The exodus of Germans of all types to the US is perhaps one illustration of a general unhappiness of various subgroups with the Prussian Reich. My own great grandfather was a Catholic Schwab. He and three of his brothers emigrated to Illinois in 1878. They left thier 9 siblings and family as well as thier life in the tiny village of Grosselfingen. German Catholics, whether they were Lusatians, Schwabs, Franconians, or Rheinlanders emigrated in large numbers to the US during the Kulturkampf years.
There were also large numbers of non-Catholic Prussians, Saxons, Hanoverians, Brunswickian and Westphalians who left the Vaterland. However, Germany during the years 1870-1914 was a very dynamic society; there were periods of boom/busts, land speculation -especially in Berlin, and great social unrest. Large numbers of rural Silesians, Saxons, and Prussians filled Berlin's factories and urban nieghborhoods. German farmers of all types were squeezed by soaring labor costs and cheap grain imports. As firms such as AG Thyssen Siemens, and Krupps rapidly expanded operations, great fortunes were won and lost; labor laws had to be passed to protect the workers and outlaw child labor. The old class system was under great stress, and the poorerJunker land holders felt their interests in Berlin were not being protected. Crime both rural and urban was a growing problem in the border towns, as foreign farm laborers abused thier guest workers status. Many of the same problems people today worries about plagued the Germans during the Kaiserzeit.
Probably the best indicator of all of these social/political issues was Berlin itself. In 1805, it was a sleepy capital on the edge of Europe; in 1905 it was a Weltstadt possessing huge industries, world class museums, grand gardens, hotels, boulevards, cafes, colleges, as well as world class slums with overcrowded housing (Rote Wedding), world class air pollution, and large scale social strife. The Communists, Junkers, workers, bourgeoisie, rich and poor Jews, bureaucrats, Catholics, Protestants, and expats all lived in this dynamic capital. All that was best as well as all that was the worst in German society during the Kaiserzeit could be found in Berlin. All over Germany ancient customs and traditions were under assault as the old order was fast giving way to the kind of creative destruction Schumpeter predicted visit all capitalistic societies.