The French fleet of 1914 was based in France, not Oranto.
Yes, and other than the transports so are almost all the potential targets at the outset of the war.
The east coast of the Adriatic is replete with opportunities for protected anchorages if things get ‘hot’ far from base.
Find a bay and call it a harbour?
The Austrians had no interest in facing the Grand Fleet - their odds against crappy French pre-dreadnoughts were much better.
Oddly enough, the Germans had no interest in sending parts of the battlefleet to the Med to aid Austria, though that can be sidelined by you.
The Adriatic is tailor made for aerial recce - four Zeppelins line abreast should be able to sweep the whole sea.
But it has a very narrow exit that can be monitored from ships based at Malta, and almost no obvious targets to strike at.
A more aggressive Austrian navy theoretically had the ability to establish forward bases in Albania and a forward protected anchorage towards Oranto on the east coast of the Adriatic.
That is not so easy for the major warships.
We’re assuming that Italy remains neutral.
Why? There is a war happening and Italy can benefit from it if she joins the winning side. She is unlikely to join Austria, and all her likely desires are in Austrian hands. A significant German force in Austrian hands will be seen as a threat, not a bonus.
And what HSF logistic shortages I read about were in coal supply, not rail or dock capacity. Pola was a major city and major fleet base, so presumably had good rail capacity and acceptable dock facilities.
Germany had spent years getting it right, building the bases and rail links and not forgetting all the infrastructure too, all designed to give a sizable fleet excellent support facilities. In this the Germans were far better off than the British, whose major naval bases had all been created in the age of sail to fight the French, Dutch and Spanish, many could not not handle the major ships in their docks, and were in the wrong places to oppose Germany.
Pola was a major base for the smaller Austrian navy, and its facilities were for a small fleet. You may anchor a lot of ships there, but the important drydocks and maintenance facilities are just not present. It takes years to build up a base to full efficiency, and it cannot be expected to handle a sudden increase of numbers without a major loss to its performance - even if you forget about all the new parts that will be needed to be kept in stores for these new ships.
This stuff is ok with years of planning, but to improvise this successfully is really not going to happen. Polar bear has direct naval experience, I am sure he will tell you quite how much in the way of replacement parts, specialist machinery and such is kept in home ports.
whether the Nassau Class dreadnoughts offered any added offensive capability in the North Sea.
They rather obviously add capability to the HSF, it would be hard to see how any other conclusion could be arrived at. Even Mauve's ships added to Scheer's capability to a degree, and led the line at points in the escape, replaced by the Nassua's! They are not as good as later ships, but they are better than nothing, and although they did slow the HSF they also brushed aside the GF's light forces allowing their usually more capable bretherin to get home safely.