This is an apolitical forum for discussions on the Axis nations and related topics hosted by Marcus Wendel's Axis History Factbook in cooperation with Michael Miller's Axis Biographical Research, Christoph Awender's WW2 day by dayand Christian Ankerstjerne’s Panzerworld.
Peter H wrote:Was there a baby boom in the Soviet Union,like in the West,after 1945?
Kim Sung wrote:From the above charts, so-called Sputnik Baby Boom is not confirmed.
Hard Data, Estimates and Guesstimates
- 9.244 million Soviet military deaths incl POWs*
- 556,000 Soviet military nonbattle deaths*
- 200,000 Soviet civilian volunteers for German service killed
- 622,000 GULag inmates died*
- 64,721 civil executions for political and criminal offences*
- estimated 400,000 deaths among 2.75 million deportees
- > 3 million deaths in Soviet controlled territory from disease, hunger, exhaustion (esp. evacuees)
- estimated 100,000 killed in Polish-Ukrainian conflicts, by NKVD in 1944-45 in reannexed territories, etc.
- 900,000 victims of the siege of Leningrad*
- 6 million victims of shootings, gassings, hangings (Jews and non-Jews) under Axis occupation*
- > 3 million deaths in Axis occupied territory from disease, hunger, exhaustion
- 300,000 deaths among Ostarbeiter and Soviet inmates of German KZs
- 500,000 not returning to Soviet Union (collaborators, Poles, Balts, Ukrainians emigrating, KZ inmate-DPs)
total 25.472 million
- 1.128 million or more deaths from collateral damage
total 26.6 million
- unknown number displaced out of Soviet territory during population exchange programs in 1944-45
* = hard data with chronological/regional breakdowns from source below.
To recap, there are the following potential reductions in population cause not by excess deaths but by emigration:
- 500,000 non-repatriated DPs and refugees, primarily from the Baltic states and annexed territories
- 104,893 Soviet DPs who were repatriated between March 1946 and January 1952
- at least 100,000 Soviet DPs repatriated between 31.12.1945 and 1.3.1946
- part of 424,000 Finns resettled from Soviet territory to Finland
- part of a balance of 558,788 Poles resettled from annexed territories over the contrarian movement
The whopper is the Bialystok district which had been Soviet in 1941, but was ceded to Poland after the war. The signing of the Soviet-Polish treaty appears to have been 21 April 1945. I have no figures immediately to hand for the population of this territory ceded to Poland, but it must have been of the order of a million inhabitants.
I only have ADK's article in a 1995 version, and it does not mention factoring out or in any of the above. So for the moment, I will give them the benefit of the doubt and speak of a potential reduction in the Soviet death toll of perhaps 2 million people.
ADK's population statistics, naturally being based on registrations, most likely suffered from a hidden margin of error for transients. Normally demographers such as ADK allow and correct for this kind of fluctuation. Thus, the effects of emigration and repatriation might serve only to dampen down the overall figure.(Another related aspect is the extent to which repatriated citizens were registered at all in the overall population statistics.)
There are no easy answers, but the above indicates that by no means all population losses recorded by demographic statistics stemmed from excess deaths.
RCW Mark wrote:What I'm suggesting is that most of the people "emigrating" from the USSR to Poland were living in Poland prior to the war.
Can a person born in Polish L'vov and who grew up in Poland until 1939, really be considered to be emigrating the USSR?
and also the very many people in the USSR who fled westward in the chaos of the war and its aftermath.
Also, some of those "unnatural deaths" were fighting on the Axis side. I have always found it kind of odd to include them when showing what a sacrifice the Soviets made to repelling Fascism.
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