank of the River in support. To do this 23rd Army Group organized columns made from the 50th, 21st, 86th, and 25th Corps with three Divisions each and 18th Corps with two. The force was divided into a Right Flank Army, Central Army and Left Flank Army.

3rd War Area
- 23rd Army Group
--50th Corps, 3 Divisions
--21st Corps, 3 Divisions
--86th Corps, 3 Divisions
--25th Corps, 3 Divisions
--18th Corps, 2 Divisions

Japan [2]
13th Army
116th Division (along the Yangtze between Hokou to Wuhu)
15th Division (along the Yangtze near Wuhu)

Right Flank Army was to send one column to operate along the line from Shun-an [Shun'an] to Tung-kuan-shan, Tung-chiang village and Ma-shan to insure security and attack the enemy between Ti-kang [Digang] and Tung-ling [Tongling] and Ta-tung [Datong]. Another powerful column would advance via Ti-kang [Digang], Tung-ling [Tongling], and Ta-tung [Datong] to the river and attack ships and capture Ta-tung and Tungling at once. Another force was to be sent to Wan-chih [Wanzhi] and Wu-hu to harass and tie down the Japanese 15th Division.

- Right Flank Army
- 21st Corps?
--- 146th Division?
--- 148th Division?
--- ? Division ?
- 50th Corps
-- 144th Division
-- 145th Division?
-- 79th Division

79th and 144th Divisions are known to have been in this Right Flank Army as was 50th Corps. 50th Corps had 144 and 145 Divisions and 21st Corps later in 1942 had 146th, 147th and 148th Division with it. My guess is that 147th Division was detached 18th Corps in this operation only. Units with ? Are my conjecture based on the narrative.


Central Army columns were to move to Tatung [Datong] and Huang-pen [Huangpen] to attack enemy strong points at Tseng-hsing-shan, Cheng-chia-ta-shan and Hsiang-shan to ensure security along the line from Shan-tan-chow to Chiang-chia-tzui. Later, they were to attack the enemy at Ma-tou-shan and operate from Meikang to the upper and lower reaches of the river.

- Central Army
--86th Corps ?
--- 16th Division
--- 67th Division
--- ? Division
--25th Corps
--- 10th Reserve Division
--- 40th Division
--- 190th Division

10th Reserve, 16th, 40th, 67th and 190th Divisions are known to have been in Central Army as was 25th Corps. 25th Corps had been with 32nd Group Army in the attack on Nanchang with 10th Reserve, 16th, 67th and 79th Divisions in early 1939. These had probably been shot up pretty badly in the battle and needed to be rebuilt and probably reassigned for this offensive. The battle narrative indicates the 40th and 67th Divisions relieved 10th Reserve and 16th Divisions after they suffered big losses so were probably in the same Corps. 86th Corps later in 1942 had 16th and 67th Division still with it and 25th Corps had 40th Division. Units assignments to Corps are my conjecture based on the narrative.


Left Flank Army was to organize 2 columns (built around one infantry regiment with attached artillery) to approach river banks between Tung-liu [Dongliu] and Hsian-kou [Xiangkou] and between Hokou [Hukou] and Pengtze [Pengze] to attack enemy ships and lay mines. Individual battalions or companies, attached with necessary anti tank guns, were to be organized into 3 attack teams to infiltrate into the river banks to attack enemy ships. Two Divisions attached with necessary artillery and engineers, and the Navy's Mine-laying Group would form the reserves and stand by at Tai-ping [Tai-ping] and Ching Hsien[?].

- Left Flank Army
-- 18th Corps - ?
--- 147th Division - ?
--- ? Division - ?

18th Corps and 147th Division are mentioned as being with the Left Flank Army in the narrative.

Additionally 10th Army Group was to take Hangchow [Hangzhou], Fuyang and Yu-hang [Linping] to pin down 22nd Division in that area while the 32nd Army Group would attack and harass Nanchang from the east to aid the 9th War Area offensive against it.

3rd War Area
- 10th Army Group
-- 192nd Division
-- 62nd Division
- 2nd Resistance and Defense column
- 6th Resistance and Defense column
- 8th Resistance and Defense column
- 3rd District Self Defense Group

Japan [2]
13th Army
22nd Division [Hangchow area]


9th War Area with the support of the 3rd and 6th War Areas would attack the 6th, 33rd, 34th and 40th Divisions, and 14th and 18th Independent Mixed Brigade of the Japanese 11th Army south of the Yangtze along the Canton-Hangkow Railway at Puchi and Hsien-ning and advance on Wu-chang, attack Nanchang, and along the Nanchang-Kuikiang Railway and against Jui-chang and Kiu-kiang and attack and isolate 6th division at Yueh-yang.

15th Army Group supported by 53rd Corps from 6th War area was to attack Canton-Hangkow Railway and isolate 6th division at Yueh-yang.

9th War Area
- 15th Army Group - Kuan Lin-cheng [acting] ?
-- 79th Corps - Hsia Chu-chung ?
--- 98th Division - Wang Chia-pen ?
--- 82nd Division - Lo Chi-chiang ?
--- 140th Division - Li Tang ?
--- 2 Replacement Regiments.
-- 4th Corps - Ou Chen?
--- 59th Division? - Chang Teh-neng?
--- 90th Division? - Chen Yung-chi?
--- 102nd Division? - Po Hui-chang?

6th War Area
- 53rd Corps
-- 116th Division (part)

Japan [2]
11th Army
- 6th Division [Yueh-yang area]

(The 4th and 79th Corps and its 82nd, 98th and 140th Divisions and the two Replacement Regiments are mentioned in the narrative as being with this Army Group and were the units and leaders in 15th Army Group during the First Changsha Campaign (Early Aug. - Early Oct. 1939) that immediately preceded the Winter Offensive. The 4th Corps' divisions listed here are the same ones with the 4th Corps in the same battle. Because they were in reserve in that battle it is my conjecture they would have remained the same. Units and commanders marked ? Are my conjecture based on the narrative and First Changsha orbat.)


27th Army Group was to attack the Canton-Hangkow Railway at Puchi and Hsien-ning[Xianning] and advance on Wu-chang.

- 27th Army Group - Yang Sen?
-- 20th Corps - Yang Han-yu?
--- 133rd Division? - Li Chao-ying?
--- 134th Division? - Yang Kan-tsai?
--- ? Division - ?
-- 73rd Corps - Peng Wei-jen?
--- 15th Division? - Wang Chih-pin?
--- 77th Division? - Liu Chi-ming?
--- ? Division - ?
-- 70th Corps - Li Chueh
--- 3rd Division - ?
--- 19th Division - Tang Ying-po?
---107th Division? - Tuan Heng?

Japan [2]
11th Army
- 6th Division [Yueh-yang area]
- 40th Division [South of Hankow]
- 33rd Divison [South and west of Juijiang]

The 20th and 73rd Corps (but not their divisions or leaders) and 70th Corps with 3rd and 19th Divisions are mentioned in the narrative as being with 27th Army Group. I a have listed the same division units for 20th, and 73rd Corps and their leaders in 27th Army Group during the First Changsha Campaign (Early Aug. - Early Oct. 1939) that immediately preceded the Winter Offensive. These two Corps might have another division attached for the offensive as other Corps in the major columns for the Offensive seems to have done. From other orbats before and after this date it seems 70th Corps usually had 19th Division and 107th Division with it. 3rd Division was reinforcement for the offensive only as it is not at Changsha as the 107th Division was in orbats before and after. Units and commanders marked ? Are my conjecture based on the narrative and First Changsha and Shangkao Campaign (Mid March 1941) orbats.


30th Army Group was to attack the northward between Nan-Hsun Railway and Canton-Hangkow Railway, support 27th Army advance on Wu-chang, advance on Jui-chang and Kiu-kiang.


- 30th Army Group - Wang Ling-chi?
-- 78th Corps - Hsia Shou-hsun?
--- New 13th Division? - Liu Juo-pi?
--- New 16th Division? - Wu Shao-chuan?
-- 72nd Corps - Han Chuan-pu ?
--- New 14th Division? - Chen Liang-chi?
--- New 15th Division? - Fu-yi?
-- 8th Corps - Li Yu-tang ?
---- 3rd Division - Chao His-tien ?
---- 197th Division? - Ting Ping-chun ?
-- 1st Advance Column - Kung Ho-chung
--- Hupei Peace Preservation Regiment - Pi Tsung-yung
-- 3rd Advance Column - Chung Shih-pan
--- 4th Kiangsi Preservation Regiment - Cheng Chih-ching
--- 5th Kiangsi Preservation Regiment - Chung Shih-pan
--- 9th Kiangsi Preservation Regiment - Hsu Pu-chih

Japan [2]
11th Army
- 40th Division [South of Hankow]
- 18th Independent Mixed Brigade [Juijiang area]
- 33rd Divison [South and west of Juijiang]

The 8th, 72nd and 78th Corps (but not their divisions or leaders) and and 1st and 3rd Advance Column are mentioned in the narrative as being with 30th Army Group. I a have listed the same division units for 8th, 72nd and 78th Corps and 1st and 3rd Advance Column and their leaders in 30th Army Group during the First Changsha Campaign (Early Aug. - Early Oct. 1939) that immediately preceded the Winter Offensive.


19th Army Group and 32nd Army Group from 3rd War Area attack Nanchang and the Nan-Hsun Railway. Main force of 19th Army Group, the 58th Corps and 60th Corps formerly from the 1st Army Group, was to attack Wan-shou-kung[Wangshengang], Chein-chow[Aicheng] and Pai-tze-chiao[?]. 32nd Corps was to attack Ching-an[Qiujiajie] with part of its force while 141st Division and 131st Division sabotaged traffic and communications between Chang-kung-tu [Zhanggongdu, near Quijin] and An-yi [Anyi] and between Teh-an [De'an] and Juo-hsi [Ruoxi] and the railroad and wires between Niu-hsing [Jiaoqiao] and Lo-hua [Lehuajie] and Teh-an [De'an].

-19th Army Group - Lo Cho-ying?
-- 32nd Corps - Sun Ken-tang?
--- 139th Division - Li Chao-ying?
--- 141st Division - Tang Yung-hang?
--- 131st Division - ?
-- 58th Corps / 1st Army Group - Sun Tu?
--- New 10th Division? - Liu Cheng-fu?
--- New 11th Division? - Lu Tao-yuan?
-- 60th Corps / 1st Army Group - An En-pu?
--- 183rd Division? - Li Chao-ying?
--- 184th Division - Wan Pao-pang?

3rd War Area
- 32nd Army Group
-- 29th Corps?

Japan [2]
11th Army
- 14th Independent Mixed Brigade [Juijiang area]
- 33rd Divison [South and west of Juijiang]
- 34th Divison [Nanchang area]

Narrative lists the 32nd Corps (with 131st and 141st Divisions), 58th and 60th Corps all under 19th Army Group in this campaign. In the Changsha campaign just before, the above listed Divisions for 58th and 60th Corps were under 1st Army Group with those commanders and 32nd Corps had 139th and 141st Divisions only. My guess is that all remained the same and 131st Division was reinforcement as it was not in the Changsha orbat.
Narrative lists no units of the 32nd Army Group in this campaign. In the 4/1939 Nanchang campaign orbat it had 25th and 29th Corps and mentions seven divisions, five of these and 25th Corps appear in the 23rd Army Group of 3rd War Area. 29th Corps could have still been there but it next appears in the orbat of 5th War Area in 1941.


5th War Area was to mop up the 3rd, 13th and 39th Divisions and 14th Independent Mixed Brigade of the 11th Army north of the Yangtze between Hsin-yang and Wuhan along the Peiking-Hankow Railway and cut communications along the Han-yi [Hankow-Ichang] and Hsiang-Hua [Hsiang-yang - Hua-yuan Highways. The 5th War Area forces were divided into four Armies to carry out the operation, River North Army, Right Flank Army, Left Flank Army, Southern Honan Army, and the Eastern Hupei Guerrilla force with the 84th Corps (178th and 188th Division under Mo Shu-chieh in reserve at Tsaoyang.


River North Army was to send a detachment to cross the river east of Sze-kang [Shayang] and attack Tien-men [Tianmen] and Tsao-shih [Zaoshi], while the Main force was to cross between Sze-kang [Shayang] and Chiu-kou [Jiukou], attack the enemy west of Pai-ma-miao[?] along the Han-yi [Hankow-Yichang] Highway, and operate along the line from Tien-men[Tianmen] to Pai-ma-miao[?] and Yu-yen-ling[Yanglin?].

- River North Army
-- Advance force
--- 75th Corps (less one division) - Chao Ai?
---- 6th Division
---- 13th Division
--- 41st Division
--- 128th Division
--- Central Hupei Guerillas
-- Main force -
--- 32nd Division
--- 49th Division
--- 55th Division
-- 4th Reserve Division

Japan[2]
11th Army
- 13th Division [Yingcheng, Anlu, Xinshi area]

In the narrative all the forces are listed except the subordinate units of the 75th Corps which had the 6th, 13th and 4th Cavalry Divisions under Chao Ai during the Tsaoyang-Yichang Campaign (Mid April 1940), immediately after this campaign.


Right Flank Army was to send a force across the river south of Chung-hsiang [Zhongxiang] to attack the enemy west of Ching-shan [Xinshi]. Its main force would cross the river north of Chung-hsiang [Zhongxiang] and attack the enemy along the Ching-chung [Xinshi- Zhongxiang] Highway. Once the strong points are taken and communications cut the Army was to operate along the line from Ching-shan [Xinshi] to Sung-ho [Songhe] and Ping-pa [Pingba], preparing for subsequent attacks.

- Right Flank Army
-- 33rd Army Group?
--- 55th Corps, less 1 division - Tsao Fu-lin
---- 74th Division
--- 59th Corps - Huang Wei-kang
---- 38th Division ?
---- 180th Division ?
---- 9th Cavalry Division ?
--- 77th Corps, less 1 division - Feng Chih-an
---- 37th Division ?
---- 132nd Division ?
---- 179th Division ?
-- 29th Army Group, less 1 brigade
---44th Corps - Liao Chen
---- 149th Division ?
---- 150th Division ?
--- 67th Corps - Hsu Shao-tsung
---- 161st Division ?
---- 162nd Division ?

Japan[2]
11th Army
- 13th Division [Yingcheng, Anlu, Xinshi area]

In the narrative all the Right Flank Army forces are listed as Army Groups and Corps omitting the subordinate units and commanders. However the orbats of 5th War area of the Sui-Tsaoyang Campaign (Late April - Mid May, 1939) that preceaded the Winter Offensive and the succeading Tsaoyang-Yichang Campaign (Mid April 1940), show the assigned leaders and divisions remained the same except the 55th Corps was reduced to the 74th Division according to the narrative and 77th Corps was reduced by one division for the Winter Offensive, I am guessing it was the 9th Cavalry missing from the 77th Corps because it was with 59th Corps cavalry during the later Tsaoyang-Yichang Campaign.


Left Flank Army or (River East Army) was to attack with part of its forces from Ping-lin-shih [Pinglin] to Ma-ping [Maping] and Hsi-ho[Xihe], advance to the An-ying [Anlu-Yingshan] Highway and cut lines of communication behind enemy lines. Its main force was to attack the enemy at Sui Hsien[Suizhou] and Kuan-ti-miao[Guanmiao, 5km NW of Yingshan], mop up minor enemy strong points and operate in the vicinity of An-lu [Anlu], Ping-lin[Pinglin], and Ying-shan [Yingshan], preparing for subsequent attacks.

- Left Flank Army (River East Army)
-- 22nd Army Group - Wang Tsan-hsu
-- 45th Corps - Chen Ting-hsun ?
--- 125th Division
--- 127th Division
-- 41st Corps - Sun Chen?
--- 122nd Division
--- 124th Division
-- 39th Corps - Liu Ho-ting
--- 34th Division ?
--- 56th Division
-- 1st Guerrilla Column

Japan [2]
11th Army
- 13th Division [Yingcheng, Anlu, Xinshi area]

In the narrative all the Left Flank Army forces are listed with the exception of the 34th Division but all the other units and leaders seem to have been the same between the Sui-Tsaoyang Campaign (Late April - Mid May, 1939) that preceaded the Winter Offensive and the succeading Tsaoyang-Yichang Campaign (Mid April 1940).



Southern Honan Army was to employ a force to attack the enemy north of Ying-shan [Yingshan], Kuan-yin-tang [?] and Hsi-shuang-ho [Xishuanghe] and send a strong force to cut enemy lines of communications in the area of Kuang-shui[Guangshui] and Hsin-yang [Xinyang]. Its main force was to attack in the area of Hsin-yang[Xinyang] and occupy it. The Army would then operate along the line from Kuang-shui[Guangshui] to Wu-shen-kuan[?] preparing for a future offensive.

- Southern Honan Army
- 2nd Army Group - Sun Lien-chung
-- 68th Corps - Liu Ju-ming
--- 119th Division
--- 143rd Division
-- 30th Corps - Wang Chung-lien
--- 27th Division
--- 30th Division
--- 31st Division
-- 92nd Corps - Li Hsien-chao
--- 21st Division ?
--- 47th Division ?
-- Honan-Hupei Border Area Guerilla Group

Japan[2]
11th Army
- 3rd Division [in Xinyang, Dabie Shan mountain area]

In the narrative all the Southern Honan Army forces are listed for all but the 92nd Corps. 92nd Corps units and leaders appear in the immediately following Tsaoyang-Yichang Campaign (Mid April 1940).


Eastern Hupei Guerrilla force was to attack the enemy along the line from Kuang-shui[Guangshui] to Hsin-yang[Xinyang] with a regular force in conjunction with guerillas, cutting their line of communications. Its main force was to advance to the enemy rear areas at Kuang-shui [Guangshui], Hua-yuan [Huayuan] and Hankow to check enemy movement.

- Eastern Hupei Guerrilla force
-- Regular and guerrilla force
---7th Corps Wang Tsan-pin?
---- 171st Division ?
---- 172nd Division ?
--- 3rd Guerilla Division?
--- 4th Guerilla Division?
-- Main force - Cheng Ju-hai?
--- 16th Guerilla Division ?
--- 19th Guerilla Division ?
--- 11th Guerilla Regiment ?

Japan[2]
11th Army
- 3rd Division [in Xinyang, Dabie Shan mountain area]
- 39th Division [In the area on the two sides Hankou - Beijing RR from Wucheng northward and east of this. area.]

In the narrative the Eastern Hupei Guerrilla force had developed from the 21st Army Group and other forces that had been isolated in the Western Dabie Shan mountains during the Wuhan Campaign. During the Sui-Tsaoyang Campaign (Late April - Mid May, 1939) the 21st Army Group was still made up of regular units:

- 21st Army Group - Liao Lei
--7th Corps - Chang Kan
--- 171st Division -
--- 172nd Division -
--48th Corps - Chang Yi-chun
--- 138th Division -
--- 176th Division -

After the Winter Offensive in the Tsaoyang-Yichang Campaign (Mid April 1940), the Chinese had converted their regular forces into guerrilla forces:

- Eastern Hupei Guerilla Force
-- 7th Corps - Wang Tsan-pin
--- 171st Guerilla Division
--- 172nd Guerilla Division
--- 3rd Guerilla Division
--- 4th Guerilla Division
-- Commander Cheng Ju-hai
--- 16th Guerilla Division
--- 19th Guerilla Division
--- 11th Guerilla Regiment

It would seem from the narrative that during the Winter Offensive this change was underway and from the name of the units the 7th Corps 171st and 172nd Divisions still may have provided the regular troop contingent. Leaders are unknown.


South China Offensive

4th War Area was to capture Swatow and Chao-chow[ ] while its main forces mopped up Japanese 21st Army (18th, 38th, and 104th Divisions and the Guards Mixed Brigade), along the Canton Kowloon Railway making the transfer of reinforcements from Kwangtung to Kwanzi difficult. In Kwangzi at Nanning the battered reminants of the Japanese 5th Division and Taiwan Mixed Brigade was to be driven out.

(For details on this part of the Winter Offensive see the article on the Southern Kuangsi Campaign)


Next: Part 3 will cover the actual execution of the North China Winter Offensive. Part 4 will cover the Central China Offensive activities.


Sources:
[1] Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) 2nd Ed. ,1971. Translated by Wen Ha-hsiung , Chung Wu Publishing; 33, 140th Lane, Tung-hwa Street, Taipei, Taiwan Republic of China.

Page 294 Chinese orbat Nanchang Campaign (Mid Feb. - Early May 1939)

Page 301 Chinese orbat Sui - Tsaoyang Campaign (Late April, 1939)


Pg. 303-311 Chinese orbat First Changsha Campaign (Early Aug. - Early Oct. 1939)

Page 319-334 Chinese Winter Offensive (Late Nov 1939 - Late March 1940)
Map 19

Page 335 Chinese orbat Tsaoyang-Yichang Campaign (Mid April 1940)


[2] IJA in China orbat, 1937 to 1945
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