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German General Officer casualties in WW II.

Discussions on High Command, strategy and the Armed Forces (Wehrmacht) in general.

German General Officer casualties in WW II.

Postby tigre on 10 Feb 2008 13:16

Hello folks, greetings from Argentina :D . For those interested here goes a briefing of the Maj USA French Maclean's thesis on that topic.

GERMAN GENERAL OFFICER CASUALTIES.

German general officer casualties in World War II were staggering and adversely affected unit proficiencies. Due to these losses, divisions were often commanded by colonels, regiments by majors, and battalions by captains. Retired General Josef Foltmam, a leading expert on German officer fatalities, presents the following summary of these losses: (5) See Table 1

This monograph will focus only on those general officers who were in cornnand of divisions or higher formations, and h were killed in action or died of wounds. Some 136 of these officers fall into this category. (6). The extent of damage to the German command and control system by general officer losses is reflected in the following two tables. Grades are given in German to avoid confusion and are explained in the endnotes. See Tables 2 and 3

Peak unit proficiency simply could not be maintained with these losses. Over the course of the war this drain on leadership averaged a corps , commander killed every three months and -a division commander killed -in -action every -three -weeks! Although World War II was a very lethal war, could this problem have been minimized? An examination of German doctrine, general officer training, battlefield experience, and command rotation suggest it could have been.

[5] Josef Folttmann, and Hanns bller-Witten. Cpfergang -der Generale. Berlin: Bernard & Graefe, 1959, p.85. Foltmann served as the division commander for the 164th Light Division, the 338th Infantry Division, and Fortress Division Crete. He finished the war on the Army High Command Staff in Berlin.

[6] Wolf Keilig. -Die Generale -des Heeres. Friedberg, FRG: Podzun-Pallas-Verlag, 1983. This work contains biographical sketches for all general officers in the German Army. A review of this work indicates that 136 were killed in action or died of wounds. Although date and location of death are given, no information is provided as to cause of death.

Source: GERMAN GENERAL OFFICER CASUALTIES IN WORLD WAR II -- HARBINGER FOR U.S. ARMY GENERAL OFFICER CASUALTIES IN AIRLAND BATTLE? Major French L. MacLean. Infantry. School of Advanced Military Studies U.S. Army ComMnd and General Staff College Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. 7 December 1988.

It's follows. Cheers. Raúl M 8-) .
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German General Officer casualties in WW II.

Postby tigre on 13 Feb 2008 21:47

-WORLD WAR I SERVICE.

The World War I service of many German junior officers who later became generals in World War II was characterized by a high degree of frontline service and bravery. The early experience of these officers helped form their basic professional ethic concerning leadership, personal danger, and responsibility to their men. That ethic would be reflected in their wartime actions sane twenty years later. By examining this early wartime service we can better urlderstand these officers frame of mind with respect to leadership and their concept of battlefield lethality; a concept that would be greatly outdated in the next war.

World War I awards are known for ninety-seven of the German generals killed in action. As seen in the following table, ninety-five percent were awarded one of the grades of Iron Cross. Fifty-four percent were wounded in action at least once, while thirteen percent were wounded on three or more combat engagements. Repeated demonstrated bravery in action was expected of German junior officers during the war and this professional ethic is amply represented by the exploits of these individuals. Overall it is evident that these junior German officers, who were later killed in action as general officers during World War II, developed their concept of battlefield leadership and danger the hard way -- they earned it. [12]

[12] Rangliste des Deutschen Reichsheers (nach dem Stande 1. Ma1929).- Berlin : Mittler & Sohn. 1929. This book is a rank listing for all officers in the Reichswehr: Included in it is a listing of- all World War I awards for each individual. Pose officers who were not on the Reichswehr rolls, i.'e. those who entered service at a later date or who transferred from the German police or Austrian Army in the mid 1930s are not listed. This accounts for the difference in the total figure with the 136 who were killed.

Source: GERMAN GENERAL OFFICER CASUALTIES IN WORLD WAR II -- HARBINGER FOR U.S. ARMY GENERAL OFFICER CASUALTIES IN AIRLAND BATTLE? Major French L. MacLean. Infantry. School of Advanced Military Studies U.S. Army ComMnd and General Staff College Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. 7 December 1988.

It's follows. Cheers. Raúl M 8-) .
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Re: German General Officer casualties in WW II.

Postby tigre on 17 Feb 2008 13:34

Hello fellows; something more....................

WORLD WAR II SERVICE.

As shown, a large number of German general officers killed in World War I1 had exceptional frontline service in World War I.

On September 1, 1939 Hitler instituted the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross for continuous acts of exceptional bravery, or in the case of higher ranks for successful execution of battle or for forrrmlating oustanding battle plans. Prerequisites included previous award of both classes of the Iron Cross. Enlisted personnel as well as officers were eligible for this award. In the course of the way, sane 7,300 Knight's Crosses were awarded.

On June 3, 1940 Hitler instituted the next higher grade the of Knight's Cross, the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oakleaves. This award recognized previous winners of the Knight's Cross for continued significant bravery and initiative. Enlisted personnel, officers, and foreign military personnel were eligible to receive the Oakleaves. By war's end 882 had done so.

One year later Hitler again introduced another higher grade of award the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oakleaves and Swords. This grade recognized previous recipients of the Oakleaves who accomplished additional.feats of military achievement. Although all German ailitary personnel were eligible to receive this award, only 159 officers actually did.

On July 15, 1941 Hitler introduced hat was believed to be the final upgrade, the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oakleaves, Swords, and Diamands. Again it rewarded further achievement. By the end of the war only twenty-seven had been awarded.

Division, corps, and army caunanders figured prominently as recipients of all of these awards. The following is the distribution of these awards [20]: (see below table 5).

[20] Walter-Peer Fellgiebel. Die Trae er des Ritterkreuzes -des Eisemen Kreuzes, 1939-1945. ~Friedberg FRG:Podzun-Pallas Verlag, 1986.Multiple pages - each name was cross-referenced to determine if he won any of the-grades of this award.

Source: GERMAN GENERAL OFFICER CASUALTIES IN WORLD WAR II -- HARBINGER FOR U.S. ARMY GENERAL OFFICER CASUALTIES IN AIRLAND BATTLE? Major French L. MacLean. Infantry. School of Advanced Military Studies U.S. Army ComMnd and General Staff College Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. 7 December 1988.

It's follows. Cheers. Raúl M 8-) .
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Re: German General Officer casualties in WW II.

Postby tigre on 29 Feb 2008 19:30

Hello fellas, something more..................................

ROTATION -OF GENERAL OFFICERS -AND COMMAND DURATION.

The history of the German general officer replacenrent system in World War II is an interesting saga. During preparation for mobilization in the late 1930s, the Central Branch of the Army General Staff filled general officer vacancies to brigade level and General' StaffS.positio%. m niJ ar generalofficers were directly assigned by a different organization -- the Army Personnel Office. After 1942, the procedure changed again. General officer unit comnaders were assigned by the Personnel Office in accordance with instructions from the Comnander in Chief of the Army but with input from the Chief of the Anny General Staff. Senior General Staff officers, on the other hand, scheduled for assignment as chiefs of staff for army groups, armies, and corps, were selected directly by the Chief of the Army General Staff. Many of these officers were also in demand for unit command.

Beginning in the Fall of 1942, losses began to mount for both line and General Staff officers. A t the same time the Personnel Office initiated increased requirements for more General Staff officers to be released for duty as unit carmanders a t the front. Unfortunately, there were already too few General Staff officers for the necessary General Staff positions. This condition had existed since the beginning of the war. On September 1, 1939 there were only 508 General Staff officers to fill the 589 General Staff positions. To further compound this problem, some 93 of these officers were not in General Staff positions but were serving as ccwnanding officers.

Compounding these problems was branch parochialism. Older generals viewed infantry and artillery as the dominant branches and attempted to-control the Army Personnel Office to-the detriment of other branch officers. It was not always possible to appropriately fill each position with the exact branch officer desired. For example, only sixty-one percent of all panzer corps ccxrmafiders were of the panzer branch, while forty-one percent of the comnanders of the mountain corps were mountain troop officers. Artillery and cavalry officers corunanded both infantry and panzer corps. Infantry generals served across the entire spectrum of units.

Further compaunding the problem was the increasing number of units requiring general officer commanders. The strength of the German Amy in December 1940 stood at 140 divisions. This total increased to 208 at the start of the Russian Campaign, to 226 in July 1942, and to 243 by July 1943. By the beginning of June 1944 the division total had reached 257. [27] The number of corps also increased during the war, peaking at seventy-seven in January 1945. [28]

Many general officers transferred from more protected rear area staff assignments directly to the front with fatal results. GL Henning von Thadden, for example, remained in Germany fran 1943 to 1945 as the Chief of Staff for the 1st Military District Corps. He then went to the Eastern Front to command the 1st Infantry Division and was killed within two months. [29] GM Otto Beutler, comnander of the 340th Infantry Division, served with the General Staff in the Organization for Total War office in Berlin for 15 months before assuming command. He was killed in action just 35 days later. [30] GM Werner Duerking served as the commander of the War School at Dresden for about two years before going to the Eastern front as caunander of the 96th Infantry Division. He died'of wounds received in combat after only ten days in command. [31]

Further examples of lethality and command durations for general officers killed in action are shown below: [32]

[27] Burlchart Mueller-Hillebrand, -Das Heer 1933-1945. Band 1-111. Frankfurt, FRG: E.S. Mittler & Soh, 1969, Vol 2, pp.110-111T; Vol 3 p.122,155. Mueller- Hillebrand served as the Chief of Staff for the XXXXVI Panzer Corps, and the 3rd Panzer Army.
[28] Georg Tessin, Verbaende und Truppen der deutschen Wehrmacht und Waffen-SS im Zweiten Weltkrie 1939-1945 (Band I-XIV) . Osnabrueck, FRG: Biblio Verlagr 1979, 41, pp. 17-19.
[29] Burkhart Mueller-Hillebrand, -Das -Heer . Vol 3, p.211:337.
[30] s.p,.21 1:27.
[31] -Ibid., p.211:70.
[32] Wolf Keilig. -Die Generale des Heeres. Friedberg, FRG: Podzun-Pallas- Verlag, 1983. Durationxs f command were determined after reviewing biographies of each general officer killed in action or died of wounds.

Source: GERMAN GENERAL OFFICER CASUALTIES IN WORLD WAR II -- HARBINGER FOR U.S. ARMY GENERAL OFFICER CASUALTIES IN AIRLAND BATTLE? Major French L. MacLean. Infantry. School of Advanced Military Studies U.S. Army ComMnd and General Staff College Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. 7 December 1988.

It's follows. Cheers. Raúl M 8-) .
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Re: German General Officer casualties in WW II.

Postby tigre on 07 Mar 2008 21:20

Hello to all people; more follows................................

BATTLEFIELD LETHALITY.

Battlefield lethality increased from World War I to World War II, multiplying the ways a general officer comnander could be killed in action. It included enemy artillery, minefields, anti-tank fire, small arms fire, grenades, air attacks, tank fire, snipers, and partisans. Many of these causes, such as air attacks and tank fire, were relatively infrequent occurrences in World War I. Others, like artillery fire directed by the results of radio direction finding, were quantum improvements over previously less acurate acquisition means. The turbulent situation during the last years of the war limits our knowledge of the exact cause of death to only forty-one percent of general officer fatalities. Assuming Table 7 reflects a relative consistency in cause of death, the enemy attack means were quite varied : (see below)

In World War I personal danger for officers had been the great artillery barrages and heavy'machine gun fire. Although these two weapom systems again accounted for many general officer deaths, a wide variety of other systems played an equally deadly role. The total numbers of causes of death, however, tell only part of the story. The following accounts of individual demises reflect this increased lethality, and better describe the significant dangers to these senior comnanders .

Source: GERMAN GENERAL OFFICER CASUALTIES IN WORLD WAR II -- HARBINGER FOR U.S. ARMY GENERAL OFFICER CASUALTIES IN AIRLAND BATTLE? Major French L. MacLean. Infantry. School of Advanced Military Studies U.S. Army ComMnd and General Staff College Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. 7 December 1988.

It's follows. Cheers. Raúl M 8-) .
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Re: German General Officer casualties in WW II.

Postby tigre on 14 Mar 2008 20:38

Hello to all people :D ; following with the BATTLEFIELD LETHALITY.................................

AIR ATTACK.

The impact of enemy air attack on German general officers began to be felt early in the war. During the campaign for North Africa, two generals were killed. Gl Suemnermann, comnander of the 90th Light Division, was killed by a strafing British aircraft at 1900 hours, 10 December 1941. He was riding in his comnand vehicle when hit. GL Thomas, commander of the newly formed 999th Light Africa Division was shot down enroute to Tunis 1 April 1943. [33]

Just as GFM Romnel had predicted, Allied air power played a decisive role during the invasion at Normandy. Three German generals were killed in air attacks. Gl Stegmann, commander of the 77th Infantry Division, was struck in the head by 20 mm cannon fire from a strafing Allied flghter plane while driving in his command car near Briebeque France, 18 June 1944. The day before GL Hellmich, commander 243rd Infantry Division, was killed by a strafing fighter near Cherbourg. [ 34] GdA Marcks, commander LXXIV Corps, was killed enroute to Carentan by another strafing fighter when his wooden leg prevented him a quick enough escape from his automobile. [ 35]

Seven general officers are known to have died by air attacks on the Eastern Front. One army commander, Gdl von Krosigk, 16th Army, was killed at his headquarters at Zabeln by a Soviet fighter-bomber attack 16 March 1945. [36] Five corps commanders also died. GdI von Briesen, LII Corps, was killed at 1230 hours, 20 November 1941 southeast of Andrejewka by attacking Soviet aircraft. [37] GdA Martinek was killed by a bomb splinter, 28 June 1944 east of the Beresina River while commader of the XXXIX Panzer Corps. [38] That same day GdA Pfeiffer, commander of VI Corps, was killed from the air in the vicinity of Mogilev. [39] Soviet air attacks also killed Gdl Wegener, commander L Corps, on 9 September 1944 as he was enroute to visit a subordinate infantry division in Kurland. [40] Finally, GdI Zorn, ccmmander XXXXVI Panzer Corps, was killed from the air enroute to a frontline unit on 2 August 1943. [41]

[33] R. James Bender, and Richard D. Law, Uniforms Organization, and History of the Afrikakorps. San Jose: R. James Bender,97 3, pp.74,r
[34] William B. Breuer, Hitler's Fortress Cherbourg. New York: Stein & Day, 1984, p.164.
[35] Max Hastings, Overlord, D-Day and the Battle -for Normandy. New York: Simon and Schuster 8 4 , pp.173-174
[36] Werner Haupt, -Das -war Kurland. Bad Nauheim, FRG: Podzun Verlag, 1987, p.170.
[37] Microfilm. LII Armeekorps, Ia, "Kriegstagebuch", 20.11.41, National Archives Microfilm Publication T-314, Roll 1276, Washington,D.C.: The National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1970, Frame 510.
[38] "Die Gebirgstruppe". Muenchen, FRG: Geschaeftsstelle des Kameradenkreises der Gebirgstrupp e.V, Heft 2-4, 1969, p.39.
[39] Gerd Niepold, Battle for White Russia. Translated by Richard Simkin. London: Brassey ' s Defence Publishers. 1987, p. 142.
[40] Microfilm. L Armeekorps, Ia, "Kriegstagebuch", 24.9.44, National Archives Microfilm Publication T-314, Roll 1249, Washington, D.C.: The National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1970, Frame 707.
[41] Microfilm. XXXXVI Panzerkorps , Ia, "Kriegstagebuch" , 2.8.43, National Archives Microfilm Publication T-314, Roll 1086, Washington, D.C.: The National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1970, Frame 533.

During the first part of the war Soviet ground-attack aircraft concentrated on German motorized columns, with attacking units often consisting of two pair of aircraft. At this time Soviet fighter planes were mainly involved against the German Luftwaffe. Attacks were initially carried out from altitudes of 150-300 meters, but this was increased in 1942 to 800-1200 meters which improved accuracy. During the mid-war period Soviet ground attack techniques evolved further. Targets were expanded fran the earlier emphasis on enemy tactical columns to now include disruption of rail and highway camnmications. Additionally, ground-attack aircraft were given "free hunting missions based on defined geographic regions. One pair of aircraft would be given an assigned area but allowed to select their own targets and methods of attack. The official history of the Soviet Airforce in World War I1 makes no claim that Soviet air units killed any German general officers. This would seem to indicate that none of the attacks which occurred were specifically planned or the results known to the Soviet comman d .Ray Wagner,The soviet Air Force in World-War -II. Translated by Leland Fetzer. New York. Doubleday & Company, 1973, pp.120,121,and 208.

Source: GERMAN GENERAL OFFICER CASUALTIES IN WORLD WAR II -- HARBINGER FOR U.S. ARMY GENERAL OFFICER CASUALTIES IN AIRLAND BATTLE? Major French L. MacLean. Infantry. School of Advanced Military Studies U.S. Army ComMnd and General Staff College Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. 7 December 1988.

It's follows. Cheers. Raúl M 8-) .
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Re: German General Officer casualties in WW II.

Postby tigre on 21 Mar 2008 14:21

Hello to all people :D ; following with the BATTLEFIELD LETHALITY.................................

MINEFIELDS.

Surprisingly enough, at least five commanders died in incidents involving minefields. On 12 September 1941, GO Ritter von Schobert, commander of the 11th Amy, was killed when his Fieseler Storch aircraft attempted a forced landing and inadvertently landed in a Soviet minefield killing all aboard. [42] GL Loeweneck, commander of the 39th Infantry Division, drove into a minefield north of Petschenegi, [43] and GL Schmidt, commander of the 50th Infantry Division, blundered into another minefield in the Russian Kuban while visiting an artillery firing position. [44]

Two other commanders died in Africa from minefield effects. GM von Randow, commander of the 21st Panzer Division was killed near Tripoli, 21 December 1942 by a mine laid by the the British Long Range Desert Group. [45] "Friendly" minefields also took their toll. GI., Fischer, commander of the 10th Panzer Division, was killed on 1 February 1943 near Mareth when his staff car driver inadvertently drove into a poorly marked Italian minefield. [46]

[42] Richard Brett-Smith, Generals, p.30.
[43] Microfilm. 39 Infanterie Division, Ia, "Kriegstagebuch", 14.5.43, National Archives Microfilm Publication T-315, Roll 907, Washington, D.C.: The National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1970, Frame 623.
[44] Microfilm. 50 Infanterie Division, Ia, "Kriegstagebuch", 26.6.43, National Archives Microfilm Publication T-315, Roll 948, Washington, D.C.: The National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1970, Frame 782.
[45] Paul Carell, The Foxes of the Desert. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1961, p.289.
[46] R. James Bender, and Warren W. Odegard, Uniforms, Organization and History -of -the Panzertruppe. San Jose: R. James Bender, p. 92 .

Source: GERMAN GENERAL OFFICER CASUALTIES IN WORLD WAR II -- HARBINGER FOR U.S. ARMY GENERAL OFFICER CASUALTIES IN AIRLAND BATTLE? Major French L. MacLean. Infantry. School of Advanced Military Studies U.S. Army ComMnd and General Staff College Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. 7 December 1988.

It's follows. Cheers. Raúl M 8-) .
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Re: German General Officer casualties in WW II.

Postby tigre on 28 Mar 2008 20:21

Hello to all people :D ; following with the BATTLEFIELD LETHALITY.................................

PARTISANS.

The German military effort in World War II took many forms and went beyond traditional conventional combat. Many German units were engaged in rear area missions, or had extensive partisan problems in their own frontline areas. The Germans referred to these guerilla bands as "bandits" but whatever the name, they played a crucial role in operations.

Five German general officer commanders are known to have been killed in action against partisan units. On 26 August 1943 GL Renner, commander 174th Reserve Division, was ambushed near Ozarow while enroute to the Deba maneuver area and killed. Although the route was known to be in a partisan area, Remer was accompanied on his visit by only his adjutant, a staff veterinarian, and five other staff personnel. [47] GM Herold, commander 10th Motorized Division, was also killed in this manner when he was ambushed returning from a visit to the division reconnaissance battalion near Bochnia Poland, 28 November 1944. [48] In Italy, GM Crisolli, commander 20th Luftwaffe Field Division, was killed by partisans in the vicinity of the XIV Panzer Corps headquarters, 12 September 1944. [49]

[47] Microfilm. 174 Reserve Infanterie Division, Ia, "Kriegstagebuch", 26.8.43, National Archives Microfilm Publication T-315, Roll 1536, Washington, D.C.: Ex National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1970, Frame 27.
[48] August Schmidt, Geschichte der -10. Division. Bad Nauheim, FRG: Podzun-Pallas-Verlag, 1963, p. 2567
[49] Werner Haupt, Italien Kriegsschauplatz -1943 -- -1945. Stuttgart, FRG: Motorbuch ~ Verlag p,. 200.

Source: GERMAN GENERAL OFFICER CASUALTIES IN WORLD WAR II -- HARBINGER FOR U.S. ARMY GENERAL OFFICER CASUALTIES IN AIRLAND BATTLE? Major French L. MacLean. Infantry. School of Advanced Military Studies U.S. Army ComMnd and General Staff College Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. 7 December 1988.

It's follows. Cheers. Raúl M 8-) .
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Re: German General Officer casualties in WW II.

Postby tigre on 04 Apr 2008 21:45

Hello to all people :D ; following with the BATTLEFIELD LETHALITY.................................

ARTILLERY.

Artillery continued to play a dominant role in warfare during World War II, and took a deadly toll of German generals. At least eight were killed by this system. Especially hard hit were panzer generals. On 6 December 1941, GM Neumann-Silkow, 15th Panzer Division, was fatally wounded by British artillery fire which landed next to his command tank. [50]When the rounds hit, Neumann-Silkow was exposed in the commander's hatch and had no time to seek safety inside the turret. [51] The followirg year, GM von Bismarck, 21st Panzer Division, was killed by British mortar fire while advancing with a lead battalion near El Alamein. [52]

On the Eastern Front two more panzer generals were killed by artillery. GM Mack, 23rd Panzer Division, was killed by a Soviet mortar barrage on 26 August 1942 near Nowo Poltawskoje. At the time he was forward with the 128th Motorized Infantry Regiment. [53 ] On 28 January 1944, GM Schulz, 7th Panzer Division, was hit in the head by mortar fragments file leading a panzer attack from his comnand tank near Schepetowka. Although medically evacuated, he died enroute to a field hospital. [ 54]

Artillery was just as dangerous to non-panzer commanders as shown when GL Rittau, 129th Infantry Division, was killed by artillery riding in his command vehicle near Martinowo on 22 August 1942. At the time he was with the 427th Infantry Regiment "for a picture of the situation and the handling of the battle." [55]

[50] R. James Bender, and Richard D. Law, Afrikakorps. p.62.
[51] Paul Carell, Foxes. p.91.
[52] R. James Bender, and Richard D. Law, Afrikakorps. p.67.
[53] Ernst Rebentisch, Zum Kaukasus und zu den Tauern, Die Geschichte -der -23. Panzer - Division, 1941-1945 Forcheim, FRG: Sperl 1982, p. 87.
[54] Hasso von Manteuffel, -Die 7. Panzer-Division im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Friedberg, FRG: Podzun-Pallas-Verlag, 1986, ~p.m-391.
[55] Microfilm. 129 Infanterie Division, Ia, "Kriegstagebuch", 22.8.42, National Archives Microfilm Publication T-315, Roll 1376, Washington, D.C. : The National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1970, Frame 169.

Source: GERMAN GENERAL OFFICER CASUALTIES IN WORLD WAR II -- HARBINGER FOR U.S. ARMY GENERAL OFFICER CASUALTIES IN AIRLAND BATTLE. Major French L. MacLean. Infantry. School of Advanced Military Studies U.S. Army Command and General Staff College Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. 7 December 1988.

It's follows. Cheers. Raúl M 8-) .
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Re: German General Officer casualties in WW II.

Postby tigre on 10 Apr 2008 02:30

Hello to all people :D ; following with the BATTLEFIELD LETHALITY.................................

SNIPERS.

Soviet snipers killed at least three general officers on the Eastern Front. As a lesson from the Finnish War, sniper training in the Soviet Army increased through inter-unit competitions; and throughout the war snipers were greatly respected. Additionally, one of the most proficient characteristics of Soviet infantry and reconnaissance units during the war was their ability to infiltrate German positions, particularly in winter and in rough terrain. [ 56 ]

Snipers first struck on 7 April 1942 when GM Scheidies, 61st Infantry Division, was shot in the head and killed in operations near Gluschitza. [ 57] During the Battle of Kursk, another general fell to the proficient marksmen. GM von Huenersdorff, 6th Panzer Division, was shot in the head on 14 July 1943. He died three days later at a Kharkov hospital. At the time of the incident, he was enroute from a forward detachment to the division forward command post. [58] The following year, a Soviet sniper shot GL Kress, 4th Mountain Division, in the 'head and killed him near Novorossijsk. [59]

One factor assisting the Soviets in this effort was the German generals' uniforms, which displayed prominent red insignia designating this rank. Although camouflage clothing appeared in greater numbers as the war progressed, wartime photographs show that most German generals did not wear this tactical garment but stayed with the traditional distinctive uniform.

[56] John A. English, A Perspective -on Infantry. New York: Praeger,1981, pp.121,127, and 128.
[57] Microfilm. 61 Infanterie Division, Ia, "Kriegstagebuch", 7.4.42, National Archives Microfilm Publication T-315, Roll 1016, Washington, D.C.: The National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1970, Frame 123.
[58] Paul Carell, Scorched m. London: George G. Harrap & Co., 1970, p.87.
[59] Roland Kaltenegger, Gebirgssoldaten dem Zeichen des "Enzian", Schicksalsweg und Kampf 4 Gebirgs -Divisio n ~ l 940~1945 Graz, Austrla: Leopold Stocker Verlag, 1983, p.258.

Source: GERMAN GENERAL OFFICER CASUALTIES IN WORLD WAR II -- HARBINGER FOR U.S. ARMY GENERAL OFFICER CASUALTIES IN AIRLAND BATTLE. Major French L. MacLean. Infantry. School of Advanced Military Studies U.S. Army Command and General Staff College Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. 7 December 1988.

It's follows. Cheers. Raúl M 8-) .
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Re: German General Officer casualties in WW II.

Postby tigre on 18 Apr 2008 20:53

Hello to all people :D ; following with the BATTLEFIELD LETHALITY.................................

TANK AND ANTI-TANK.

Despite the fact that tank and anti-tank weapons often accounted for decisive tactical successes, both played a lesser role in accounting for German general officer casualties. Two generals were found to have been killed by Soviet tanks. GM Gruner, 111th Infantry Division, was killed by main gun fire from a T-34 tank on 12 May 1944 during the attempted German evacuation of the Crimea as the German positions were overrun. [60] On 27 January 1945, a deep Soviet tank raid killed GM Finger, 291st Infantry Division, near Tschenstochay Poland. [61] Anti-tank fire killed two generals. One, GL von Prittwitz u. Gaffron, 15th Panzer Division, was killed 25 miles west of Tobruck by British anti-tank fire on 10 April 1941. [62]

[ 60 ] Paul Carell, Scorched E. p. 476.
(61) Werner Conze, -Die Geschichte -der 291 Infanterie-Division, 1940-1945. Bad Nauheim, ERG: Hans Henning Verlag, 1953, p.79.
[62] R. James Bender, and Richard D. Law, Afrikakorps. p.62.

Source: GERMAN GENERAL OFFICER CASUALTIES IN WORLD WAR II -- HARBINGER FOR U.S. ARMY GENERAL OFFICER CASUALTIES IN AIRLAND BATTLE. Major French L. MacLean. Infantry. School of Advanced Military Studies U.S. Army Command and General Staff College Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. 7 December 1988.

It's follows. Cheers. Raúl M 8-) .
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Re: German General Officer casualties in WW II.

Postby Lornito Uriarte Mahinay Jr. on 19 Apr 2008 10:42

Regarding the death due to partisan action, perhaps Generalleutnant Franz Krech is included. He was killed near the village of Molei in Peleponnesse in Greece by andartes men on 27 April 1943.
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Re: German General Officer casualties in WW II.

Postby Lornito Uriarte Mahinay Jr. on 19 Apr 2008 10:54

Generalleutnant Friedrich Zickwolff was also wounded due to 'partisan' activity in Brittany and died as a consequence.
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Re: German General Officer casualties in WW II.

Postby tigre on 19 Apr 2008 14:10

Hello Baron Lornito Mahinay, thanks for joining us :D; good complements. Cheers. Raúl M 8-)
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Re: German General Officer casualties in WW II.

Postby B5N2KATE on 19 Apr 2008 15:38

I'm not sure I see the point.....

Does this mean that unit performance suffered?

How are the stats related to other armies of the period?....Was the lack of staff work in the Soviet military indicative of their casualties and performance? Or simply a product of the Great Purge?

Looking at American units, the Army 27th Infantry division springs to mind....how many non-staff trained officers did it possess, having one of the worst combat records in the Pacific theater as it did?

Is this researcher suggesting that unit performance is directly related to officer casualties of a staff trained ilk?

Somebody spell this one out for me....silly person that I am for not seeing the point of it all.... :oops:
"Es mejor morir de pie que vivir de rodillas!"
("It is better to die on your feet than live on your knees!")
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