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What If-Finland had been prepared for the Winter War?

Discussions on the Winter War and Continuation War, the wars between Finland and the USSR.
Hosted by Juha Tompuri

Re: What If-Finland had been prepared for the Winter War?

Postby Topspeed on 24 Jan 2013 19:22

Fliegende Untertasse wrote:
Topspeed wrote:Here is the PM-3 PUUSKA; http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xKGwqlj1 ... RQ&index=9 ....unfortunately the retractable radiator missed in the design.


Well, I had 3 different sets of rather scetchy drawings for PU when I made that model.
The PU never went past "cigarette box backside", so there is lot of room for speculation.

Topspeed wrote:This lame duck was then built after the war when pilots wanted more guns etc; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VL_Py%C3%B6rremyrsky


No. PU and PM were different projects. PM was allways intented as the main front-line fighter optimized for low level dogfight with ground attack capability.
PU was planned as specialized high altitude interceptor.
VL cancelled the Puuska-project after air force insisted adding all those extra weapons. As the calculated climb and speed performance was reduced so close to Pyörremyrsky that development cots of a separate airframe were no longer justified.



Ah so it is your design...well jolly good work anyhow.
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Re: What If-Finland had been prepared for the Winter War?

Postby CanKiwi2 on 24 Jan 2013 21:52

(First three paragraphes are repeats of the last post, just to make continuity a bit easier....)

Hakkarainen had moved his Command Sika forward in the column as they moved away from the ambush site. Lammio’s joukkue was in the lead but Kariluoto’s ryhmää had gotten itself slightly disorganized as they pulled out of the ambush site and Hakkarainen had moved up, leaving Korsumaki with the log trucks and the half-tracks and positioning himself at the rear of Hietanen’s ryhmää. The Kettu’s and Bantam’s had moved out quickly, shaking themselves into column march order without any delays, and Koskela’s joukkue was once again bringing up the rear. Hakkarainen was busy checking the map as they moved out, the next objective was key, a concrete bridge across a small river that was reportedly un-fordable for kilometers either side of the bridge. It wasn’t so much the river that was the problem, as the wide swatch of swamp that lay either side, impassable for vehicles and difficult for men. Thus, capturing the bridge intact was critical to continuing the rapid advance of the 21st. “No pressure then,” Hakkarainen muttered to himself.

The Forward Air Observer was on the radio, reporting in. The river itself was small, the bridge was a solid concrete structure with a sandbagged blockhouse at either end, a guard kiosk and wooden barrier at either end of the bridge itself and something like thirty houses straggling down the road, either side of the river in roughly equal numbers. There were half a dozen sand-bagged AA positions but the FAO reported they seemed to be unaware of the destruction of the battalion that had recently passed them by. The gun crews were reportedly lazing around the guns, although the FAO did report one of them had taken a couple of shots at him when he got a little too close. A band of swampy ground a couple of hundred meters wide lay either side of the river, north and south – the only access to the bridge was down the road, which was basically a causeway across the swampy ground. The only real chance they had was taking the Russians by surprise. Hakkarainen grimaced. If the Russians clued in, that was going to cost heavily. He was about to start issuing orders when the Forward Artillery Controller came up on the RT. “Boss, got a schwarm of Tyrmääjä on tap, they just called up, can I use them to support our attack?.”

Hakkarainen smiled. He’d seen the Tyrmääjä in action once before. Just once, but that was enough to know that he didn’t want to be on the receiving end of their attacks. “Bring them in along the river from the north moving south, have them hit the Russians just as we come out of the forest,” he instructed the FAC, keeping the FAO in the net. “Ask them to do a low flyby so the men can see what they look like, most of us haven’t seem them before, don’t want to shoot at them by accident. Hakkarainen Loppu (“Out”).”
“Roger that,” the FAO responded. There was a brief pause. “They see us, doing a fly by in one minute, warning the kompannia.”
The FAO came up on the komppania radio net immediately. “All Hakkarainen elements. We have a schwarm of Ilmavoimat Tyrmääjä doing a flyby in one minute so you can see what they look like. Don’t shoot at them. Loppu (“Out”).”
Beside Hakkarainen, Linna whistled. “Tyrmääjä hei, what did we do to get so lucky?”
Hakkarainen shrugged. “Damned if I know, but never look a gift horse in the mouth.”
Overhead he heard a slow “Thwoppa …. Thwoppa …. Thwoppa…” Looking back down the line of vehicles, he grinned. “And there they are,” he said, “take a good look men, you won’t see these too often. Be happy they’re ours.

Moving up from behind, parallel to the road, just above the tree-tops and only slightly faster than the column of vehicles were four of the Ilmavoimat’s ground-attack gyrocopters, the Maataistelutykkikone (literally, "Ground Battle Gun Plane"), more usually referred to as the "Tyrmääjä" (very literally meaning "Knockout-striker!" - technically, a boxing term, it was a more than apt description of the devastating result when these aircraft attacked). They flew so close to the column that Hakkarainen felt he could almost reach out and touch them. Long and lean, a predatory look enhanced by the shark’s mouths painted on the noses with their protruding 37mm gun, he could see the multi-barreled machinegun pods, the 7.62mm Lahti-Konekivääri "Yliveto", one mounted each side of the fuselage, bombs and rocket pods under the short stub wings with their two engines, the weirdly shaped cockpit with one pilot sitting behind and above the other in front of the huge propeller that held the machine aloft instead of wings. It looked predatory, and dangerous even at its slow speed, keeping pace with the column, although he still found it hard to believe such a machine could fly without wings. Hakkarainen could see the face of one of the Pilots, turned to look at him. He waved, saw the white of teeth as the pilot smiled, gave him a thumbs up, and then the four machines banked away, picking up speed, disappearing from sight and from hearing.

“Glad they’re on our side,” Lehto muttered.
He watched the four Tyrmääjä bank away over the treetops, keeping in a tight formation. Hakkarainen too watched them for a few seconds, almost wistfully, half-wishing he was up there with them in the clear clean skies where the fighting and dying was divorced from physical proximity. But instead he was down here on the ground with the mud and the guns and the ever-present reality of blood and death. The four Tyrmääjä disappeared from sight. Hakkarainen spent the next five minutes on the radio with the joukkue CO’s, the FAO, the FAC and the Tyrmääjä schwarm leader issuing orders. The plan itself was fairly simple, as such plans should be, complexity lending itself to screwups as it does. The FAO came up on the RT. “You’re five hundred metres from the forest edge, repeat five hundred metres. Loppu.”
Hakkarainen acknowledged the FAO. Then “All Hakkarainen elements, prepare to engage. Attack plan Eemeli. Repeat. All Hakkarainen elements, prepare to engage. Attack plan Eemeli. All units Acknowledge. Hakkarainen Loppu.”
The acknowledgements came in quickly. As they did so, Lammio’s joukkue accelerated, pedal to the metal, the rest of the formation accelerated after them, pounding down the road, guns ready, adrenalin surging, hearts pounding as they approached combat yet again.

In Virtanen’s Sika, the first in the column, the very point of the Spear, Sotamie Uusitalo’ heart was pounding in his chest. He'd been taught the breathing exercise to prevent this from happening, but his training was failing him. He was new to the Komppania, a replacement straight out of training who’d joined them after they’d been pulled out of the Isthmus and were about to be trained on the Sika’s. The Newbie in the Sika, the only combat he’d seen was on the way to the front and he was very very nervous. As the loader and the “spare man”, he didn’t have anything to do yet and he was standing next to Niskala, who was on the the right-hand gun. Uusitalo was already experiencing a loss of peripheral vision, his vision narrowing, like looking through a pipe. He was starting to experience "auditory exclusion," his sense of hearing "tuned out" as his brain focused all his attention towards his vision, the brain’s primary sensory organ when bringing in survival-focused data. The front-gunner, Korpraali Niskala, was whiling away the time by passing on some wisdom from his time as a volunteer with Pohjan-Pojat in Spain. "Kyllä Newbie, you betcha," said Niskala, "I swear it's true. If ya put a coat of olive oil on your bayonet blade, then the blade won't stick in the enemy, it just slides in and out, real easy like."
"Really, Korpraali?" squeaked Uusitalo.
“Niskala,” Virtanen scowled. "How about just telling the Newbie to twist the blade as you pull it out? You think that might work too?!"
"Uhh, yeah, Kersantti, I reckon that'd work. . . ."
On the right hand gun, Järvenpää snickered audibly. He too had been in Spain with Pohjan-Pojat, the volunteers.
"Perkele, you talk some shit Niskala," he said.

"All right you lot, listen up! Look at me! Look at me, Uusitalo!" roared Virtanen, looking around at him and catching his eye. His glare was concentrated essence of NCO. "Don't let your mind wander, newbie. It's too small to be out on its own!" A ripple of nervous laughter went through the Sika, easing the tension. Uusitalo was able to shake off the spell of tunnel vision and auditory exclusion, he remembered his training and began to take slow, deep breaths. “Listen up lads, we’re going in first, those Tyrmääjä are going to start hitting on the Russkies just before we come out of the forest, get their attention, so don’t shoot until we’re on them or they start shooting at us. And when you shoot, shoot low, it’s a hot day and the heat shimmer is gonna distort their image and make it look a little higher than it really is. And some of you sorry bastards tend to overshoot when you shoot downhill." He looked at Immonen on the left-hand gun. Järvenpää snickered again, but nodded along with everyone else. Virtanen was pleased that his voice sounded calm and steady. Unlike his heart, which was pounding in his chest. Virtanen reached out for his training and breathed deeply and slowly. Just as his they had been taught back in Suojeluskuntas training. He could hear his own Instructor’s voice. "In through the nose, two, three, four. Hold, two, three, four. Out through the lips, two, three, four. Hold, two, three, four."

In extensive tests during the involvement of Pohjan-Pohjat in the Spanish Civil War, Johannes Lindberg, the founder of the Finnish military martial art, KKT (KäsiKähmäTaistelu) had discovered that the autonomic nervous system, or ANS, which controls your heart rate, perspiration, and adrenal flow couldn’t be consciously controlled. But in doing so, Lindberg had also identified that breathing is the one ANS mechanism that could be brought under conscious control. As the individual slows their breathing down, the whole autonomic nervous system, including heart rate and adrenal flow, come down with it. There's also a tendency in humans to place their breathing in sync with the person they're watching. As Virtanen took his deep breaths, Uusitalo unconsciously did so too. Virtanen’s calm was contagious and the men relaxed a little, loosening themselves up, checking their guns. Uusitalo checked the ready ammunition, making sure he had belts available for all three gun positions.

The Tyrmääjä schwarm leader came up on the Komppania radio net, working to synchronize his attack with the appearance of the Sika’s out of the forest. The schwarm had split into two pairs, one trailing the other. In the trailing Tyrmääjä pair, Pilot Officer Jorma Lahti concentrated on maintaining formation as he decreased power and dropped back, increasing the gap between his pair and the schwarm leader’s. They were flying up the river now, moving slowly, only feet above the water, the rotors lower than the treetops on either side, the engines a mere whisper of sound at low power, hands and feet working the controls as they followed the bends and turns. In the leading Sika, Virtanen had jammed himself into the corner of his Sika, binoculars held steady, scanning the area around the bridge as they burst from the trees. The Russians were as unprepared as the FAO had stated and he relayed that immediately on the radio net as they charged down the causeway at sixty kph. “No shooting until we see the whites of their eyes,” he growled into the intercom, sensing Niskala on the twin Lahti’s beside him tensing up. “Tell that to the flyboys,” Niskala growled back. Virtanen took the binoculars away from his eyes. The first thing he saw was a pair of Tyrmääjä rising rapidly from the river in line abreast, inaudible even at this short distance. The Russians must have noticed them about the same time. It was as if a stone had been thrown into a beehive. Bodies boiled upwards and outwards, leaping to their feet, running for gun positions, running for trenches and blockhouses. But the Tyrmääjä were already firing their rocket pods, the scream of the rockets and then the explosions as they hit the Russian AA gun positions, that was audible. The distinctive buzzsaw sound of the "Yliveto" gun pods firing their 6,000 rounds per minute audibly illustrated the reason why they had that particular nickname. The tracer rounds made it look like a solid stream of flame flickering out to touch the Russians each time they fired. Lines of fire walked through the Russian positions even as the rockets arrived, a deadly rain from each of the multi-barrelled machineguns mixed in with the blossoming flowers that were the rocket warheads exploding.

At sixty kph, the five hundred meters to the bridge was covered in thirty seconds of jarring pounding down the potholed road. A very very long thirty seconds for Virtanen and his men. Long enough for the second pair of Tyrmääjä to appear and work over the Russian positions with a further spray of rockets and streams of fire hosing into the Russians before they too peeled away over the treetops, staying low, leaving a lot faster than they arrived and beginning to circle back. Virtanen’s Sika was almost at the bridge, the last Tyrmääjä just peeling away as Hakkarainen’s command Sika emerged from the forest. Hakkarainen took in the situation at a glance. There wasn’t time for detailed orders. There wasn’t time for any orders for that matter. Thank God for training, Hakkarainen thought, although the thought didn’t bring any relief from the concern that gripped him as Määttä floored the accelerator to keep up with Hietanen’s ryhmää just ahead of them. The rockets from the four Tyrmääjä had destroyed most of the AA gun positions, the Tyrmääjä had almost completed circling back to the Russian positions, prepared to engage in their deadly ballet, prepared to angle down to snap out short bursts from their "Yliveto" gun pods at any surviving Russians that threatened the men in the Sikas below.

The Russians hadn’t been deployed for action. The soldiers had indeed been lazing around the blockhouses and the AA gun revetments. Lammio’s Sikas held their fire to the last moment, until they were almost on the Russians and the Tyrmääjä had banked away for the last time to circle overhead. It seemed that under the rain of fire from the Tyrmääjä, the Russians hadn’t even noticed the approaching Sikas. Whichever way you looked at it, the result for the Russians was bad. The surviving Russian’s didn’t notice the six Kettu’s fanning out either side of the road, at the edge of the forest either, or of they did, they could do nothing about them. The Kettu’s fired within seconds of stopping, pumping out 37mm AP rounds targeting the AA gun positions seconds before Virtanen’s Sika reached the Russian positions. The four 76mm guns and the two Half-track mortar carriers deployed behind the Kettus and began to set themselves up to provide supporting fire if needed. Kariluoto’s joukkue passed them by as they pulled of the road, Koskela’s bunched up tight behind, all of the drivers keeping the speed as fast as possible.

Virtanen’s Sika reached the scene of death and destruction that the Tyrmääjä schwarm had left in their wake. Bodies lay sprawled on the ground, surrounded by pools of spreading red that the earth drank up like a sponge, parts of bodies, wounded men screaming, gun positions shattered, AA guns destroyed. But still men had survived. Here and there men had reached gun positions, leapt into trenches or bunkers, other were running for cover. One soldier knelt in the open and fired his submachinegun at Virtanen’s Sika, the bullets ricocheting of the armour, some hitting the gunshields. One hit Virtanen, exploding the back of his head outwards, spraying Immonen with bits of brain and skull. Immonen, busy firing his guns, didn’t notice. Virtanen collapsed limply onto the floor of his Sika without a sound. Uusitalo looked down at him, stunned. It was the first time he’d seen death up close and personal. The Russian died a second later, cut to pieces by the 12.7mm rounds from Immonen’s guns, but it was a second too late for Virtanen, who was already dead. The Sikas of Lammio’s joukkue dealt out death wholesale to the Russian soldiers who, moments before, had been lazing in the sun. And dealing out death, they passed on, charging madly for the bridge. One of Lammio’s Sika’s was hit. Russian machinegun bullets at close range from somewhere must have penetrated the side armour. The Sika slowed, ran off the road, crashed into a house and stopped. Someone inside was still shooting, kept on shooting even after the Sika had crashed.

Virtanen’s Sika led the charge onto the bridge. Niskela had taken over command, yelling instructions even as he fired the twin Lahti’s. A Russian ran out of the kiosk at the near end of the bridge, aimed his rifle at the oncoming Sika and fired. The bullet sparked off the front armour. The gunners ignored him, busy firing at Red Army soldiers taking cover in the sandbagged revetments around the AA guns on the far side of the river. The Sika ran the Russian down, thumping into him as he tried to dive out of the way at the last second, failing, falling under the Sika which jolted as one of the front wheels passed over him. The Sika jolted again as the rear wheel went over him. Uusitalo almost fell onto Virtanen’s body, caught himself in time. Virtanen’s Sika crashed through the wooden barrier at the foot of the bridge, roared across the single lane of concrete, the rest of Lammio’s joukkue following, guns firing short controlled bursts at any Russian soldiers in sight, the twin Lahti 20mm’s hammering away at the sandbagged gun positions and at the bunkers. From their position at the forest edge, the four 76mm guns were already firing at the two concrete blockhouses. A bullet rang of the hull of Hakkarainen’s Sika as he watched Lammio’s joukkue rumble across the bridge, guns firing quick bursts. A Russian soldier ran out of the kiosk on the far side of the bridge, waving his empty hands wildly in the air. He was running towards the Sikas rather than away from them. Not that it mattered much. A burst from a machinegun cut him down before he’d taken more than half a dozen steps, throwing him to the ground in a spray of red. Just one more body among many.

Even after the pounding they’d taken and with all the fire being directed at them, the Russian resistance was growing. A Russian machinegun began to chatter from the nearest blockhouse, fortunately not doing any damage that Hakkarainen could see, although that meant nothing in the heat of battle. In a move that was as perfect as if it had been rehearsed a thousand times, one of the two attached flamethrower half-tracks roared past Hakkarainen’s Sika, treads throwing back a long roster tail of dirt and gravel, a long tongue of flame licking outwards to envelope the nearest blockhouse. The machinegun stopped. Even over the guns and the engines, Hakkarainen could hear screaming. A figure emerged, running out of the blockhouse entrance, a figure in flames, a blackened caricature of a man, running straight towards his Sika. Beside him, Salo swung his guns, fired a burst but missed. Blackened hands clawed at the hull of the Sika, scrabbled upwards, a black and featureless face, soft as a tar babies, split by a blackened opening surrounded by white teeth, screamed horribly, red cracks appearing through the charred surface, then fell away to writhe on the ground behind them, still screaming. Vanhala’s fist hit the back of Hakkarainen’s head, hard, jolting him. Hakkarainen realized he’d been screaming himself without knowing it, shook himself, shivering. “Saatana,” he gasped. “Saatana, what a way to go.” Vanhala slapped the back of his head. “Snap out of it Boss,” he growled, for just a moment he was no longer the comedian, just a soldier doing his job and making sure his officer did his.

By an effort of will, Hakkarainen did just that. His Sika was almost across the bridge by the time he’d focused back on the battle. Hietanen’s ryhmää.had passed through Lammio’s joukkue and was on the causeway heading for the forest on the far side, the rest of Kariluoto’s joukkue in hot pursuit. Koskela’s joukkue was mopping up the rear, moving through the Russian positions behind them, finishing off any resistance, clearing out any holdouts, some of the men dismounting, clearing sandbagged positions with Suomis and grenades. Lammio’s joukkue was fighting hard, meeting the most resistance, the blockhouse on the far side still had men inside and they were fighting back. Nobody could fault the courage of the Red Army soldiers. A group of screaming civilians, at least they were men and women and they weren’t in uniforms, ran out of one of the houses, straight into a burst of 12.7mm rounds that left them scattered on the ground. The 12.7mm rounds at this range simply tore bodies apart, fragmenting them in a spray of flesh and blood and bone whenever they hit. A single woman was left standing, armless, her face a mask of shock until another burst left her headless and threw her backwards onto the dirt. The Russians in the blockhouse broke as the second of the two flamethrower half tracks moved off the bridge towards them. Half a dozen of them bolted from the blockhouse, only to be cut down as they ran. A burst of flame into the blockhouse and all resistance ceased. The screaming continued for some time. Hakkarainen ignored the noise, searched the battlefield with his eyes, but Lammio had everything well in hand.

The guns died away fitfully. Kariluoto called in to report establishing a defensive perimeter inside the forest’s edge on the far side of the clear ground with no enemy in sight. Hakkarainen felt a surge of elation as he got onto the RT and released the Tyrmääjä schwarm leader, then ordered the Kettus and 76’s to move up in support of Kariluoto while Lammio and Koskela’s men conducted a sweep around each side of the bridge and secured the positions. Here and there shots rang out, grenades exploded as the men ensured positions were clear. They’d lost men earlier in the war by failing to take such precautions. A Russian soldier would hide until the last minute and then fire a round as you jumped down into a trench or peered into a bunker to check it was clear. Now, they took no chances. A grenade or a burst from a Suomi went in first, often both. Any Russian survivor (there were very few) without both hands in the air, was shot on sight. Intent to surrender had to be expressed clearly to be accepted. The rules of war on this were clear, and Finland followed the Rules of War strictly, even if the Red Army didn’t. Still, half a dozen prisoners were taken, their faces expressing the shock of survivors of the sudden and overwhelmingly violent attack. The Tyrmääjä schwarm circled their position slowly one last time, then swept off low over the trees, engines powering up as they accelerated away. Hakkarainen reported the successful capture of the bridge to Majuri Sarastie on the pataljoona net as his men were carrying out a final sweep through the Russian positions on the far side of the bridge.
“Hold in place and secure that bridge,” were his orders. “The rest of the pataljoona will move through you. Stay in place until you’re relieved. Divisoona will assign a unit to takeover, after they do, catch up with us. Sarastie Loppu.”

Hakkarainen acknowledged, passed on the instructions, instructed Lammio and Koskela to post guards, sent the two Komppania log trucks up to Kariluoto’s positions to ensure they were topped up with fuel and ammo. Even as he was on the RT issuing instructions, Autio’s komppania was already moving over the bridge. Autio gave Hakkarainen a wave as his command Sika passed by, his leading joukkue already accelerating westwards along the causeway towards the forest and the slope that marked the far side of the valley. Behind Autio’s komppania came pataljoona HQ, then the Second Company commanded by Kapteeni Helminen, then the log vehicles, half a dozen of which peeled off to join Hakkarainen’s Sika. Replenishment got underway immediately. Hakkarainen took his Sumoi from the clip inside the Sika and jumped out, walked over to join Korsumaki by the log vehicles.

Halfway over, a Russian soldier sprang upwards, seemingly from out of the ground, rifle in hand. Hakkarainen snapped into "slow-motion time" and hunter vision. Every event happened slowly and with incredible clarity. It seemed to take forever to swing his Suomi up and round. "____!" He pulled the trigger, the Suomi flashed, but he didn't hear a sound or feel the recoil. The Russian spasmed backward in his death dive, but a second came from behind the first, bayonet-tipped rifle extended and it seemed like there was all the time in the world to step aside and fire another burst, throwing the second Russian backwards. And then half a dozen of his men were there, rifles and Suomis pointing in all directions. Linna dropped a grenade into the hole in the ground the Russians had emerged from. There was an explosion beneath their feet, but nothing else, no sign of any more enemies. Startled by the close encounter, although not his first by any means, Hakkarainen looked around, taking in the carnage that surrounded them. “Make sure we do a thorough sweep,” he said to Korsumaki, who saw to it before moving on to organise the replenishment of the Sikas.

The next pataljoona, the one commanded by Kapteeni Usko Lautsalo, he whom they nicknamed “The Storm of God” began passing through, some of the men waving to Hakkarainen’s men as they passed by, an unending stream of vehicles. Hakkarainen found himself wishing he had a nickname like that, a thought that was forgotten as quickly as it occurred to him. Even as the komppania scrambled to top up their fuel tanks and replace ammunition, an AA battery pulled of the road and began to set up in the destroyed Russian positions, clearing the Russian guns out of the way, moving the bodies to one side, filling sandbags, digging in to protect the bridge from any Russian air attack. Hakkarainen’s medic was busy taking care of casualties. Virtanen was dead. So were two men in the Sika from Lammio’s joukkue that had been shot up. The bodies were wrapped up and put to one side for removal later. Three of the others were injured, an ambulance truck was called forward to take them back. Three men from the crashed Sika were untouched, Hakkarainen reassigned them. The crashed Sika wouldn’t be going anywhere fast, the radio, guns and ammo were stripped out, thrown into one of the Log trucks. Guns were stripped down and cleaned, the men working fast. An artillery battery, four of the 105’s with a long chain of ammunition trucks, joined them, swinging into position and setting up off to one side with ready ammunition. Then an infantry company, dismounting from the trucks that carried them, moving to take up guard positions on the causeway and around the bridge. A panzer pataljoona moved past, tanks, half-tracks, tracked infantry carriers, trucks, all rumbling slowly across the bridge, passing them by in a growing haze of dust and exhaust fumes. More infantry, more guns, an endless line of vehicles that never ceased. Hakkarainen worked with his men, they only stopped when a Mobile Field Kitchen unit attached to the Artillery Battery rolled up and the girls jumped out, setup and began serving food to all and sundry. Hakkarainen ordered his men to stop and grab something hot while they had the chance, who knew when the next opportunity to eat would be. After they’d eaten, they would move out. “It’s that australialainen kangaroo stuff again,” the young Lotta said apologetically as she filled his mess tin. Hakkarainen laughed.

Off to one side, Uusitalo sat staring blankly at his messtin. He was finding it hard to eat. Kersantti Virtanen was dead, in command and talking one minute, dead the next. Maybe it could happen to him. Maybe it would be him next. He shivered, wondering why the others seemed to be so unaffected. Beside him, Järvenpää stopped eating for a moment.
“Hei Uusitalo,” he said, “could have been any one of us bought it, Virtanen’s time was up, that’s all.”
He reached into a pocket and pulled out a flask, passed it to Uusitalo.
“Drink this, it’ll help.”
Uusitalo took the flask, lifted it and drank blindly, then choked and coughed and splutter, tears running from his eyes as liquid fire burned its way down his throat.
“Perkele,” he gasped when he could breathe and talk, “what the hell is that?”
Järvenpää laughed. “My Dad’s moonshine,” he said. “Keep it around for medicinal purposes don’t we Niskala?”
Niskala grimaced. “Needed a lot of that stuff in Spain, Uusitalo,” he said. “Just like now.”
Uusitalo suddenly realized it was the first time since he’d joined them that they’d called him by his name, not calling him “newbie.” He’d survived his first real battle and suddenly he felt like he belonged. He looked at the flask in his hand. Raised it.
“Here’s to Kersantti Virtanen,” he said.
He swallowed and passed the flask back to Järvenpää as the liquid fire burned its way down. Järvenpää looked at him gravely, said nothing, drank from the flask and passed it to Niskala. The flask made its way round the men and back to Järvenpää, who slipped it back in his pocket.
“Hop to eating your bloody kangaroo, Uusitalo” he said, “and stop pissing around.”

Next: The Storm of God
ex Ngāti Tumatauenga ("Tribe of the Maori War God") aka the New Zealand Army
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CanKiwi2
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Re: What If-Finland had been prepared for the Winter War?

Postby CanKiwi2 on 28 Jan 2013 17:37

An excerpt from “Kalmaralli: Puna-Armeijan tuhoaminen syvärin rintamalla, Elokuu 1940” (“Death-dance: The Destruction of the Red Army on the Syvari Front, August 1940”) by Robert Brantberg, Gummerus, 1985.

“…….As we have seen in the preceding chapter, the turning point in the fighting along the Syvari from the defensive to the offensive was the establishment of a bridgehead across the Syvari and the subsequent capture of Lodeynoye Pole by the British Commonwealth Division, the xth Infantry Division and units of the Parajaegers in late July. This bridgehead was then expanded rapidly as reinforcements poured across the Syvari and the battle was carried to the enemy. The rapid expansion of the bridgehead and the equally rapid breakout into the Red Army’s rear appeared to have taken the Soviet Command by surprise. The destruction of Timoshenko’s Headquarters by an Osasto Nyrkki unit, together with the accompanying death of Timoshenko, left the Red Army headless between Lakes Laatoka and Aanisen. It was in fact some days before a replacement was appointed and in this period, the Army of Eastern Karelia exploited the lack of direction and coordination to the full (this was also substantially aided by Osasto Nyrkki attacks on Corps and Divisional Headquarters together with interdiction strikes on Red Army logistical units by the Ilmavoimat).

To the east and west of the Syvari bridgehead, armeijan divisons worked to pin the Red Army units facing them in place while breakout units of the Karjalan Armeija (Army of Karelia), commanded by Kenraali Erik Heinrichs, moved the offensive deep into the Red Army’s rear. Repeated Finnish artillery and air strikes shattered Soviet resistance at selected points whilst Ilmavoimat CAS aircraft made any attempt at daytime movement a hazardous venture for Soveit forces. Red Army units were largely restricted to attempting movement during the limited hours of the short summer nights – and without effective coordination such movements often ended chaotically. Orders to the Red Army to hold on to their defensive positions at all costs and not to retreat cost the Red Army dearly. Added to this was the NKVD penchant for executing Red Army officers who attempted to use their intelligence and fight tactical withdrawals rather then standing firm and being annihilated. The Osasto Nyrkki units that operated behind Soviet lines dressed in NKVD uniforms, speaking fluent Russian, and carrying out their own selective execution programs were more or less the icing on the cake for the Red Army, so to speak.

On the 31st of July, Finnish reconnaissance flights resulted in the identification of a widening gap between the Red Army’s xx Corps to the north, abutting Lake Laatoka, and the xx Corps to the East. This was the opportunity Kenraali Heinrichs had been holding his strategic reserves in waiting for and immediate exploitation was ordered. Armeijan Infantry Divisions poured into the gap and proceeded to roll up the Red Army flanks in either direction while a task force made up of the 21st Pansaaridivisoona (under the command of Kenraaliluutnantii Ruben Lagus), 2 Polish Divisions and a Finnish infantry Division moved southwards on what is now Highway P36, reaching and capturing the town of Tikhvin on the 5th of August. Heinrich’s objective was twofold – the primary objective was nothing less than the annihilation of all Red Army forces between Lakes Laatoka and Aanisen. The secondary objective was a “deep penetration” raid towards (and opportunity permitting, into) Leningrad, threatening the birthplace of the Bolshevik Revolution itself. The strategic objective was to pressure the USSR to the negotiating table by demonstrating that the Finnish military could, after ten months of war and the amassing of enormous Soviet military manpower, crush the massive Red Army offensive that had been launched and inflict severe damage on one of the USSR’s major cities, even to the extent of capturing Leningrad so it so choose. In the event, the primary and secondary objectives would be achieved whilst the strategic objective would be a complete fail.

Following the capture of Tihvinä (Tikhvin) on the 5th of August, temporary defensive positions were hastily established in a large semi-circle around the town, taking advantage of low-lying swamps to the south. The 21st was ordered to turn north and west and move as rapidly as possible towards the town of Volkhov, with it’s bridges across the Volkhov River. The 22nd Pansaaridivisoona was to move behind the 21st in support. On reaching Volkhov, the 22nd together with a number of Infantry Divisions strung out behind would continue north to Lake Laatoka where the encirclement of the Red Army XX Corps would be completed, after which the intent was to completely and rapidly destroy these encircled units. Meanwhile, the 21st and further supporting units would cross the Volkhov and lunge towards an almost defenceless Leningrad. Infantry Divisions would establish a front stretching from Tikhvin to Volkhov along the eastern bank of the Volkhov river and hold this for as long as it took to accomplish the mission. While this was occurring, the large electricity generation station, hydroelectric dam and aluminium plant in Volkhoc would be destroyed. Needless to say, “Booty” units would be assigned to transfer all useful military and non-military material from Soviet supply dumps and battlefields to the Finnish rear-line positions behind the Syvari.

Those were the Plans. Needless to say, plans and reality have a way of diverging. We will now look at what actually happened over the next two weeks. ………

An excerpt from “Ukkosvyöry: Tuulispäänä Leningradiin” (“Avalanche of Thunder: Whirlwind Ride to Leningrad” – an account of the part played by Rynnäkkökomppania Hakkarainen in the raid on Leningrad, August 1940

In the end, it was the next morning before Traffic Control allowed Hakkarainen’s Komppania to enter the non-stop stream of vehicles. By then, the whole of the 21st was far ahead of them. Hakkarainen’s orders were to proceed towards Tihvinä, which was reportedly expected to be captured within a day or two as the 21st was meeting very little resistance. The rest of the day they were part of a long line of vehicles that seemed to stop and start at random, jerking forward, then slowing, sometimes stopping, then dashing madly forwards before stopping again. All around Hakkarainen’s Komppania, units from other Divisions were being directed south and north, east and west. The mood was electric. Men were tense but it was with the tense excitement of anticipated victory, not the tenseness of those grim days on the defence at the start of the war. News percolated through the units like wildfire, each new victory, each battle, bringing a new flood of rumours. Hakkarainen did his best to monitor the radio net as they moved down the road, but from the coded battle chatter, it was just as hard to identify what was happening, or what had happened as it was from the flood of rumours that seemed to move faster than the vehicles. The first real news they got was when they finally reached Tihvinä two days later.

A day after it had been captured, the small Russian town was a hive of activity. Infantry Divisions were pouring in along the road Hakkarainen’s men had played their part in opening, then heading straight out again to establish defensive lines to the south and west in an extended arc. Ilmavoimat construction units were already establishing an airfield on the outskirts of the town, as they drove past Hakkarainen could see revetments being built to protect the aircraft. Already, fighter and close air support aircraft were landing and taking off, combat missions were being flown. At the Town Hall, which had been commandeered for use as a military headquarters, Hakkarainen and the CO’s of his attachments finally managed to get in touch with the 21st and receive updated movement orders. The 21st was halfway to Volkhov, and moving fast. Orders were to catch up as quickly as possible. To Hakkarainen’s disappointment, his attachments were now detached and sent on their own way. No more Bantams, no more Kettu’s, no more half-tracks. Hakkarainen was disappointed to loose all that firepower. The 76’s and the flamethrower half-tracks in particular. He shook hands with the CO’s of the attachments, thanked them for their work, wished them well. He hardly knew them, they’d only been fighting together for a couple of days, but it was as if one was saying goodbye to family members.

By the time he’d made his way back to his Komppania, the men were alive with news of the war. “To hear Rxxx tell it, the Russkies are on the verge of folding,” Linna said to Hakkarainen as he returned. The men were mostly sitting around beside their Sikas gossiping and eating or sleeping or smoking some of their cigarettes. Linna offered Hakkarainen a Karjala. “The Lotta’s are already here, setup a Canteen in the building over there. One beer per man they gave us, we saved yours Sir.”

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Image sourced from: http://typophile.com/files/karjala_33_4_6_3498.png
Karjala Beer - “We’ll take Karjala back, one Karjala at a time!”

Hakkarainen flipped the cap of the bottle. “Kiitos Linna,” he said gratefully. Then, raising the bottle, “We’ll take Karjala back one Karjala at a time.” Linna grinned. A couple of the others laughed and raised their bottles in turn. Lahtinen looked doubtful. “This ain’t Karjala, Kapteeni.”
Hakkarainen drank. God, it tasted good. It was even cold. He grinned at Lahtinen. “Well, maybe not strictly Karjala, but all this land here used to be Finnish a thousand years ago.”
Vanhala put his head in his hands and groaned. “You’ve done it now Lehtinen, didn’t you know the Kapteeni went to University, he’s a full-fledged member of the Academic Karelia Society, we’re all gonna get a lecture on that Greater Finland shit.”
Hakkarainen laughed, took another drink from the bottle.
“No shit?” Linna said, sounding interested. A couple of the others drew closer.
“Here we go,” Vanhala groaned. Still, he didn’t walk away. Hakkarainen kept hold of his Karjala while pulling a large-scale map from his pocket.
“And thus the lecture begins,” he stated. “All those who wish not to be educated may drink elsewhere……”

Next: “And thus the lecture begins,” whilst Kapteeni Hakkarainen attracts the attention of one of the All Highest
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Re: What If-Finland had been prepared for the Winter War?

Postby CanKiwi2 on 30 Jan 2013 01:11

Yipes, done it again. Take a look at this...
http://allthingsfinnish.tumblr.com/page/21

And then a good way down this post.....
http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic.php?f=59&t=172747&start=105#p1586217

Not having used tumblr,not sure how to contact this poster and tell them its a bluey
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Re: What If-Finland had been prepared for the Winter War?

Postby CanKiwi2 on 01 Feb 2013 03:12

CanKiwi2 wrote:Yipes, done it again. Take a look at this...
http://allthingsfinnish.tumblr.com/page/21

And then a good way down this post.....
http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic.php?f=59&t=172747&start=105#p1586217

Not having used tumblr,not sure how to contact this poster and tell them its a bluey


OK, saw the photo had been removed from the tumblr site. Thanks whoever, really appreciate that. I like writing this stuff but I hate to see it screw up real history!
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Re: What If-Finland had been prepared for the Winter War?

Postby CanKiwi2 on 01 Feb 2013 16:25

“And thus the lecture begins,” wherein Kapteeni Hakkarainen expounds on Greater Finland, Finno-Ugrians and Finno-Ugrian Linguistics

“Suuri Suomi - Uraliin asti!” Lahtinen said ironically. (“Greater Finland - to the Urals and beyond”).
Hakkarainen grinned. “You think you’re joking Lahtinen.” He flipped open his large-scale map of northern Russia and Finland open and held it up against the side of the Sika. Passing his Karjala to Linna for safekeeping (he hoped), he took a marker pencil from his pocket and began to rough in an outline on the map.

“Well, you all know that Karelia as far as the White Sea and down to Lake Aanisen and the Syvari is Karelian, and they’re really Finnish too, except the Bolsheviks managed to hang on to that part of Finland even though the people there are as Finnish as we are. And Estonia, well, most of you have met Estonians, they’re pretty much the same as us and their language is as close as makes no difference. Then there’s the Finnmark region of Norway, which is really Finnish – although after we boot the Germans out of Norway we’ll probably end up giving it back to the Norwegians, and the Tornedalians in northern Sweden. And then there’s Ingria, the province around Pietari, that was Finnish too up until the Russians took it from us. And even after that, back in 1918 around 25% of the population of St Petersburg was Finnish, and so was about 80% of the rural population of the St Petersburg Oblast around St Petersburg – not too surprising when you remember that the Russians only stole it from us back at the end of the Isoviha, the Greater Wrath which ended with the Russo-Swedish Treaty of Nystad in 1721, but by them Peter the Great had already started building St Petersburg. Now the original people that lived in Ingria were the Izhorians and the Votes, who are both Finnish-speaking tribes, their language is pretty close to Karelian.

Now the Votes are the oldest known ethnic group in Ingria, from what we know they’re probably descended from an Iron-age population that lived in north-eastern Estonia and western Ingria. The earliest literary reference to Votes by their traditional name come from Russian sources from the Middle-Ages, where Votes are referred to as Voď. They were previously considered Chudes, and Lake Peipus, part of the Votian homeland, is called Chudsko ozero, meaning "Lake of Chudes" in Russian. The Estonian historian Edgar Saks has identified the Budini, ancient people described by Herodotus who back then lived in the Ukraine, as Votes. Herodotus describes the Budini as fair-eyed and red-haired, and living by hunting in the dense forests.” Hakkareinen paused for a second to gather his thoughts.

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Image sourced from: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/e ... rtrait.jpg
Edgar Saks January 25, 1910 Tartu – April 11, 1984, Montreal) was an Estonian statesman, amateur historian and author. He was Estonian Minister of Public Education in exile from May 8, 1971 until his death. His book The Estonian Vikings: a Treatise on Finno-Ugric Viking Activities describes the ancient history of Estonians and other Finno-Ugric peoples living on the shores of the Baltic Sea. His etymological works provide information about prehistoric Estonian settlement in Northern Europe. In Esto-Europa, Saks finds Baltic-Finnic influences in several regions of Europe. In Esto-Europa, Saks finds Baltic-Finnic influences in several regions of Europe. Constructing Estonian etymologies for many toponyms (incl. Warszawa and Sumer), Saks reasoned there must have been extensive prehistoric Finnic influence not only in Europe, but also in neighbouring regions.

“So there we have Greater Finland as of right now – our natural borders basically include everything north of a line from the White Sea to Lake Aanisen, along the Syvari and Neva Rivers to the Gulf of Finland, Ingria around St Petersburg, Estonia, the Finnmark in Norway and the Torne Valley in Northern Sweden.”
Lahtinen winced theatrically. “You mean we’re gonna have to fight the Swedes and Norwegians as well as the damn Russians?”
Hakkareinen smiled. “Somehow, I don’t think we’ll be doing that, the Russians are enough, but this is what it looks like on the map anyhow.”
He rapidly roughed in the areas that he’d described on his map.

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Hakkarainen rapidly roughed in an outline of Greater Finland on the map

“This is what the politicians and the Academic Karelia Society are talking about when they talk about Greater Finland, they mean all the land around our borders that’s lived in by Finnish-speaking peoples. But there’s a lot more to it than that. There are lots more Finnish people out there, they’re related to us, and their languages are Finnish as well. You all know back in 1917 we got out from under the Russians, right?”
Even Lahtinen nodded agreement.
“And the Karelians didn’t,” young Uusitalo of all people joined in unexpectedly. “They didn’t have any sense of national Finnish identity, so when we were fighting in the Heimosodat, the Kinship Wars, to try and help them free themselves from the Russians and join is, they didn’t join in.”
“They sure got to you at school didn’t they,” Lahtinen looked disgusted.
Uusitalo looked offended. Hakkareinen jumped in before an argument started.

“Well, it went back before that,” he said. “Back when we were fighting the Independence War against the Bolsheviks, the Germans were helping us, and the British were worried that we’d cut off supplies coming down from Murmansk on the railway line, so they sent troops in and paid a lot of Karelians to fight us, when all we really wanted to do was free them from the damn Russians. Us Finns, we got caught in the middle between the Germans and the British.”
Lahtinen looked like he was about to argue that point to, so Hakkareinen continued hastily. “But the reasons are all for the historians to argue over now, the point is that all that part of Karelia stayed as part of Russia, along with our Karelian kinfolk, which was a tragedy for all of us, Finns and Karelians. I mean, you all remember Bobi Sivén?”
His listeners nodded. Bobi Sivén was a well-known name in Finland.

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Hans Håkon Christian "Bobi" Sivén (18 April 1899 London - 12 January 1921 Repola, Eastern Karelia) was a Finnish nationalist activist, a fighter for national unification of the Finnish peoples of Finland and Karelia and had been the head of Repola County. Sivén had become perhaps the first martyr to the Greater Finland ideology of the Finnish interwar period and a hero to Finnish nationalist youth. After the end of the Heimosodat and the Tartu Peace Treaty that fixed the borders between Finland and Russia and put an end to the Finnish support for the annexation of Karelia to Finland, he shot himself in protest. He was 21 years old. His suicide had a great spiritual impact on the Finnish Nationalist movement, he was looked on by many as an ideal and almost mythical role model for young people and a part of his legacy was the establishment in 1922 of the Academic Karelia Society, who would annually mourn the signing of the Treaty of Tartu by marching to his grave. At Sivén’s funeral, Marshal Mannerheim himself laid a wreath on his grave.

The Academic Karelia Society’s initiation ceremony involved among other things kissing the flag of the AKS, within which was sown the bullet that Bobi Siven had shot himself with. His older brother, Lieutenant Colonel Paavo Susitaival (“Wolf’s Path”) was also an activist, had belonged to the Lapua Movement, been a leading figure in the Mäntsälä rebellion, and on the outbreak of the Winter War he was a Patriotic People's Movement (IKL) Member of Parliament. He was, one of three MP’s who would go on active service in the Winter War and would command Osasto Susi, another of the Finnish Army’s Special Forces units whom we will soon see more of.


“Well, Sivén, he fought for Karelians to be part of Finland, but what I was aiming to get to saying was that there were other Finnish kinfolk of ours inside Russia that tried to get out from under the Russians as well. Most of you have probably never heard of them but they’re called the Volga Finns, and in 1917-18 they established an independent state in the middle of Russia called Idel-Ural (that’s “Volga-Ural”) which united the Finno-Ugric and Turkic peoples in those areas into their own independent Republic. The Volga Finns, they’re made up of different tribes, there’s three different Mari groups, the Meadow Mari, who live along the left bank of the Volga, the Mountain Mari, who live along the right bank of the Volga, and Eastern Mari, who live in the Bashkortostan republic and altogether there’s about 500,000 of them. We don’t know much about what’s happened to them under the Soviet occupation, but from what Intelligence has been able to find out it’s been pretty bad. Basically, like what we’ve seen in Karelia, the Communists moved a lot of ethnic Russians in to make them a minority in their homeland, then they “fought nationalism” by murdering all the Mari teachers, scientists and artists as well as religious and community leaders. Just like they did in Karelia.

As well as the Mari, there’s also the Mordvins who are split into two groups, the Erzya and the Moksha. There’s around half a million Erzya people and around eight hundred thousand Moksha. Erzya is spoken in the northern and eastern and north-western parts of Mordovia and in parts of Nizhniy Novgorod, Chuvashia, Penza, Samara, Saratov, Orenburg, Ulyanovsk, Tatarstan and Bashkortostan while Moksha is the majority language in the western part of Mordovia. Then there’s the Komi and Udmurt peoples who belong to the Permian branch of the Finno-Ugric language group. Before you ask, the Permic languages, Komi and Udmurt, are related to Finnish and they’re largely spoken in the foothill regions to the west of the Ural Mountains. We think there’s around 550,000 Udmurt people and around 400,000 Komi. Based on linguistic reconstruction, it’s thought that the prehistoric Permians split into these two peoples during the first millennium BC. The Russians began to expand into the Perm region from the 12th century and conquered most of it between around 1470 to 1500. In the 1500s Russian migrants began to move into the region as colonists. They kept on attempting assimilate the Komis and there were several Komi rebellions in protest against Russian rule and the influx of Slav settlers, especially after large numbers of freed Russian serfs arrived in the region from the 1860s.

Russian rule in the area collapsed after the 1917 revolution and the Allied interventionist forces encouraged the Komis to set up their own independent state with the help of political prisoners freed from local penal colonies. After the British and French withdrew in 1919, the Bolsheviks moved back in and took over. We know that in the late 1930s the Communists executed almost all the Komi intelligentsia, for "bourgeois nationalism" just like in Karelia. Same thing with the Udmurts, they live in the Udmurt Oblast and there’s around 550,000 of them according to the Soviet census of 1939, although who knows if you can believe that. What we do know is that the Udmurts are one of the oldest Eastern-Finnish nations in the north-west woodland Urals. There’s also the Khanty and Nentsy people, who are a Ugric branch of the Finno-Ugric language group, making them rather more distant kinfolk of ours, kind of like the Hungarians. The theory is that it was actually from somewhere around here that the Hungarians actually came from and it was when they left here that they settled in what is now Hungary eventually. From what we’ve been able to find out there’s maybe thirty of forty thousand Khanty and Nentsy but they’ve been really marginalised under the Communists, a lot of Russians have been moved in, and again, they’ve been turned into a minority in their own land. Kind of thing we could expect happening to us if we let the damned Russians roll over us.”

Sihvonen looked to one side, spat on the ground. "Pirua ja ryssää vastaan!" (“Against the devil and the Ruskies!”)
Rokka nodded, not saying anything. Lahtinen, who of all the men in the Komppania could have been expected to argue, also said nothing. He too had seen the photos in the newspapers and the descriptions of the mass graves in Karelia that had been uncovered after the liberation. He might have been a Communist sympathizer (some thought a member of the illegal Communist Party, but he fought well so nobody bothered bringing that thought up) but he wasn’t a damned Russian, as he’d pointed out a number of times in the past.
“Where the devil are they on the map?” one of the other men asked. He seemed genuinely interested. Hakkareinen grinned. “Thought you’d never ask,” he said. He fumbled with his map for a moment, then started sketching in an outline, talking as he drew…….
The four maps below show where the different Finno-Ugric people around the Volga and in Western Siberia live. The top map shows the Mari and Morvins, as well as the Komi, while the second map shows the Idel-Ural area and the people that live there in rather more detail. Keep in mind that there are also large numbers of Turkic people in the Idel-Ural area as well, and they’re inter-mingled with our Volga-Finnish kinfolk. The third map shows the location of the Udmurt Oblast and the fourth map shows the Khanty-Mansi “Autonomous Republic” which is where the Khanty and Nentsy people live.

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Image sourced from: http://media.economist.com/sites/defaul ... CXM952.jpg
The Idel-Ural Republic within a map of the Soviet Union, giving an idea of the approximate size and location of the Volga-Finns and Komi people

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Image sourced from: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_85ACsZ2kALY/T ... l+Ural.JPG
Detailed Map of the Idel-Ural area and the people that live there in rather more detail

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Map of Russia showing the Udmurt Region

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Map of Russia showing the location of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Region

“Anyhow,” Hakkareinen continued, “back in 1917 the Komi, Komi-Permyaks, Mari, Mordvans and Udmurts joined up with the Chuvashes, Kalmyks and Tatars. They all got together in Kazan and established an independent Idel-Ural Republic. The main idea was a loose League of Small Finnish-Turkish Nations where they would all be free of the Russians and able to strengthen their own cultural heritage. The Muslim Bashkirs and the Volga Germans joined later in 1917 but sadly, the armed forces of the Idel-Ural Republic were defeated by the Red Army in April 1918. The Czech Legion threw the Bolsheviks out and restored the Republic in the same July but the Bolsheviks managed finally to take them over again by the end of the year. There was another open revolt throughout the Idel-Ural region in 1919-1920 but that was smashed by the Bolsheviks in 1921. They managed to keep a resistance movement going for a few years but our reports say that in 1929 the Cheka managed to infiltrate the Idel-Ural movement and smashed the leadership. They executed several thousand Idel-Ural supporters all over the Volga and Ural regions.

Anyhow, after the Bolsheviks crushed the Republic in 1918, Idel-Ural’s foreign minister, Sadrí Maqsudí Arsal, managed to get to Finland somehow where he got a warm welcome. Arsal had been a representative in the Tsarist Duma where he had stood and defended the right to national self-determination of Finland as well as Finland’s constitutional rights and quite a few Finns back them knew him well, including our Foreign Minister at the time. Arsal went to Estonia and then onto Sweden, Germany and France trying to drum up support but he didn’t get any and he ended up living in Paris and now he’s in Turkey.

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Image sourced from: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/c ... sudov.jpeg
Sadri Maksudi Arsal (1880, near Kazan -1957, Turkey) was in the early 1900s one the leaders of the Russian Tatars national awakening. He was elected to the Russian State Duma. It is from the at area around Kazan that most of the Tatars living in Finland came from, which may explain Maksudin’s interest in things Finnish. He was a versatile writer and lawyer, and as a member of parliament of the Russian State Duma he was also in close contact with the Finns and Finland. As a fifteen-year-old, Maksudi travelled with his elder brother to the Crimea, where he studied Islamic law and learned the basics of the Arabic language. Later, he spent some time in St. Petersburg and also at Leo Tolstoy's house. From there, in August 1901 Maksudi traveled to Constantinople and then Paris. At the end of 1902 he was admitted to the University of Paris Law Faculty, where he earned a Master of Law degree. At the same time, he studied philosophy, literature and sociology at the Sorbonne. By the time of his last course, he was already a lecturer on Islam in Russia. In early August 1906 Maksudi returned to Russia via Berlin. At Nizhny Novgorod, he joined the Islamic Constitutional Party and played a large part in organizing the Party to function effectively. He was elected by the party in the county representative, but he soon got a more important measure of confidence, because he was elected in 1907 Kazan province Turkish representative to another valtakunnanduumaan.

Representative of the State Duma, once Maksudi received a large measure of confidence, as the Duma elected secretary and five deputy secretary; Turkish representative came into the first Assistant Secretary duties. When the second valtakunnanduuma scattered Maksudi was again chosen the former constituency representative in the third Duma in 1908. A member of the Duma, he strongly defended Russian Turkish rights as well as strongly supporting the rights of Finnish self-government. He presented one case, even a protest on behalf of Finland. In 1917, after the Bolsheviks proclaimed the sovereignty of all nations, delegates from the Idel-Ural area met and elected Arsal as the Chairman. After the Bolshevik’s suppressed the Republic, Arsal was forced to escape to Finland in 1918. From Finland he continued on to the 1919 Paris Peace Conference, where he attempted to rouse interest and support for the independence of the Idel-Ural Republic. The victorious powers, however, were not interested. Arsal then worked at the University of the Sorbonne, as a Professor of History. A few years later the new Turkish State invited him to Ankara University as a law professor. In Turkey Arsal also served as member of parliament for three electoral periods. Arsal was well-versed in the history of Finland, the Kalevala and the Finnish language. In his old age he wished to visit Finland again but before he could achieve this wish, he died in Istanbul February 1957.


Hakkareinen paused. “So over around the Volga and the Urals, there’s almost three million Volga Finns and Komi people, almost as many as there are Finns in Finland. And they all speak languages related to Finnish, part of what’s called the Finno-Ugric family of languages. But if we go back a thousand years, it looks even more different.”
He began to sketch again. “This here is an approximate ethno-linguistic map of European Russia in the 9th century: The five Volga Finnic groups of the Merya, Mari, Muromians, Meshchera and Mordvins are shown as surrounded by the Slavs to the west, there’s the Chudes, who are the Estonians, in what’s now Estonia, the (Finnic) Veps to the northwest, the (Finnic) Permians to the northeast and the (Turkic) Bulgars and Khazars to the southeast and south. We can see from this map that much of what is now classified as the Russian heartland was in fact Finnish, with the Slav’s moving up from the South. Now the Mari and the Mordvins still exist, but the Merya, Muromians and Meshchera are now extinct.”

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Image sourced from: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/c ... an-map.png
Approximate ethno-linguistic map of European Russia in the 9th century: The five Volga Finnic groups of the Merya, Mari, Muromians, Meshchera and Mordvins are shown as surrounded by the Slavs to the west, the (Finnic) Veps to the northwest, the (Finnic) Permians to the northeast and the (Turkic) Bulghars and Khazars to the southeast and south. The (Finnic) Chudes of Estonia are also shown. We can see from this map that much of what is now classified as the Russian heartland was in fact Finnish.

“Now, how do we know all of this,” Hakkareinen continued……
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Re: What If-Finland had been prepared for the Winter War?

Postby John Hilly on 12 Feb 2013 17:33

I accidentally found out that General Paavo Talvela, unlike other regular officers, was an oath member of the AKS.
He might have been joined during 1919-1922, when he was not in active duty or after 1929, when he resigned from the army.

With best,
J-P
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Re: What If-Finland had been prepared for the Winter War?

Postby CanKiwi2 on 12 Feb 2013 18:04

John Hilly wrote:I accidentally found out that General Paavo Talvela, unlike other regular officers, was an oath member of the AKS.
He might have been joined during 1919-1922, when he was not in active duty or after 1929, when he resigned from the army.

With best,
J-P


Many thx J-P, that's going to work out really well a couple of posts in the future. A senior officer in the AKS works out well for Hakkareinen :D

Apologies that my next post is taking so long. I am heads down in the Paleolithic era, genetic analysis of early european populations, paleolinguistics, the origins of uralic languages and assorted other stuff that is taxing my brain cells. A lot of this stuff is NOT written for the layman!!!!! Should manage to get it together in the next week or so tho.
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Re: What If-Finland had been prepared for the Winter War?

Postby CanKiwi2 on 15 Feb 2013 14:19

Okay, the following post(s) are going to be a bit of a digression from the previous “action” sequences. Using Hakkareinen as the vehicle, so to speak, what you’re going to read is more or less a summary of the “current state” of the research into the origins of the Finno-Ugrians. As always, once I started digging, I realised I’d bitten off a far bigger mouthful than I anticipated and it’s taken me far longer than I planned to write this up – nothing new there. Certainly I learnt a bit more than I bargained on when I started putting words in Hakkareinen’s mouth! So ignore the historical anomaly for the moment! There’s no way Hakkareinen would know most of this circa 1940, but I thought it was pretty interesting. It will have no real relevance to the plot going forward so don’t be looking for any ASB’s here, it’s an info-dump pure and simple.

Progress in the field of linguistics, genetic studies of the origins of human populations and paleoarcheology is at times rapid and material in books tends to be superceded rapidly. Paleo Europeans, “Old Europeans”, the origins of groups such as the Finno-Ugrians, Basques and indeed, even the Indo-Europeans and the origins of languages are subjects on which there is ongoing debate, with theories being put forward and debated, with no real consensus reached. Even the genetic studies which throw so much light on early human migrations open more new questions than they seem to answer. Finno-Ugrian origins are a hotly debated topic within the small group that’s interested, and there’s a wild range of sources on the internet for the content of the following posts. Other information is sourced from various scholarly papers published and available or referenced on the internet, some generally accepted and some rather more controversial (amongst which are the theories put forward in the 1990s by Kalevi Wiik, professor emeritus of phonetics at the University of Turku – altho rather more recent analyses of mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA frequencies would seem to support Wiik’s).

Anyhow, none of this is made up, all of it’s based on published sources although I have more or less “cherry-picked” my sources based on theories that seem to make sense to me (and I make no bones about it, I’m interested in this subject but make no pretence to any expertise – so if you know more than me, feel free to debate). I have amalgamated and summarised in my own words some of the information that’s out there so what you’re reading is my take based on what I’ve read in the last few weeks. I’ve tried to stay away from the more outlying hypothesis, but in some cases these are so intriguing that I’ve included them in my writeup. I’ve listed a few of my sources below, there are more references here and there in the post(s) below and when you start to search, there’s a lot of differing information online. Read, enjoy and I hope you find it interesting.

Some of the information and maps below are sourced from Osmo Joronen’s website, http://uralica.com/ - content and maps are reused with Osmo’s permission (thanks Osmo – I really appreciate that). Please do visit his site – there’s a wealth of historical information there on Finland, the Finnish people, Finnish history, the Winter and Continuation Wars, you name it.

Also http://www.sciencedaily.com has a great deal of information on genetic studies on early European populations – some of which I have summarized here. Fascinating stuff that seems to support what were viewed two decades ago as rather radical and completely unsupported theories. Gotta love science!

“The Origin of the Baltic-Finns from the Physical Anthropological Point of View” by Markku Niskanen, University of Oulu, Finland (http://www.mankindquarterly.org/samples/niskanenbalticcorrected.pdf) was also very useful as a guide. The author provides a comprehensive analysis of the physical anthropology of the Finns and Saami, comparing them with other Scandinavian peoples and contrasting them genetically with the Mongoloid peoples of Asia, notwithstanding the affinities which link the Finnish language with the Uralic and to a lesser extent the Altaic languages. He concludes that both the Finns and the Saami are genetically Caucasoid or European, and that the Finns especially are closely akin to the other North European peoples of Scandinavia.

I have also sourced information and maps from the website of Andres Pääbo, http://www.paabo.ca/uirala/index.html. Some of the content on very early proto-Finno-Ugric peoples is largely taken from Andres site and is, need it be said, theory rather than proven historical fact.

For a good look at “sewn” boats and the maritime history of the north, this site was quite helpful - http://www.fotevikensmuseum.se/sewnboat/ and the site provides a lot of other useful links.

For Karelian petroglyphs, both on Lake Onega and the White Sea, there’s no one “easy to reference” source. Sites that I sourced information from include:
http://www.sarks.fi/fa/PDF/FA27_89.pdf and http://www.krc.karelia.ru/section.php?plang=e&id=165 (perhaps the best summary overall)

….. and again, a lot of the material here is very much post-WW2 research, some of it very recent indeed, so again, please ignore the historical anomaly with regard to Hakkareinen and his coverage of this subject (and the photo’s – he certainly wouldn’t have had those to hand either…). And once we’re through this little digression, its back to the serious stuff – the Ukkosvyöry!!!!!

Archaeological evidence confirms that Homo sapiens first settled in Europe between 40,000 and 35,000 BC during a relatively warm spell in the Weichsel Glacial Stage. These early settlers presumably originated from common genetic stock. Between 20,000 and 16,000 BC a period of extreme cold forced settlers back southwards and from the available evidence, Central Europe was depopulated. During this time, a substantial proportion of the world's water was tied up in the continental glaciers during the Ice Age. As the sea level was much lower than it is today, expansive tracts of land which now lie underwater were once the site of coastal settlements. The North Sea Continent between England and Denmark is a case in point: underwater finds prove that this region was the site of human settlements in the late stages of the Ice Age.

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Image sourced from: http://www.iceagenow.com/Europe_During_Last_Ice_Age.gif
Extent of Scandinavian Ice Sheet during the last Ice Age

Note that there is some debate about the relative extent of the Ice Sheet over this area and later post will have a few rather more detailed maps of the extent of the ice sheet and the surrounding glacial lakes.

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Image sourced from: http://donsmaps.com/images28/britainsho ... img269.jpg
Extent of the shoreline in the neighborhood of the British Isles during the last Ice Age, approx. 18,000 BCE – alternative hypothesis. Note that the ice sheet shown superimposed on Britain is much smaller here than above.

Now let’s take a quick look at the first migration of early homo sapiens into Europe. The movement of the first modern humans into Asia has been dated at between 80,000 and 60,000 years ago. By 45,000 years ago, or possibly earlier, modern humans had settled Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and Australia (crossing 150 miles of open sea to reach Australia). The modern humans entered Europe around 40,000 years ago, probably via two routes: one from Turkey along the Danube corridor into eastern Europe (keep in mind that at this stage, the Black Sea was a fresh water lake and both it and the Mediterranean were far smaller than they are today), and a second route along the Mediterranean coast. A further route of colonization from Central Asia westwards across the steppe is thought to have taken place in this era also. The steppe at this time was drier and colder than today, but this was possible even 40,000 years ago due to that early invention – clothing.

Clothing use is an important modern behavior that contributed to the successful expansion of humans into higher latitudes and cold climates. Previous research suggests that clothing use originated anywhere between 40,000 and 300,000 years BCE, though there is little direct archaeological, fossil, or genetic evidence to support more specific estimates. Since clothing lice evolved from head louse ancestors once humans adopted clothing, dating the emergence of clothing lice provides a more specific estimate of the origin of clothing use. In “Origin of Clothing Lice Indicates Early Clothing Use by Anatomically Modern Humans in Africa” the authors, Melissa A. Toups, Andrew Kitchen, Jessica E. Light and David L. Reed (see http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/28/1/29.full for the article in full, with links and references) estimate that clothing lice diverged from head louse ancestors at least by 83,000 and possibly as early as 170,000 years ago. Their analysis suggests that the use of clothing likely originated with anatomically modern humans in Africa and reinforces a broad trend of modern human developments in Africa during the Middle to Late Pleistocene. A suite of complex behaviors and technologies associated with modern Homo sapiens, including improved clothing, are credited with facilitating the successful expansion of AMH out of Africa into higher latitudes. Determining when clothing use began is challenging because early clothing (i.e., animal hides) would degrade rapidly, erasing any direct evidence of clothing use from the Late Pleistocene archeological record. The first evidence of tools used to scrape hides appears 780,000 BCE, but these very old dates do not necessarily signify clothing use. Animal hides had other uses besides clothing (e.g., providing shelter), although clothing is thought to be one of the earliest uses for skins. Eyed needles first appear in the archaeological record 40,000 BCE, but these signal the production of more complex clothing (e.g., tailored multilayered garment assemblages), which is undoubtedly a relatively recent innovation. Importantly, the development of clothing likely occurred after humans lost their covering of body hair. Genetic data suggest that body hair was lost approximately 2,000,000 BCE, and an even older date (3,000,000 BCE) was hypothesized for the loss of body hair based on the origin of pubic lice in humans. These studies suggest that clothing use in some form may have evolved anywhere from 40,000 to 3,000,000 BCE, and given the vastness of this time-span, alternative approaches for estimating the origin of clothing use are essential.

Parasites offer an ideal source of alternative data for determining when clothing use first began in hominins. Parasites can provide novel insights into the evolutionary history of their hosts, especially when the hosts exhibit low levels of genetic variation. The parasitic sucking lice of primates (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) have cospeciated with their hosts and track both ancient (e.g., human–chimp split 5-7,000,000 BCE) and recent (e.g., expansion of AMHs 100,000 BCE) events in human evolution. The human louse (Pediculus humanus) is a single species that occurs as two ecological types (head and clothing lice) exhibiting morphological, behavioral, and ecological differences. The loss of human body hair restricted P. humanus to the head, and the subsequent divergence of the two louse types is unlikely to have begun prior to the availability of the new clothing niche. The authors of this study created a model for estimating the divergence of head and clothing lice based on the assumption that an ancestral population (i.e., head lice) diverged at some time into two daughter populations, which then experienced independent rates of exponential growth with migration between populations.

Estimates indicate that a large fraction of the ancestral head louse population initially became clothing lice, perhaps rapidly exploiting new niche space. The posterior probability distribution for the head and clothing louse divergence time is characterized by a mode (i.e., the single estimate with the highest posterior probability) of 83,000 BCE and a median value of 170,000 BCE. During the latter part of the Middle Pleistocene (e.g., 83–170,000 BCE), archaic hominins lived in cold climates in Eurasia, whereas H. sapiens was still in Africa. Whether these archaic hominins had clothing is unknown because they left no clothing louse descendents that we can sample among living humans. All modern clothing lice are confined to a single mitochondrial clade that shows a contemporaneous population expansion with modern humans. Therefore, we are left to conclude that regular clothing use must have occurred in H. sapiens at least by 83,000 BCE and possibly as early as 170,000 BCE. Interestingly, the indicated appearance of clothing as early as 170,000 BCE corresponds to the rapid onset of an ice age that would have caused cold stress for populations living outside the tropics and could have led to the initial use of clothing by modern humans. This estimate suggests that one of the technologies necessary for successful dispersal into colder climates was already available to AMH prior to their emergence out of Africa. Thus we can see that the exploitation of cold climatic areas by early humans is entirely within the realms of possibility. Archaeological evidence certainly suggests that humans, whether Neanderthal or Cro-Magnon, reached sites in Arctic Russia by 40,000 years ago.

The genetic history of Europe can be inferred from the patterns of genetic diversity across continents and time. The primary data to develop historical scenarios coming from sequences of mitochondrial, Y-chromosome and autosomal from modern populations and, if available, from ancient DNA. According to Cavalli-Sforza's work, all non-African populations are more closely related to each other than to Africans; supporting the hypothesis that all non-Africans descend from a single old-African population. The genetic distance from Africa to Europe (16.6) was found to be shorter than the genetic distance from Africa to East Asia (20.6), and much shorter than that from Africa to Australia (24.7). He explains: “...both Africans and Asians contributed to the settlement of Europe, which began about 40,000 years ago. It seems very reasonable to assume that both continents nearest to Europe contributed to its settlement, even if perhaps at different times and maybe repeatedly. It is reassuring that the analysis of other markers also consistently gives the same results in this case. Moreover, a specific evolutionary model tested, i.e., that Europe is formed by contributions from Asia and Africa, fits the distance matrix perfectly. In this simplified model, the migrations postulated to have populated Europe are estimated to have occurred at an early date (30,000 years ago), but it is impossible to distinguish, on the basis of these data, this model from that of several migrations at different times. The overall contributions from Asia and Africa were estimated to be around two-thirds and one-third, respectively…”

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Image sourced from: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/c ... Clines.png
Cavalli-Sforza's 1st Principal Component:A cline of genes with highest frequencies in the Near East, spreading to lowest levels northwest

Geneticists agree that Europe is the most genetically homogeneous of all the continents. However, some patterns are discernible. Cavalli-Sforza’s principal component analyses revealed five major clinal patterns throughout Europe, and similar patterns have continued to be found in more recent studies.

(1) A cline of genes with highest frequencies in the Middle East, spreading to lowest levels northwest. Cavalli-Sforza originally described this as faithfully reflecting the spread of agriculture in Neolithic times. This has been the general tendency in interpretation of all genes with this pattern.

(2) A cline of genes with highest frequencies among Finnish and Saami in the extreme north east, and spreading to lowest frequencies in the south west.

(3) A cline of genes with highest frequencies in the area of the lower Don and Volga rivers in southern Russia, and spreading to lowest frequencies in Iberia, Southern Italy, Greece and the areas inhabited by Saami speakers in the extreme north of Scandinavia. Cavalli-Sforza associated this with the spread of Indo-European languages, which he links in turn to a "secondary expansion" after the spread of agriculture, associated with animal grazing.

(4) A cline of genes with highest frequencies in the Balkans and Southern Italy, spreading to lowest levels in Britain and the Basque country. Cavalli-Sforza associates this with "the Greek expansion, which reached its peak in historical times around 1000 and 500 BC but which certainly began earlier"

(5) A cline of genes with highest frequencies in the Basque country, and lower levels beyond the area of Iberia and Southern France. In perhaps the most well-known conclusion from Cavalli-Sforza this weakest of the 5 patterns was described as isolated remnants of the pre-Neolithic population of Europe, "who at least partially withstood the expansion of the cultivators". It corresponds roughly to the geographical spread of rhesus negative blood types. In particular, the conclusion that the Basques are a genetic isolate has become widely discussed, but is also a controversial conclusion.

Cavalli-Sforza also created a phylogenetic tree to analyse the internal relationships among Europeans. He found four major 'outliers'- Basques, Lapps, Finns and Icelanders; a result he attributed to their relative isolation (note: with the exception of the Icelanders, the rest of the groups speak non-Indo-European languages). Greeks and Yugoslavs represented a second group of less extreme outliers. The remaining populations clustered into several groups : "Celtic", "Germanic", "south-western Europeans", "Scandinavians" and "eastern Europeans". New technologies have allowed for DNA haplotypes to be studied directly with increasing speed and accuracy, giving more refined data than was available in the original studies of Cavalli-Sforza.

Looking now at DNA haplotypes, there are three big Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups which account for most of Europe's patrilineal descent.

(1) Haplogroup R1b is common all over Europe but especially common in Western Europe. Nearly all of this R1b in Europe is in the form of the R1b1a2 (2011 name) (R-M269) sub-clade, specifically within the R-L23 sub-sub-clade whereas R1b found in Central Asia, western Asia and Africa tends to be in other clades. It has also been pointed out that outlier types are present in Europe and are particularly notable in some areas such as Sardinia. Haplogroup R1b frequencies vary from highs in western Europe in a steadily decreasing cline with growing distance from the Atlantic: 80-90% (Welsh, Basques, Irish, Scots, north-western Spanish, Portuguese and western French); around 40-60% in most other parts of western Europe. It drops outside this area and is around 20% or less in areas such as southern Italy, Sweden, Poland, the Balkans and Cyprus. R1b remains the most common clade as one moves east to Germany, while farther east in Poland, R1a is more common (see below). In southeastern Europe, R1b drops behind R1a in the area in and around Hungary and Serbia but is more common both to the south and north of this region.

(2) Haplogroup I is found in the form of various sub-clades throughout Europe and is found at highest frequencies in Serbia 48%, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Sweden, Norway, Sardinia, parts of Germany, Romania/Moldova and other countries in the Balkan Peninsula and Scandinavia. This clade is found at its highest expression by far in Europe and may have been there since before the Last Glacial Maximum

(3) Haplogroup R1a, almost entirely in the R1a1a sub-clade, is prevalent in much of Eastern and Central Europe (also in South and Central Asia). For example there is a sharp increase in R1a1 and decrease in R1b1b2 as one goes east from Germany to Poland. It also has a substantial presence in Scandinavia (particularly Norway), and some small pockets in Southern Europe, for example the Pas Valley areas of Venice, and Calabria in Italy. In the Baltic countries R1a frequencies decrease from Lithuania (45%) to Estonia (around 30%).

Putting aside small enclaves there are also several haplogroups apart from the above three, which are most common in certain areas of Europe.

(1) Haplogroup N is common only in the northeast of Europe and in the form of its N1c1 sub-clade reaches frequencies of approximately 60% among Finns and approximately 40% among Lithuanians. This clade is also found far into the east in Siberia, Japan and China.

(2) Haplogroup E1b1b1, mainly in the form of its E1b1b1a2 (E-V13) sub-clade reaches frequencies above 40% around the area of Kosovo. This clade is thought to have arrived in Europe from western Asia either in the later Mesolithic, or the Neolithic.

(3) Haplogroup J, in various sub-clades is found in levels of around 15-30% in parts of the Balkans and Italy

A study in May 2009 of 19 populations from Europe using 270,000 SNPs highlighted the genetic diversity or European populations corresponding to the northwest to southeast gradient and distinguished "four several distinct regions" within Europe:
• Finland, showing the greatest distance to the rest of Europeans.
• the Baltic region (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania), western Russia and eastern Poland.
• Central and Western Europe.
• Italy, "with the southern Italians being more distant".

Lets highlight some key points here:

(1) Cavalli-Sforza’s phylogenetic tree identified Basques, Lapps and Finns as major 'outliers' with a cline of genes with highest frequencies among Finnish and Saami in the extreme north east, and spreading to lowest frequencies in the south west. Cavalli-Sforza also identified a cline of genes with highest frequencies in the Basque country, and lower levels beyond the area of Iberia and Southern France, described these as isolated remnants of the pre-Neolithic population of Europe, "who at least partially withstood the expansion of the cultivators". The inference that can be made is that the cline of genes evident among Finnish and Saami in the extreme north east is indicative of the remnants of a second pre-Neolithic population group (a point we will return too later in this post)

(2) Haplogroup N is common only in the northeast of Europe and in the form of its N1c1 sub-clade reaches frequencies of approximately 60% among Finns and approximately 40% among Lithuanians. This clade is also found far into the east in Siberia, Japan and China.

(3) Finland shows the greatest genetic distance from the rest of the European populations

We’ll return to these points a little later, but keep them in mind as they are central to the hypothesis of Finnish ancestry.

Image
Image sourced from: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/c ... urasia.jpgSuggested routes of the initial settlement of Europe based on mtDNA haplogroups, Metspalu et al. 2004

To be continued....... - there's waaaaay more coming.
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Re: What If-Finland had been prepared for the Winter War?

Postby CanKiwi2 on 22 Feb 2013 16:11

The Paleolithic settlement of Ice Age Europe

It is thought that modern humans began to colonize Europe during the Upper Paleolithic about 40,000 years ago. This corresponds with a climatic inter-stadial (temporary warming) period covered the period from 40,000 to 30,000 years ago. The first modern humans in Europe belong to what is classified as the “Aurignacian” culture, which by 35,000 BCE had extended through most of Europe. Around 32,000 BCE the Gravettian culture appears in the Crimean Mountains (southern Ukraine) and by around 22,000 BCE, the Solutrean and Gravettian cultures had reached the southwestern region of Europe.

The Aurignacian culture existed broadly within the period from ca. 45,000 to 35,000 years ago and is largely evidenced by their tool industry (characterized by worked bone or antler points with grooves cut in the bottom. Their flint tools include fine blades and bladelets struck from prepared cores rather than using crude flakes) and their cave art - the people of this culture produced some of the earliest known cave art, such as the animal engravings at Aldène and the paintings at Chauvet cave in southern France. They also made pendants, bracelets and ivory beads, and three-dimensional figurines. The most critical single discovery is that of the so-called Egbert skeleton from Ksar Akil, embedded in deposits overlain by Levantine Aurignacian industries. This is a fully modern human in both cranial and postcranial terms, between 40,000 and 45,000 years old. Although finds of human skeletal remains in direct association with Early Aurignacian technologies are scarce in Europe, the few available are also probable modern human. The best dated association between Aurignacian industries and human remains are those of at least five individuals from the Mladec cave in the Czech Republic, dated by direct radiocarbon measurements on the skeletal remains themselves to at least 31,000–32,000 years old.

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Image sourced from: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/c ... en.svg.png
Extent of Aurignacian Culture – Upper Paleolithic

From a Y-chromosome perspective, Semino (2000) proposed that the large Haplogroup R1 is an ancient Eurasiatic marker brought in by Homo sapiens who diffused west into Europe 40,000 years ago (although this now seems to have been disproved, with R1 being seen as an Indo-European marker). MtDNA haplogroup U5, dated to be approximately 40 to 50,000 years ago, arrived during the first early upper Palaeolithic colonisation. Individually, it accounts for 5-15% of total mtDNA lineages in Europe today. U5 is the most common in Western and Northern Europe and tests on ancient skeletons have shown that U5 was the principal mtDNA haplogroup of paleolothic and Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in Northern Europe. Nowadays it remains most common in the far north of Europe where the Mesolithic population was least affected by subsequent migrations. For instance 30 to 50% of the Saami people belong to Haplogroup U5b (and about 40% belong to Haplogroup V which is also of Paleolithic European origin). U5 developed varieties U8a, native of the Basque Country, which is considered to be Prehistoric, as well as the J group, which is also frequent in the Basque population.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) studies imply that the Aurignacian Wave originated in western South Asia 55,000 years ago. The migrants developed their characteristic technology in the area of the Zagros Mountains in Iraq and proceeded west from Kurdistan. Passing through the Levant to Anatolia , these colonising people travelled to Bulgaria and on into Central Europe. They also moved southwards into Italy and then over to the Pyrenees. The genetic marker in Europe is also found in the Near East, the Gulf and Central Asia. Near Eastern daughter lines today include the Turks and Kurds as well as Armenians, Azeris and other Caucasian groups. All of these people remained in the Fertile Crescent. The oldest great-granddaughter line (dated 40,000 years) is commonest in the Basque country, a refuge in the last ice age.

On the other hand, the haplotype V, which is also present in the Sami people, has also been found in some Basque populations and also comes from Prehistoric European populations, indicating some genetic mixing between proto- Basques and proto-Finnic-Ugrian populations. Y chromosome studies genetically relate the Basques with the Celtic Welsh and Irish; Stephen Oppenheimer from the University of Oxford says that the current inhabitants of the British Isles have their early origins in the Basque refuge during the last Ice age. Oppenheimer reached this conclusion through the study of correspondences in the frequencies of genetic markers between various European regions. In any case, the haplogroup R1b, which originated during the last ice age and at least 18.500 years ago, when Human groups settled in the south of Europe, is currently common in the European population and can be found most frequently in the Basque Country (91%), Wales (89%) and Ireland (81%). The rare variety R1b1c4 (R1b1b2a2c) has almost always been found among the Basque people, while variety R1b1c6 (R1b1b2a2d) registers a high incidence (19%) in the Basque population.

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Image sourced from: http://www.eupedia.com/images/content/H ... up_R1b.gif
Distribution of Haplogroup R1b across Europe. Note that there are alternative hypothesis on the causes of this distribution pattern.

Nevertheless, despite much debate and alternative hypothesis regarding the origins of Haplotype R in all its variants, the available evidence leads to the hypothesis that the Basques, with their carrying of U8a, J and V (all Paleolithic markers) are the remote descendants of the earliest Paleolithic inhabitants of Europe, while the existence of Haplotype V in both the Saami people as well as in some Basque populations, indicates that the Sami are also descended from a paleolithic European population that interacted with the ancestors of the Basques. Interestingly, the Saami people of northern Scandinavia have a unique mitochondrial DNA “signature” – the "Saami motif" – which differs distinctly from that of other European peoples. This has been identified by researchers as a combination of three specific genetic mutations that are shared by more than one third of all tested Saamis – and of all the gene tests conducted throughout the world, the same mutation has occurred in only six other samples, one Finnish and five Karelian. This prompts the question as to whether the ascendants of the latter-day Saamis have perhaps lived in genetic isolation at some stage in their evolution. Scientists studying DNA postulate that the Finno-Ugric population absorbed an influx of migrating farming communities, with the newcomers altering the original genetic makeup of the Finno-Ugric population, but nevertheless adopting the Finno-Ugric language. This, in a nutshell, explains the origin of the Finns, according to the DNA scientists. The Saamis, however, are a much older population in the opinion of DNA scientists, and their origin has yet to be established conclusively (a subject we shall return to).

Returning now to Haplogroup V, this is a relatively rare mtDNA haplogroup found in approximately 4% of native Europeans. It is found in particularly high concentrations in the Saami people of northern Scandinavia, as well as the Cantabrian people (15%) of northern Iberia, and somewhat lower in nearby Basque people (10.4%). Haplogroup V is also found in particularly high concentrations (16.3%) among the Berbers of Tunisia. The highest levels are in Scandinavian and Western and North African populations. The ancestral Haplogroup HV of which Haplogroup V is a descendant is a west Eurasian haplogroup found throughout West Asia and Southeastern Europe, including Iran, Anatolia (present-day Turkey), the Caucasus Mountains of southern Russia and the republic of Georgia. From the genetic evidence, it would appear that around 30,000 years ago some carriers of Haplogroup HV moved north across the Caucasus Mountains and west across Anatolia, carrying their lineages into Europe. From the evidence, it is surmised that this was the second group(s) of anatomically modern humans in Europe (the first being mtDNA haplogroup U5) and possibly related to the penetration of the Gravettian culture into Europe from its source in the Middle East.

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Image sourced from: http://media-cache-ec6.pinterest.com/55 ... b277ca.jpg
Penetration of the “Aurignacian” and “Gravettian” cultures into Europe

Nevertheless, different waves of migration aside, by 35,000 years ago, modern humans were firmly established in most of Europe, albeit their arrival was presumably delayed by the somewhat cold and inhospitable weather and a perhaps less than welcoming Neanderthal population. Populations of modern man and Neanderthal overlapped in various regions such as in Iberian peninsula and the conquest of the continent—if that is what it was—is thought to have lasted over about 15,000 years, as the last pockets of Neanderthals slowly dwindled to extinction (the Neanderthals were forced into mountain strongholds in Croatia, the Iberian Peninsula, the Crimea and elsewhere, and would become extinct approximately 25,000 years ago).

The earliest identifiable Modern Human culture, the Aurignacian, was succeeded by the Gravettian toolmaking culture which became prevalent throughout Europe before the last glacial epoch. One of the earliest Gravettian artifacts was found in the eastern Crimea (Buran-Kaya) and is dated to 32 000 years ago. Gravettian culture lasted until approximately 22,000 years ago and, where found, it succeeded artifacts datable to the Aurignacian culture. Artistic achievements of the Gravettian cultural stage include the hundreds of Venus figurines, which are widely distributed in Europe. The predecessor Aurignacian culture is also linked to similar figurines and carvings.

The Gravettian culture extended across Europe and had eastern and western branches and seemed to have been well adapted to life on the steppes, continuing to flourish even after 25,000 years ago, despite the climate becoming increasingly cold and dry. The majority of the famous "Venus" statuettes that have been found were produced between about 24,000 and 22,000 BP, mainly in an area of central and eastern Europe stretching from the Danube to the Volga. It seems from the evidence that the Gravettian “heartland” was the area from the Ukraine to the Moravian Basin and immediately north of the Alps. And this was the location of the ancestors of today's Haplogroup I. Today's carriers of Haplogroup I have clear genetic roots in east central Europe and it is now clear that all of the major haplogroups in Europe but haplogroup I came from the Middle East via southeastern Europe and brought agriculture with them.

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Image sourced from: http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.anc ... ianMap.png
The most advanced Gravettians consistently lived between the Ukraine and the Moravian Basin northwest of Italy and immediately north of the Alps. This was the location of the ancestors of today's Haplogroup I. It is possible that Haplogroup I migrated into France earlier, but if so their descendants were numerically overwhelmed by Neolithic migration from the east. It isn't actually known who lived in France and northern Spain during the last ice age. Today's Haplogroup I people have clear genetic roots in east central Europe. It is most likely that the relatively small old stone age population was completely overwhelmed, at least in Y DNA lineages, by migrating Neolithic farmers after 6000 BC.

The Gravettians were truly remarkable. Two things stood out about them. One was that they were the first people on the planet to live together in sizeable permanent villages. They were able to divide labor, cooperate to mass produce food, and develop specialties, such as the ability to make stone tools, or the ability to make clothing. They also wove textiles from plant fibers by at least 27,000 years ago, making them the first known people to weave. They were weaving plant fibers into decorative strips for their clothing in the same Moravian communities that first produced ceramic figurines. The other thing that was remarkable about the Gravettians was their creativity. The Gravettians were craftsmen. Their culture was descended from the earlier and slightly more widespread Aurignacian, the culture which created wonderfully realistic cave paintings. Gravettians liked to work with their hands, purely for its own sake, rather than necessarily to make something specific. They made beautiful artwork. They left carvings and stick markings in wood, and they made the world's first ceramic figurines, dating to 29,000 to 25,000 BCE, which they hardened in fire or kiln-like structures. The ceramic figurines were preceded by stone ones, such as the Venus figures found all over Europe that have been previously mentioned.

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Image sourced from: http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.anc ... 00.jpg.BMP
Here’s a painted recreation of a Gravettian village

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Image sourced from http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.anc ... VD_020.BMP
Recreation of a Gravettian village. (If you’ve read Jean Auel’s “Clan of the Cave Bear” books, you’ll know that one of the cultures she portrayed was the Gravettian, the “Mammoth Hunters” of the Steppe).

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Images sourced from http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.anc ... avet27.jpg and http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.anc ... avet28.jpg
Gravettian boy (approx. 13 years old) and girl (approx. 8-9 years old), reconstructed from skulls and clothing found in graves near Moscow. Excavations of the Upper Palaeolithic site by the brook of Sungir, not far from Moscow, yielded a fantastic and unexpected burial, approximately 27,000–23,000 let years old. The site is connected with the legendary archaeologist and sculptor M. M. Gerasimov (he devised a methodology of making a portrait according to a skull, which is now used worldwide by criminologists) and the archaeologist, specialist in the Palaeolithic, O. N. Bader

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Image sourced from: http://www.anthropark.wz.cz/gravet106.jpg
The reconstructional transformation of the burial as it probably looked like during the burial act. The burial is celebrated for thousands of laboriously handmade beads, made of skeletons of Mesozoic cephalopods and an extraordinary rich collection of ivory objects including chemically straightened ivory lances. This double burial of the children from 25,000 years ago belongs to one of the most important archaeological discoveries of the twentieth century.

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Image sourced from: http://i59.photobucket.com/albums/g316/ ... ulture.jpg
Solutrean culture possibly had its origins in the Gravettian Culture of Central and East Europe. Evidence of the Solutrean culture is found across Southern France as well as the Iberian Peninsula (where Gravettian remains have also been found).

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Image sourced from: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/c ... roupI2.png
Main centers of population with Haplogroup I2a – this Hapologroup seems to be strongly associated with Gravettian culture. It’s interesting how Ice age `refuges` from Western Balkan and Ukraine interact within the Gravettian culture

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Image sourced from: http://www.eupedia.com/images/content/Haplogroup_I1.gif
Main centers of population with Haplogroup I1 – I1 is identified by at least 15 unique mutations and both I1 and pre-I1 markers are associated with the Ertebolle culture which succeeded the Magdalenian (more on this later). The number of mutations indicated that this lineage was isolated for a lengthy period of time or experienced a severe population bottleneck. The first mutation splitting I1 away from I2 probably occurred around 20,000 years ago.

The Gravettian technology/culture has been theorized to have come with migrations of people from the Middle East, Anatolia, and the Balkans (Gravettian culture also appears in the Caucasus and earliest of all in the Zagros mountains). One theory suggests they carried the Haplogroup I (Y-DNA) but scientists have failed to recover Y-DNA of that age. Both Gravtettian and Solutrean cultures are rather different from the Aurignacian but this issue is thus far very obscure. The Gravettian soon disappears from southwestern Europe, with the notable exception of the Mediterranean coasts of Iberia The Solutrean culture appears to have taken over in Iberia and extended from northern Spain to SE France, includes not only an advanced stone technology but also the the use of the needle and possibly also of the bow and arrow. The more widespread Gravettian culture is no less advanced than the Solutrean and both cultures appear to have adapted successfully to cold-climate existence on the tundra and steppe. The ancestors of haplogroup I1 were already in northern Europe when, after a break in the weather, the Ice Age returned for its last and most severe stage from 12,000 BC to 10,000 BC. While previous peoples had been driven from northern Europe when the ice age began, these people were better adapted and were able to hang on.

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Image sourced from: http://www.anthropark.wz.cz/gravet33.jpg
The peoples of the Gravettian culture were able to adapt successfully to cold-climate existence on the tundra and steppe. The illustration is a recreation of a hunter from the Sungir archaeological site in festive clothing and a coat, armed with an ivory lance made of an artificially straightened mammoth tusk (artwork recreated from remnants of clothing and artifacts found in burials at the site)

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Image sourced from: http://www.anthropark.wz.cz/gravet41.jpg
We can see excellent workmanship in the small artifacts (pins, decorative plates, figurines of water birds) made of hard, durable material (ivory, antlers) from the Malta and Buret sites in Eastern Siberia – culturally closely related to the Gravettian culture – and perhaps even an eastwards extension. These artifacts suggest to us the quality of the objects that did not remain (e.g. boats, oars, sleds, skis, winter boots, bags, baskets, etc.). The quality of the Gravettian products was dictated by the harsh arctic conditions. Everything had to be light, ingenious, well made and, above all, extremely reliable. Certainly nobody wanted to lose a glove during a several days long expedition. This would have surely meant frostbite and the loss of several fingers. Unreliable boots, skis or sleds would have certainly meant death. That is why archaeologists find so much proof of the meticulous work of Gravettian designers, craftsmen and artists.

Turning to climatic conditions for a moment, one needs to also understand the overall climatic picture through the period of this early settlement of Europe by our ancestors. We are talking of the late Pleistocene, where the Pleistocene climate was marked by repeated glacial cycles. Each glacial advance tied up huge volumes of water in continental ice sheets 1,500 to 3,000 metres (4,900–9,800 ft) thick, resulting in temporary sea level drops of 100 metres (300-400 ft) over the entire surface of the Earth. During interglacial times, such as at present, drowned coastlines were common, mitigated by isostatic or other emergent motion of some regions. The zone of permafrost stretched hundreds of kilometers southwards from the edge of the glacial sheet while the mean annual temperature at the edge of the ice was −6 °C (21 °F); at the edge of the permafrost, 0 °C (32 °F). In the northern hemisphere, many glaciers fused into one. The Fenno-Scandian ice sheet rested on northern Europe, including Great Britain; the Alpine ice sheet on the Alps. Scattered domes stretched across Siberia and the Arctic shelf. The northern seas were ice-covered. South of the ice sheets large lakes accumulated because outlets were blocked and the cooler air slowed evaporation.

The Last Glacial Maximum ("LGM") started c. 30,000 years ago, gradually becoming colder over time with the ice sheets at their maximum extent between 26,500 and 19,000–20,000 years ago – the period in which we see the Gravettian and Solutrean cultures existing. During this time, vast ice sheets covered much of North America, northern Europe and Asia. These ice sheets profoundly impacted Earth's climate, causing drought, desertification, and a dramatic drop in sea levels. During this period much of the world was cold, dry, and inhospitable, with frequent storms and a dust-laden atmosphere. The dustiness of the LGM atmosphere is a prominent feature in ice cores; dust levels were as much as 20 to 25 times greater than at present. This was probably due to a number of factors: reduced vegetation, stronger global winds, and less precipitation to clear dust from the atmosphere. The massive sheets of ice locked away water, lowering the sea level, exposing continental shelves, joining land masses together, and creating extensive coastal plains. Northern Europe was largely covered by ice, the southern boundary of the ice sheets passing through Germany and Poland. This ice extended northward to cover Svalbard and Franz Josef Land and northeastward to occupy the Barents Sea, the Kara Sea and Novaya Zemlya, ending at the Taymyr Peninsula. Permafrost covered Europe south of the ice sheet down to present-day Szeged in Southern Hungary. Ice covered the whole of Iceland and almost all of the British Isles but southern England. Britain was no more than a peninsula of Europe, its north capped in ice, and its south a polar desert.

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Image sourced from: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/c ... d-2003.jpg
Maximum Extent of the Eurasian Ice Cap during the Last Glacial Maximum

The climatic conditions of the Last Glacial Maximum led to a depopulation of Northern Europe as the glacial ice caps extended and climatic conditions grew more extreme. According to the classical model, people took refuge in climatic sanctuaries (or refugia) as follows:
(1) Northern Iberia and Southwest France, together making up the "Franco-Cantabrian" refugium.
(2) The Balkans.
(3) The Ukraine and more generally the northern coast of the Black Sea.
(4) Italy.
(5) Anatolia: Cinnioglu sees evidence for the existence of an Anatolian refuge, which also harboured Hg R1b1b2. Today, R1b dominates the Y chromosome landscape of western Europe, including the British Isles, suggesting that there could have been large population composition changes based on migrations after the Last Glacial Maximum.

This event decreased the overall genetic diversity in Europe, a "result of drift, consistent with an inferred population bottleneck during the Last Glacial Maximum". From the evidence, it would appear that people of the Solutrean culture inhabited the climatic refuge of Northern Iberia and Southwest France (the "Franco-Cantabrian" refugium) – their remote descendants are possibly the Basques of today. Likewise, people of the Gravettian culture inhabited the climatic refuge of the Ukraine and more generally the northern coast of the Black Sea.

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Image sourced from: http://donsmaps.com/images2/icemapmax.gif
Map of the maximum extent of the ice towards the end of the maximum extent of the last ice age, around 20,000 years ago. Note in particular the extensive lakes ponded behind the ice, fed by the north flowing rivers. Note also the increased size of the Caspian and Aral Seas due to runoff from the glacial ice caps to the north, as well as the reduced size of the Black Sea, which at this time was a freshwater lake.

In the same timeframe as the Gravettian culture, the Solutrean culture is a relatively advanced flint tool-making style of the Upper Paleolithic that dates from around 22,000 to 17,000 years ago, and may be seen as a transitory stage between Aurignacian and the Magdalenian epochs. Solutrean tool-making employed techniques not seen before and not rediscovered for millennia. The Solutrean has relatively finely worked, bifacial points made with lithic reduction percussion and pressure flaking rather than cruder flintknapping. Knapping was done using antler batons, hardwood batons and soft stone hammers. This method permitted the working of delicate slivers of flint to make light projectiles and even elaborate barbed and tanged arrowheads. Large thin spear-heads; scrapers with an edge not on the side but on the end; flint knives and saws, but all still chipped, not ground or polished; long spear-points, with tang and shoulder on one side only, are also characteristic implements of this industry. Bone and antler were used as well. The industry first appeared in what is now Spain, and disappears from the archaeological record around 17,000 BP.

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Image sourced from: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/c ... litico.jpg
Bone artifacts - Upper paleolithic: bone needle and bone fishhook – the Solutrean toolkit included the world’s earliest identifiable sewing needles

During the LGM, the Polar Front was pushed to latitudes as far south as Portugal, turning the Iberian peninsula into a steppe-tundra environment with lowered temperatures, shortening growing seasons and reducing the extent and quality of natural grasslands. Game animals may have abandoned or become rare in the interior regions of Western Europe, forcing both animal and human populations into more favourable areas along the rivers and the coastlines of south-western Europe. In northern Spain, the Solutrean population lived in a narrow strip of coastal plain and foothills wedged between mountains with glaciers and heavy snow pack and an ice-covered ocean for much of the year. Although hunting was probably seasonally effective in the nearby mountains, people augmented their food supply by turning to alternative food resources, including hunting and fishing along the river estuaries and beaches. The perennial Arctic ice formed much further south during the LGM, covering major portions of the North Atlantic and connecting Europe and North America with an ice bridge. This pushed the active young ice-edge margin and the animals adapted to sub-Arctic waters southward. The ice margin is a region with intense biological productivity, providing a major food source for much of the marine food chain. Sub-Arctic sea surface productivity was higher during the LGM than during interglacial periods as a result of major increases of nutrients from sea bottom ooze eroding from exposed continental shelves, loess filtered out by the upper atmosphere jet stream and minerals released by melting glacial icebergs being swept eastward by the warmer gulf waters. Extreme temperature gradients enhancing the trade winds produced upwelling of rich intermediate waters, mixing both oxygen and organic carbon upwards to the sea surface. The southward shift of the sub-Arctic marine life zone into lower latitudes also increased the photosynthesis affecting the abundance and condition of ice dwelling micro-flora and fauna: the bottom of the food chain. Surface temperatures of the sub-Arctic seas ranged from O8C to 118C, well within the temperature range for critical species in the Arctic food web.

These conditions resulted in a major annual influx of migratory sea mammals, birds and fishes into the Bay of Biscay from early fall through spring. By comparison, over 4 million harp seals were counted in the western rookery during the most recent census, an amazing figure considering the reduced productivity of food along the Canadian coast and the impact of major long-term hunting fishing pressures. A Solutrean hunter must have been awe-struck when he watched for the first time a pristine seal colony stretching for as far as he could see, basking on an ice floe as it drifted towards the shore. The question is not ‘did the Solutrean people exploit the marine resources?’, but ‘why would anyone think they would ignore the rich environment on their doorstep?’ If your answer is that it was ‘too cold and stormy’, we remind you that Siberia and the North Pacific Rim were probably colder and stormier. Moreover, winds and storms were not daily occurrences, as Olga Soffer likes to quip. There may have been 2,000 Ice Age winters, but there were also 2,000 Ice Age summers. And, let us not forget that the Solutrean people were already adapted to that environment. Solutrean artists left evidence in their rock art depicting sea mammals, deep-water fish and great auks that they were giving these resources serious thought, if not answering the question for us. With their talent for innovation and several thousand years to observe the environment, Solutreans would have learned to target these resources.

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Image sourced from: http://donsmaps.com/images/lepenskivirart2.jpg
Recreation of a paleolithic coastal site

Faunal collections from Solutrean sites in northern Spain contain abundant evidence that people were utilizing coastal and estuarian resources and there was an increasing dependence on marine resources through time. Even though the sea coast was farther away than today, people were transporting substantial quantities of limpets up to 10km from the shore to La Reira Cave (Straus and Clark 1986). Based on this evidence, Straus suggested that, since many pleniglacial coastal sites are under the sea, marine resources may have been even more significant as dietary supplements than the present evidence would indicate. In reviewing the inland evidence, Cleyet-Merle and Madelaine (1995) point out that scholars have underestimated the use of these resources and there was very active marine exploitation by Palaeolithic peoples. These musings and warnings, along with the ecological facts and the archaeological evidence lying 300 feet below sea level, argue that we should engage in informed speculation to create models of Solutrean settlement and procurement systems that take into account the reality that these rich marine resources were an important aspect of the lives of these people.

Ideally, Solutrean camps were strategically established on the leeward side on headlands of estuaries with ‘catcher’ beaches providing a source of driftwood, a rare and valuable commodity in an open steppe-tundra environment. From such a central-base camp located on the sea-land ecotone, a Solutrean band could exploit multiple environments with a diverse array of resources. Although upland hunting sites were periodically used to stage ibex and red deer hunts, the marine resources would have been available year around. Sea mammal hunting on winter sea ice, hunting leads and ice edge in the late spring and summer would have provided food and fuel throughout the year. Sea birds such as the great auk and fish were seasonally abundant and would have augmented the Solutrean larder. In the process of adapting to a coastal marine economy, tool-kits would have been elaborated to exploit the sea more efficiently; waterproof clothing, nets, harpoon gear and watercraft were necessary to exploit the marine resources and would have been useful on inland rivers during the LGM. It would not have taken long for the people to recognize the signs of impending storms and changing weather conditions. Nor would it have taken long to understand various sea-ice types, dangers and advantages. Hunters would learn that ice leads are not only excellent hunting locations, but provide havens during storms as the surrounding ice greatly reduces wave formation. Large ice floes are also good hunting locations and provide pullout ‘islands’ for camping or temporarily sitting out a storm in an overturned, well-secured skin boat.

Survival along the ice edge is possible with only a few skills and a little knowledge, particularly when following the harp and grey seal migrations. These seals feed along the northward receding ice edge during the summer, and move south in the fall as the winter ice begins to form. Successful hunting of these animals alone would provide all the resources necessary to sustain human life. Beyond a food source, seals provide oil for heating and cooking, and there is melting ice for fresh water, all of which can be accomplished with a single flame burning in a basin chipped into the ice. Seal body parts contribute soft tissue and bone for the manufacture of tools, waterproof garments, ropes and lashing, and covers and repair patches for tents and boats. There are many documented tales of groups of hunters set adrift on ice islands surviving for months, and being swept across the sea when the floe was trapped in an oceanic gyre. The vast Aquitaine continental shelf was turned into a broad plain, crossed by meandering rivers and dotted with permafrost lakes and marshes, arching north-west along the east coast of the Bay of Biscay and extending hundreds of kilometres north, merging with the Celtic shelf of Ice Age Ireland. Along with the marine resources, much of this area supported a mammoth steppe fauna.

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Image sourced from: http://www.echospace.org/asset_images/0 ... 1245452336
Skin boats have remarkable advantages over wooden craft because the hulls are light weight, simple to use, easy to repair and highly shock resistant. The flawless design enabled the Yupik people to successfully live off the Bering Sea for millennia. The design is so perfectly suited to the environment and task of hunting whales and walrus that these boats are still used today. This angyapik weighs less than 500 pounds but because of its frame construction, which allows flexibility in ocean water, it can carry a full hunting crew and their equipment plus more than three tons of meat. Boats like this have been used for millennia and Solutrean sea-hunters may well have built such boats.

Its exploitation may have started with seasonal trips, but more semi-permanent campsites would have been established along the coastline through time. In fact, because of the potential of resources, the ancient coast and associated plain may have furnished a resource base independent of that available in the mountains. Additionally, marine resources may have supported larger Solutrean populations than those of the upland temporary hunting camps, primarily known from sites found near present-day coastal Spain. Evidence from the Greenland ice cores has provided a remarkable record of past climate changes. Of particular interest is that these changes were sometimes abrupt, perhaps fluctuating within a few short years, while at other times stabilizing for hundreds or even thousands of years. This pattern holds for the LGM and, if one charts the data, the pattern begins to look like a saw edge, flipping from warmer to colder regimes, sometimes holding steady for a long period of time, and then warming or cooling precipitously. The Solutrean hunters probably developed their techniques for exploiting the marine environment during a colder climatic period when the annual ice regularly formed in the Bay of Biscay. Once this tradition was established, there would have been increasing reliance on the use of ice-edge resources. Inevitably, this cool climate phase began to collapse, with slow warming and the distance between land’s end and the ice-edge habitat continually increasing: good for seals, bad for seal hunters, especially if they did not have boats. Thus, in order to maintain the ice-edge economy, the hunters had to travel further and further out to sea and/or further north to find the seals. These hunts likely became major extended treks with entire kin groups participating in the events. Once they understood the seal migration patterns, the hunters could work the pattern back and forth.

Keep the above in mind as a reference point as we move forward in time.

Source: http://planet.uwc.ac.za/nisl/Conservati ... 202004.pdf “The North Atlantic ice-edge corridor: a possible Palaeolithic route to the New World” by Bruce Bradley and Dennis Stanford

Next: In western Europe, the Solutrean culture was succeeded by what is known as the Magdalenian culture, dating from around 18,000 BP to 10,000 BP
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Re: What If-Finland had been prepared for the Winter War?

Postby John Hilly on 23 Feb 2013 17:54

Something off-off-topic:
"Jean Marie Untinen was born in 1936 in Chicago, Illinois,[3] she is of Finnish descent, the second of five children of Neil Solomon Untinen, a housepainter, and Martha (née Wirtanen) Untinen."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_M._Auel

With best,
J-P :milwink:
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Re: What If-Finland had been prepared for the Winter War?

Postby CanKiwi2 on 23 Feb 2013 22:43

John Hilly wrote:Something off-off-topic:
"Jean Marie Untinen was born in 1936 in Chicago, Illinois,[3] she is of Finnish descent, the second of five children of Neil Solomon Untinen, a housepainter, and Martha (née Wirtanen) Untinen."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_M._Auel

With best,
J-P :milwink:


Good Lord! I had no idea. That is fascinating. Many thx for pointing that out.

Anyhow, on that subject, I am currently reading up on Solutreans and post-Soultrean cultures - and found this youtube clip very watchable and interesting. And it does have a certain bearing on where these posts on finno-urgic antecedents are going. It is a long clip tho - of Dennis Stanford explaining the Solutrean Hypothesis for the origins of the Clovis culture in North America

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Re: What If-Finland had been prepared for the Winter War?

Postby Malcolm Baird on 25 Feb 2013 21:34

May I introduce myself as the son of John Logie baird (1888-1946) the television pioneer. Over the past 20 years I have done extensive research about my father's life, written many articles, and a major biography in co-authorship with the Scottish historian the late Antony Kamm. The book title is "John Logie Baird: a life" and it is 450 pages in length.

This part of the AHF website refers to my father's work with the Finnish inventor Eric Tigerstedt on a type of infra red television known as Noctovision, but I have never found any reference to Tigerstedt in any of the material on my father's life.

Moreover, according to Wikipedia, Tigerstedt died in April 1925 in the USA. At that point in time, my father was in England and only just on the verge of developing television.

Can anyone respond to this?
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Re: What If-Finland had been prepared for the Winter War?

Postby Malcolm Baird on 26 Feb 2013 00:01

May I introduce myself as the son of John Logie Baird, the British television pioneer (1888-1946). His name is mentioned in the post in this forum by “Cankiwi2”, in association with that of the Finnish inventor Eric Tigerstedt and work on infra red detection. It is true that my father demonstrated and patented infra-red television in the late 1920s and did some experiments on detection which were met with mixed success; this is all detailed in several published books about my father.
However, Eric Tigerstedt’s name does not appear in any of these books. A check of Wikipedia revealed that the Finnish inventor Eric Tigerstedt had been born in 1887, and then in 1923 he moved to the USA where he died in 1925.
Therefore it is not likely that he worked with my father.
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Re: What If-Finland had been prepared for the Winter War?

Postby CanKiwi2 on 26 Feb 2013 03:17

Malcolm Baird wrote:May I introduce myself as the son of John Logie Baird, the British television pioneer (1888-1946). His name is mentioned in the post in this forum by “Cankiwi2”, in association with that of the Finnish inventor Eric Tigerstedt and work on infra red detection. It is true that my father demonstrated and patented infra-red television in the late 1920s and did some experiments on detection which were met with mixed success; this is all detailed in several published books about my father.
However, Eric Tigerstedt’s name does not appear in any of these books. A check of Wikipedia revealed that the Finnish inventor Eric Tigerstedt had been born in 1887, and then in 1923 he moved to the USA where he died in 1925.
Therefore it is not likely that he worked with my father.


Hi Malcolm, welcome to the forum. And my apologies for any confusion, this was written up as an alternative history and the story about Tigerstedt and your father was indeed completely fictional. For my alternative history, I extended Tigerstedts lifespan somewhat and got him involved in infrared research. Tigerstedt did indeed die in 1925 - details on his early life are accurate but everything after 1925 is completely fictional. As you will see, in my account, after his return to Finland he is credited with a number of inventions including Radar for Nokia, man-portable radios and infrared night fighting equipment. All of course fictional.

Aside from that, thankyou for posting the information on the book about your father - he was indeed a very talented man! When I did my initial research I had not realised you had posted so much information on him, nor had I tracked down your book as my focus had been on Noctovision (I was looking for a way to position Tigerstedt to make the move into this technology and an awareness of Noctovision and its possibilities seemed the best way to achieve this). Anyhow, once again, my apologies for any confusion.

This thread did start out in an Alternative History part of this Board which would perhaps have made it clearer that it is fictional (albeit with a large dose of actual history intermingled). However, it was moved into the Winter War & Continuation War Forum (which, apart from this What If thread which is the sole anomaly, is Real & Actual History) which has led to a little confusion now and then.

Cheers.......Nigel
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