This is an apolitical forum for discussions on the Axis nations, as well as the First and Second World Wars in general hosted by Marcus Wendel's Axis History Factbook in cooperation with Michael Miller's Axis Biographical Research and Christoph Awender's WW2 day by day.
przydział wojskowy =8. p. a. l. (Army unit)
stopień wojskowy =strzelec (rifleman)
jeniec wojenny (POW)
przeniesiony na status robotnika cywilnego = Tak (released as a civilian worker)
dodatkowe informacje =Stalag I - A; nr jeńca 7713; Stalag I - B; 11.11.1940 zwolniony do Hegelingen, okręg Gołdap
(held in the POW camps, Stalag I-A and I-B, released to Hegelingen, Goldap.
What had happened was that most of the Polish soldiers who became prisoners of war were turned i nto " civilian workers " by the German authorities. They were thus -- in defiance of the 1929 Convention relative to the treatment of prisoners of war -- deprived of their prisoner-of-war status and of the protection this should have afforded them.
michael mills wrote:Officer POWs held by the Wehrmacht were initially released on parole, but later ordered to report back to the internment camps when it became apparent that some of the released officers had broken their parole and were organising clandestine resistance groups. A large proportion of the officers complied with that order. According to the testimony of those officers, the portrait of Pilsudski was displayed on the walls of the Wehrmacht offices to which they had to report, and loyalty to the name of Pilsudski was invoked as a reason for complying with the order.
michael mills wrote:There was a compound for officer POWs within the confines of the Lublin Concentration Camp (Majdanek). During the final massacre of the Jewish prisoners held in the concentration camp in October 1943, many of the officer POWs stood on the roofs of their barracks to watch the fun, and afterwards held a lively party to celebrate the final solution of the Jewish Problem in their Polish homeland.
It is simply not true. What you are talking about were border cases and not the general German policy, the officers were never released.
There were no officer POWs in Majdanek or Lublin, only the Soviet and Italian POWs were sent there
michael mills wrote:There is information in a book by Jan Tomas Gross on the German administration of the Generalgouvernement published back in the 1970s.
Rank-and-file prisoners held by the Wehrmacht were released and sent home. That is what the term "civilian worker" meant.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Zivilarbeiter (German for civilian worker) refers primarily to Polish prisoners from the General Government (occupied Poland), used during WWII as forced laborers in Germany. Poles were conscripted on the basis of the Polish decrees (Polenerlasse). [/b
German and Polish poster describing "Obligations of Polish workers in Germany" including death sentence to every man and woman from Poland for sex with a GermanPolish workers were subject to discriminatory regulation (the Polish decrees). Compared to German workers of foreign workers from neutral or German allied countries, Polish Zivilarbeiters received lower wages and could not use public conveniences (such as public transport) or visit many public spaces and businesses (for example they could not attend a German church service, swimming pools or restaurant); they had to work longer hours than Germans; they received smaller food rations; they were subject to a curfew; they often were denied holidays and had to work seven days a week; could not enter a marriage without permission; possess money or objects of value. Bicycles, cameras and even lighters were forbidden. They were required to wear a sign - the „Polish-P“ - attached to their clothing.
Arbeitsbuch Für Ausländer (Workbook for Foreigner) identity document issued to a Polish Forced Labourer in 1942 together with a letter "P" patch Poles were required to wear attached to their clothing. [b] In 1939 there were about 300,000 prisoners from Poland working in Germany; Already in 1944 there were about 2,8 m Polish Zivilarbeiters in Germany (approximately 10% of Generalgouvernement workforce) and a similar number of workers in this category from other countries.
Poles from territories taken over after the German invasion of the Soviet Union and not included in the General Government were treated as OST-Arbeiters.
1.^ a b John C. Beyer; Stephen A. Schneider. "Forced Labor under Third Reich - Part 1" (PDF). Nathan Associates Inc.. http://www.nathaninc.com/nathan2/files/ ... %20One.pdf. and John C. Beyer; Stephen A. Schneider. "Forced Labor under Third Reich - Part 2" (PDF). Nathan Associates Inc.. http://www.nathaninc.com/nathan2/files/ ... %20Two.pdf.
2.^ A. Paczkowski, Historia Powszechna/Historia Polski, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa 2008, tom 16, p. 28
3.^ Günter Bischof, Fritz Plasser, Oliver Saasa, New Perspectives on Austrians and World War II, Transaction Publishers, 2009, ISBN 1-4128-0883-9, Google Print, p.206
The position of the Jewish prisoners was made even more wretched by the
aggressive behavior of some of the Polish prisoners, who organized pogroms
in some of the camps, a phenomenon till then unprecedented. The pogroms,
although instigated partly by the German officers were also an outcome of the
antisemitic attitudes held by a large proportion of the Polish prisoners of war
and of the indifference of the majority. The most serious outbreaks took place
at camp I A at Stablack, the first during the process of segregation shortly
after the prisoners were brought to the camp. It was described as follows:
We were all made to form ranks and one of the German soldiers, Apel by
name, ordered in Polish: 'Jews, get out.' When we stepped out of the ranks he
told us to surrender our shoes, coats, uniforms, etc. to the 'Aryans', 'or they
would take them themselves.' This filled the Jews with despondency. Some of
them tried tearing holes in their coats, so that no-one would want them;
others, with the same object in mind, tried to exchange them for those of
inferior quality. Someone came up to me and demanded my good boots,
offering his light shoes in exchange. I did not hasten to conclude the deal,
luckily for me, because I suddenly heard someone shout out behind me: 'I'd
die rather than let you take the boots off him.' A Polish soldier I had known in
Warsaw was standing behind me. This support stiffened my resistance; I did
not give up my boots, thus saving myself many privations and illnesses.
After this official robbery Jews were formed into groups and allocated a
special tent area... it gradually grew colder and our fellow-prisoners would
increasingly frequently demand that their gear be supplemented at the Jews'
expense. Their forays were sporadic at first, but then became more frequent,
eventually turning into a full-scale pogrom. Large bands broke into our tents
taking not only warm clothing but also fountain pens, watches and other
items.47There was another riot on the Day of Atonement. This time the Jewish
prisoners organized their defence. Possibly as a result of this the German
guards intervened and opened fire from the watchtowers, killing one Jew.
After that the Jewish prisoners of war mounted regular guards in front of each
tent in an attempt to protect themselves from the sudden attacks of their
former comrades-in-arms, who outnumbered them by far.48
The fact that Jewish prisoners were not permitted to hold any position within
the camp, other than command of a Jewish company, led to serious difficulties
for them. The other tasks were frequently assigned to avowed antisemites,
who exploited every opportunity to abuse the Jews. Several noncommissioned
officers who were in charge of the field kitchen and were responsible
for the distribution of food made themselves conspicuous in this
regard. This is evident from the following description:
A few words about the distribution of food to Jews. The commandant of the
camp was a Polish soldier who saw that he could make a profit for himself by
exploiting our situation. Through intimidation, threats and beatings he induced
some of our number to attempt to ingratiate themselves by offering him gifts or
selling him objects of value at ridiculous prices. Loaves of bread at eight
marks a kilogram, as well as tobacco were offered for sale in the Jewish tents;
these items were stolen by the commandant from the allocations for the
Jewish tents... the Polish cooks could with impunity give the Jews the worst
food as well as the watery soup at the top of the pot, leaving the more
nourishing residue for their own people.49
At camp II A, Neu Brandenburg, the German commander issued instructions
as early as October 1939 to the effect that the 'Aryan' prisoners were entitled
to the uniforms and personal effects of the Jewish prisoners. Chaim Joseph
Kaplan writes of this:
We did not have to wait very long. The men who had been comrades-in-arms
the day before immediately fell upon their friends, tumbling them to the ground
and tearing off their coats, uniforms, shoes and hats without even allowing
them time to remove them themselves.50
Those men from whom the last remnants of army uniform had been stolen
were assigned separate tents; half-naked and barefoot they were sent to work
and many of them froze to death.
The Release of Prisoners of War from German-Occupied Territories
At the end of 1939 the first prisoners of war, residents of the German-occupied
areas, were released. The prisoners were despatched under terrible
conditions. They were usually provided with no dry rations whatsoever and
were given food at the stations after two or three days' travel. These rations
were smaller than those they had received at the camps, and usually
amounted to one warm ration per day (beetroot soup without meat or fat). The
prisoners were transported in unheated freight trucks, with temperatures
below 20° centigrade.51
The release of the prisoners extended over a period of several months, and
many were freed only in March 1940. In Stalag I A, Stablack, for example, a
selection was held on March 22, and only then were the prisoners from the
conquered areas released.52 The overall number of prisoners of war who were
released has been estimated at somewhere between 25,000 and 30,000.
They were in a state of total exhaustion, some were wounded or had frozen
limbs and many had contracted tuberculosis at the prisoner of war camps.53
The principal assembly points for released prisoners of war were Warsaw and
some of the large provincial towns. The released men were looked after by
the Jewish population and the Judenrate; considerable aid was also provided
by the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee.
michael mills wrote:The position of the Jewish prisoners was made even more wretched by the aggressive behavior of some of the Polish prisoners
michael mills wrote:It seems hard to imagine that ethnic Jewish POWs were eventually released while ethnic Polish POWs were not.
JEWISH MILITARY CASUALTIES IN THE POLISH ARMIES IN WORLD WAR II
By BENJAMIN MEIRTCHAK (5 VOLUMES)
Summary: of the 60,000 Jewish enlisted men taken prisoner by the Germans in the September1939 campaign only a few hundred survived captivity.
michael mills wrote:
The position of the Jewish prisoners was made even more wretched by the aggressive behavior of some of the Polish prisoners
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