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Berlin, 3/1/1941 [stamp]
TOP SECRET 5 copies, 1st copy
Memorandum Conference at Office Chief, General of the Infantry Thomas on 2/28/1911
Present: General of the Infantry Thomas, Colonel Becht, Lt. Col. Luther, Lt. Col. Matzky, Major von Gusevius, Major von Payr, Major Huch, Captain Emmerich, Captain Dr. Hamann
The general ordered that a broader plan of organization be drafted for the Reich Marshal.
1. The whole organization to be subordinate to the Reich Marshal. Purpose: Support and extension of the measures of the four-year plan.
2. The organization must include everything concerning war economy, excepting only food, which is said to be made already a special mission of State Secretary Backe.
3. Clear statement that the organization is to be independent of the military or civil administration. Close cooperation, but instructions direct from the central office in Berlin.
4. Scope of activities to be divided in two steps:
a. Accompanying the advancing troops directly behind the front lines, in order to avoid the destruction of supplies and to secure the removal of important goods.
b. Administration of the occupied industrial districts and exploitation of economically complimentary districts.
5. In view of the extended field of activity, the term war economy inspection is to be used preferably, instead of armament inspection.
6. In view of the great field of activity, the organization must be generously equipped and personnel must be correspondingly numerous.
The main mission of the organization will consist of seizing raw materials and taking over all important concerns. For the latter mission reliable persons from German concerns will be interposed suitably from the beginning, since successful operation from the beginning can only be performed by the aid of their experiences (for example, lignite, ore, chemistry, petroleum).
After the discussion of further details, Lt. Col. Luther was instructed to make an initial draft of such an organization within one week.
Close cooperation with the individual sections in the building is essential. An Officer must still be appointed for Wi. and Ro with whom the operational staff can remain in constant contact. Wi is to give each section chief and Lt. Col. Luther a copy of the new plan regarding Russia.
Major General Schubert is to be asked to be in Berlin the second half of next week. Also, the 4 officers who are ordered to draw up the individual armament inspections are to report to the Office Chief at the end of next week.
Staff 1st Copy,
Rue 2nd Copy,
Lt. Col. Luther 3rd Copy,
Planning 4th Copy,
Supply 5th Copy
Top Secret Only thru officer
OKW Armed Forces Operational Staff
Section L (IV/Qu) 44125/41
Fuehrer Hq, 3/13/1941
5 copies, 4th copy
Subject: Armed Forces Operational Staff/Section L (I) number 33408/40. Top Secret. 12/18/1940 Directives for Special Areas to Order number 21 (Case Barbarossa)
I. Area of operations and executive power
1. The authorization to issue orders and the regulations regarding supply for an area of operations within the armed forces shall be set up by the High Command of the Armed Forces in East Prussia and in the General Gouvernement at the latest four weeks before operations are started. The proposal by the High Command of the Army (OKH) is being made in time, after an agreement with the Commander of the Luftwaffe (Ob.d.L.) has been reached.
It is not contemplated to declare East Prussia and the General Gouvernement an area of operations. However, in accordance with the unpublished Fuehrer orders from 10/19-21/1939, the Supreme Commander of the Army shall be authorized to take all measures necessary for the execution of his military aim and for the safeguarding of the troops. He may transfer his authority onto the Supreme Commander of the Army Groups and Armies. Orders of that kind have priority over all orders issued by civilian agencies.
2. The Russian territory which is to be occupied shall be divided up into individual states with governments of their own, according to special orders, as soon as military operations are concluded. From this the following is inferred:
a. The area of operations, created through the advance of the Army beyond the frontiers of the Reich and the neighboring countries is to be limited in depth as far as possible. The Supreme Commander of the Army has-the right to exercise the executive power in this area, and may transfer his authority onto the Supreme Commanders of the Army Groups and Armies.
b. In the area of operations, the Reichsfuehrer SS is, on behalf of the Fuehrer, entrusted with special tasks for the preparation of the political administration, tasks which result from the struggle which has to be carried out between two opposing political systems. Within the realm of these tasks, the Reichsfuehrer SS shall act independently and under his own responsibility. The executive power invested in the Supreme Commander of the Army (OKH) and in agencies determined by him shall not be affected by this. It is the responsibility of the Reichsfuehrer SS that through the execution of his tasks military operations shall not be disturbed. Details shall be arranged directly through the OKH with the Reichsfuehrer SS.
c. As soon as the area of operations has reached sufficient depth, it is to be limited in the rear. The newly occupied territory in the rear of the area of operations is to be given its own political administration. For the present, it is to be divided, according to its genealogic basis and to the positions of the Army Groups, into North (Baltic countries), Center (White Russia) and South (Ukraine). In these territories the political administration is taken care of by Commissioners of the Reich who receive their orders from the Fuehrer.
3. For the execution of all military tasks within the areas under the political administration in the rear of the area of operations, commanding officers who are responsible to the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces (OKW) shall be in command.
The commanding officer is the supreme representative of the Armed Forces in the respective areas and the bearer of the military sovereign rights. He has the tasks of a Territorial Commander and the rights of a supreme Army Commander or a Commanding General. In this capacity he is responsible primarily for the following tasks:
a. Close cooperation with the Commissioner of the Reich in order to support him in his political task.
b. Exploitation of the country and securing its economic values for use by German industry (see par. 4).
c. Exploitation of the country for the supply of the troops according to the needs of the OKH.
d. Military security of the whole area, mainly airports, routes of supply and supply-dumps against revolt, sabotage and enemy paratroops.
e. Traffic regulations.
f. Billeting for armed forces, police and organizations, and for PW's inasmuch as they remain in the administrative areas.
The commanding officer has the right, as opposed to the civilian agencies, to issue orders which are necessary for the execution of the military tasks. His orders supersede all others, also those of the commissioners of the Reich.
Service directives, mobilization orders and directives on the distribution of the necessary forces shall be issued separately.
The time for the assumption of command by the commanding officers will be ordered as soon as the military situation shall allow a change in the command without disrupting military operations. Until such time, the agencies set up by the OKH remain in office, operating according to the principles valid for the commanding officers.
4. The Fuehrer has entrusted the uniform direction of the administration of economy in the area of operations and in the territories of political administration to the Reich Marshal who has delegated the Chief of the "Wi Rue Amt" with the execution of the task. Special orders on that will come from the OKW/Wi Rue Amt.
5. The majority of the Police Forces shall be under the jurisdiction of the Commissioners of the Reich. Requests for the employment of police forces in the area of operations on the part of the OKH are to be made as early as possible to the OKW/Armed Forces Operational Staff/Section Defense.
6. The behavior of the troops towards the population and the tasks of the military courts shall be separately regulated, and commanded.
II. Personnel, Supply and Communication Traffic:
7. Special orders shall be issued by the OKW Armed Forces Operational Staff for the measures necessary before the beginning of operations for the restriction of travel, delivery of goods and communications to Russia.
8. As soon as operations begin, the German-Soviet Russian frontier and at a later stage the border at the rear of the area of operations will be closed by the OKH for any and all non-military traffic with the exception of the police organizations to be deployed by the Reichsfuehrer SS on the Fuehrer's orders. Billeting and feeding of these organizations will be taken care of by the OKH-Gen. Qu. who may for this purpose request from the Reichsfuehrer SS the assignment of liaison officers.
The border shall remain closed also for leading personalities of the highest government agencies and agencies of the Party. The OKW/Armed Forces Operational Staff shall inform the highest government and Party agencies of this fact. The Supreme Commander of the Army and the agencies under him shall decide on exceptions.
Except for the special regulations applying to the police organizations of the Reichsfuehrer SS, applications for entrance permits must be submitted to the Supreme Commander of the Army exclusively.
III. Regulations regarding Rumania, Slovakia, Hungary and Finland.
9. The necessary arrangements with these countries shall be made by the OKW, together with the Foreign Office, and according to the wishes of the respective high commands. In case it should become necessary during the course of the operations to grant special rights, applications for this purpose are to be submitted to the OKW.
10. Police measures for the protection of the troops are permitted, independently from the granting of special rights. Further orders in this shall be issued later.
11. Special orders shall be issued at a later date for the territories of these countries, on the following subjects: Procurement of food and feed. Housing and machinery. Purchase and the shipment of merchandise. Procurement of funds and wage-control. Salaries. Request for indemnity-payments. Postal and telegraph services. Traffic. Jurisdiction.
Requests of units of the Armed Forces and agencies of the OKW from the respective governments regarding these subjects, are to be submitted to the OKW/Armed Forces Operational Staff/ Section Defense not later than 3/27/1941.
IV. Directives regarding Sweden. 12. Since Sweden can only become a transient-area for troops, no special authority is to be granted the commander of the German troops. However, he is entitled and compelled to secure the immediate protection of RR-transports against sabotage and attacks.
The Chief of the High Command of the Armed Forces
OKH 1st copy.
OKM 2nd copy.
Armed Forces Operational Staff 4th copy.
Section L-5th copy.
21 March W Chief of the Office for War Mobilization of Economy [Wi Rue Amt]
Berlin, 20 March 1941
6 Copies 3rd Copy Report
to Reich Marshall Goering on 19 March 1941 The following points were reported :
1. Organization Barbarossa. The Reich Marshall fully agrees to the proposed organization.
The following to join the Ops. Staff: Koerner, Backe, Hanneken, Alpers and Thomas.
Its management will be with the Office for War Mobilization of Economy.
The Reich Marshall attaches importance to the creation of a unified organization. He agrees to direction of offices by officers, in individual instances, particularly in the case of General Schubert. The Reich Marshall will talk personally to the Directors of the Economy Inspectorates. Hanneken is to name the best personnel in Economy.
2. The directives worked out by the Wi for destructive measures to be undertaken by the Luftwaffe in the "Fall Barbarossa" were agreed to by the Reich Marshall. One copy was handed to Captain von Brauchitsch to be forwarded to the General Staff of the Luftwaffe.
3. Report on the India-rubber situation. The Reich Marshall agrees that from now on transportation of India-rubber shall be carried out by ship using blockade runners, also utilizing the Japanese for these purposes.
4. Report on storage of fuels in Holland and security measures against bombing attacks.
[in pencil] BDC — GOTHA — Old I
5. Report on the demands of the Ministry for Economy re the securing of personnel for the main industry [Grundindustrie].
[Marginal notes in blue pencil : IV. Armament (Rue) ]
The Reich Marshall is of the opinion that the most important people in the factories stay and less important people must go to the front.
6. Report on differences between the Navy [Kriegsmarine] and Ministry for Labor concerning the wage increase in Naval dockyards.
The Reich Marshall wishes that the measures proposed by Reichtrustee should be carried out, will however still call a meeting on the problem personally. [IV. Armament (Rue)]
7. The organizing of additional fire-guards because of increasing danger from the air to factories important to war economy [Wehrwirtschaftsbetriebe] is authorized. [Armament (Rue) III]
8. The Reich Marshall has already given his directives to the Luftwaffe in the exports sphere [Auslandslieferungen] concerning the Finnish deliveries. He wishes delivery of a number of anti-aircraft gun-batteries and some airplanes. [Armament (Rue) II]
The Hungarian demands for search lights and listening devices shall be negotiated once more with General [Generaloberst] Udet. [Economy (WI)]
9. The Reich Marshall is informed that a large number of foreigners are still working in the fuel-production [Treibstoffbetriebe]. [III Armament (Rue)]
He wishes that Poles, French and Russians disappear from the fuel and buna factories and be replaced by other people.
The Reich Minister for Labor is to institute further action. [—enclosure—finished 21 March]
10. Report on the demands of Governor General Frank concerning Armed Forces Factories [Wehrmachtsbetriebe] in Poland.
The Reich Marshall decides that purely Armed Forces Factories are to belong to the Sections of the Armed Forces concerned, the factories for raw material to the Reichworks. Appropriate directive shall be submitted to him. [II Armament (Rue) ]
11. Orientation of the Reich Marshall on the negotiations between France and America with regard to fuel supplies to North Africa.
He is of the opinion that it is important to get the fuel to Africa, it is unimportant which ships are used.
Colonel Spalcke informs the Reich Marshall of the orders which General Antonescu has given to Germany, of the capacities of Rumania and of the collaboration as regards fuel.
The Reich Marshall's opinion is that Rumania should supply at the most 20 divisions and that the point must be reached where supplies for the Rumanian Army in Rumania should eventually be provided by Rumania herself.
At the same time, Rumania must be fully utilized to provide means of transportation and for the establishing of repair shops on a large scale.
Concerning the collaboration as regards fuel with the Neubacher Office, agreement must be reached first of all between the Four Year Plan, the Ministry of Economy and the Office for War Mobilization of Economy.
The Reich Marshall was then further informed by me of the purchase of trucks from France and of the negotiations in regard to the India-rubber contract.
The Reichmarshall then demanded the following himself :
1. He wants to know if the dockyards in Rumania could be used for the building of submarines. [Armament II (Rue) ]
2. He wishes a report on the negotiations of the Ministryfor Communications [Verkehrsministerium] with regard to the transit-difficulties with Russia.[Economy (Wi) ]
Who has been the negotiator?
3. He wishes a report on how the whale-oil transports are forwarded from Bordeaux and whose responsibility it is and furthermore, who is responsible for the forwarding of fuel-transports, which are being brought in as prizes by the Navy. [Food Ministry (Ern. Min.) Ro.]
1 Copy Office Chief
2 Copy Economy
3 Copy Armament
4 Copy Ro
5 Copy Colonel Jansen
6 Copy Draft
[Found in Rosenberg's files.]
1. Memorandum 4/2/1941
Subject: The USSR.
Bolshevik Russia, just as the one-time Czarist Russia, is a conglomeration of peoples of very different types, which has come to being through the annexation of states of a related or even of an essentially alien character.
A military conflict with the USSR will result in an extraordinarily rapid occupation of an important and large section of the USSR - It is very probable that military action on our part will very soon be followed by the military collapse of the USSR. The occupation of these areas would then present not so many military as administrative and economic difficulties. Thus arises the first question:
Is the occupation to be determined by purely military and/or economic needs, or is the laying of political foundations for a future organization of the area also a factor in determining how far the occupation shall be extended? If so, it-is a matter of urgency to fix the political goal which is to be obtained, for it ill, without doubt, also have an effect on military operations.
If the political overthrow of the Eastern Empire, in the weak condition it would be at the time, is set as the goal of military operations, one may conclude that:
1. The occupation must comprise areas of vast proportions;
2. From the very beginning, the treatment of individual sections of territory should, as regards administration, as well as economics and ideology, be adapted to the political ends we are striving to attain;
3. Again, extraordinary questions concerning these vast areas, such as, in particular, the assurance of essential supplies for the continuation of the war against England, the maintenance of production which this necessitates and the general directives for the completely separate areas, had best be dealt with all in one.
It should again be stressed here that, in addition, all the arguments which follow of course only hold good once the supplies from the area to be occupied, which are essential to Greater Germany for the continuation of the war, has been assured.
Anyone who knows the East, sees on a map of Russia's population the following national or geographical units:
a. Greater Russia with Moscow as its centre.
b. White Russia with Minsk or Smolensk as its capital.
c. Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
d. The Ukraine and the Crimea with Kiev as its centre.
e. The Don area with Rostov as its capital.
f. The area of the Caucasus.
g. Russian Central Asia or Russian Turkestan.
A. Greater Russia After the rule of the Tartars, the Russian Empire, Czarist in character developed out of the Grand Duchy of Moscow. This nucleus area possesses even today the greatest driving power The political aim of operations against the USSR, therefore would be the permanent weakening of this area, in order to se cure possibilities of expansion for the other areas. By means of a temporary occupation of this area, this weakening could be brought about in a way comprising the three following measures
1. The total destruction of the Jewish Bolshevik state administration, without helping to set up a new and comprehensive state system;
2. very extensive utilization of economic resources such as the removal of all non-essential stocks, mechanical installations, and in particular, of any available means of transport, small river craft, etc.;
3. the allocation of considerable sections of this Russian nucleus territory to the fresh administrative units which are to be formed, as, in particular, to White Russia, the Ukraine, and the Don territory.
In this way all other areas would be offered at the same time the possibility of making extensive use of that part of Russia controlled by Moscow as a dumping ground for undesirable elements of the population.
B. White Russia.
White Russia comprises a part of the USSR which is very backward culturally as well as economically. At the same time it contains the second largest Jewish community in the USSR, with towns which are completely Jewish, such as Bialystok, Minsk, Polodzk, Vitebsk, and others.
The awakening of an independent life, and the setting up of a living state system must be considered as an extremely tedious and difficult undertaking. White Russia is far more backward in culture than, for instance, Lithuania, and more exploited by the Jews than Poland. Nevertheless, having regard to the necessity of weakening the Russian nucleus area, such an attempt should be advocated.
The USSR has confined White Russia to the area between the Polish North-West frontier and approximately as far as the Pronja. But the real capital of the whole area would be Smolensk. The half administrative district of the same name and also a section of the administrative district of Kalinin (formerly Twer) could count, by population, as belonging to it, or could be added to it for administration purposes. In this way the frontier of White Russia would be moved forward to within about 250 kilometres of Moscow.
If the creation of independent political life is considered desirable, it would not be advisable to carve up this area to the benefit of the General-government of Poland.
C. Esthonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
In the case of these areas the question arises, whether they should be allotted the special task of becoming a German settlement area of the future, the racially most suitable elements being assimilated.
If this is set up as an aim, the areas also require very special treatment in the general task.
The necessary removal of considerable sections of the intelligentsia particularly Latvian onesto the Russian nucleus area would have to be organized. The settlement of a German rural population in considerable quantities would have to be started possibly a large contingent of German settlers suitable for this purpose could be taken from among the Volga Germans, after the undesirable elements have been eliminated. There might also be the possibility of the settlements of Danes, Norwegians, Dutch and -- after the war has been brought to a victorious
end -- of Englishmen too, so that, in the course of one or two generations, this area can be joined up with the German nucleus area as a new Germanised country.
In this case we should also not have to neglect to deport considerable groups of racially inferior sections of the population from Lithuania.
D. The Ukraine (Border territory).
Kiev became the main centre of the Varangian state with its superimposed Scandinavian character. But even after the rule of the Tartars Kiev was for a long time diametrically opposed to Moscow. Its independent national life is based, contrary to the assertions of Muscovite historians, whose ideas also dominated the whole of European learning, on a tradition which is really almost unbroken.
As far as this area is concerned, the political task would be the encouragement of independent national life until, possibly, an independent state could be created, with the object, alone or in conjunction with the Don area and the Caucasus as a Black Sea Union of holding Moscow constantly in check and ensuring Lebensraum for Greater Germany to the East. In the economic field, however, this area would at the same time, have the task of forming a powerful base for raw materials and a supplementary nutrition centre for the Greater German Reich.
Strips of border territory from the Russian nucleus area, too would have to be added to that part which is regarded by the USSR as purely Ukrainianas has already been mentioned in order to weaken this nucleus area and at the same time to keep alive constant opposition to it. In this matter, parts of the administrative districts of Kursk and Voronesch might be possibilities.
The administrative and economic handling of the whole area would then have to be directed towards the attainment of the political aim.
E. The Don Area.
It is inhabited by the Don Cossacks. As a nation they are far less independent than the Ukrainians, culturally they are saturated with Moscow ideology, and politically they tend chiefly towards Moscow, but are more developed than the White Russians The task in this area would be similar to that in White Russia.
Similarly, it would be desirable to extend this area northwards up to the Administrative Districts of Szaratow in order to link up its administration with that of the territory of the Volga Germans.
F. The Caucasus.
The Caucasus is inhabited by sections of the population which are, racially, entirely different, and also by national units. The river plain of the Kuban and Terek, and the present Administrative Districts of Krasnodar and Ordschjonokidze are inhabited by Cossacks, the majority of whom consider themselves to be Ukrainians. The most advanced nation as regards culture is the Georgians, between the Great and Lesser Caucasus, who can point to a centuries old cultural tradition and independence of their own. Then comes Aserbeidschan, peopled by Mussulmen of Ugrotatarian origin, with its centre at Baku. The Armenians live in adJacent territory to the South, while the northern mountain slopes are inhabited by quite a number of mountain peoples of the most varied origins.
The area is Russia's oil centre. The material output, and indeed the existence of the other mainly agricultural areas of the USSR, such as the Ukraine, the Don-Kuban, and the Terek district, and also to a certain extent the Russian nucleus area, largely depend on keeping this area in production. Owing to the introduction of the Bolshevik system of running villages on communal lines without individual ownership, and of Kolchoses (collective farms), with mechanical cultivation of the soil, the production of grain and food depends on the regular supplying of the necessary fuel. As a result of the sharp drop in the number of draught cattle, and the fact that these are, numerically, very unevenly distributed, any strangulation of the oil supplyquite apart from the maintenance of the motor repair depots and the availability of the necessary servicing personnel for thistends to famine.
G. Russian Central Asia or Russian Turkestan.
We can assume that, after the military collapse of the Soviets in Europe, very small forces would be needed to dispose of the Moscow tyranny in Central Asia. This area too, is inhabited by peoples of very different types, mainly Turano-Mongoloid, and who are followers of Mohammed. They feel themselves to be in long-standing racial and religious opposition to the Soviets, and at the same time to the Russian people too, without being able, for the time being, to throw off the Russian yoke by their own efforts. This should not be considered too difficult to carry out, however, with German help, and in view of the confusion which would arise among the Soviets.
The area is Russia's cotton store, with an annual production, according to Bolshevik figures, of 400000-500000 tons of cotton.
The entry of Germans into Central Asia would mean powerful rear support for Iran and Afghanistan. It is a matter for conjecture whether these states would not possibly be impelled by this means to undertake more active operations against India if there is any such intention -- in the event of Turkey too, having altered her attitude by that time. The threat to the British lines of communication to India thus acquires real significance, and will, without doubt, compel Britain to deploy greater forces in this area, which she would have to take from Europe or elsewhere.
General Questions of Economy from the Legal Angle.
The acquisition of oil, mainly in the Caucasus, immediately brings with it the question of its transport, in order to maintain agricultural production in the occupied areas. The question of transport, however, which is of decisive importance to the cultivation of the soil, is bound up again with settling the coal problem. At the same time, the question of finance in these areas appears of primary importance.
A question which likewise affects all areas is that of the almost complete abolition, under the Soviet system, of private property. It is not improbable that this question will have practical consequences immediately the area is occupied. Spontaneous action taken by a completely uneducated rural population, if and when they dissolve the Kolchoses by their own efforts, could result in untold material harm.
For this reason these problems require to be settled, not regionally, but as extraordinary matters for all areas, and local variations, and perhaps also differing tactical action could easily be combined with this.
The following systematic constructional plan is evolved from the points briefly outlined here:
1. the creation of a central department for the occupied areas of the USSR, to be confined more or less to war-time.
Working in agreement with the higher and supreme Reich authorities, it would be the task of this department
a. to issue binding political instructions to the separate administration areas, having in mind the situation existing at the time and the goal which is to be achieved.
b. to secure for the Reich supplies essential to the war from all the occupied areas.
c. to make preparations for, and to supervise the carrying out, in main outline, of the primarily important questions for all areas, as for instance, those of finance and funds, transport, and the production of oil, coal and food;
2. the carrying out of sharply defined decentralization in the separate administration areas, grouped together by race or by reason of political economy, for the carrying out of the totally dissimilar tasks assigned to them.
As against this, an administrative department, regulating matters in principle, and to be set up on a purely economic basis, as is at present envisaged, might very soon prove to be inadequate, and Jail in its purpose. Such a central office would be compelled to carry out a common policy for all areas, dictated only by economic considerations, and this might impede the carrying out of the political task and, in view of its being run on purely bureaucratic lines, might possibly even prevent it.
The question therefore arises, whether the opinions which have been set forth should not, purely for reasons of expediency, be taken into consideration from the very beginning when organising the administration of the territory on a basis of war economy. In view of the vast spaces and the difficulties of administration which arise from that alone, and also in view of the living conditions created by Bolshevism, which are totally different from those of Western Europe, the whole question of the USSR would require different treatment from that which has been applied in the individual countries of Western Europe.
Appendix to Memorandum No. 2
Recommendations as to the personnel for the Reich Commissariats in the East and for the Political Central Office in Berlin
[Found in Rosenberg's files.]
Surveying the requirements in regard to personnel as a whole, the following considerations must be taken into account. On psychological and historical grounds it would not appear politic to put the immediate political direction of the Baltic Provinces into the hands of the Balts. Although it must be admitted that they know the conditions best and also know the languages, so many historical memories and complexes are involved, that it would appear inexpedient if we are to attain our final political goal to allow people who formerly had dealings with the Estonians, Latvians and Lithuanians once more to appear politically in positions of authority. On the other hand, it is necessary to send people to these parts who are intimately acquainted with the problems of the East and North and are also able, from the point of view of temperament to bring a particular understanding to bear on the situation there. When, in addition, there are still interests in connection with Scandinavia and Finland, indeed altogether a Hanseatic trend, then in the opinion of the undersigned, such persons would be most suited for the political direction of the Eastern Provinces. On these grounds the undersigned suggests the following to the Fuehrer: As Reich Commissar for the Baltic Provinces and White Russia: Gauleiter Hinrich Lohse, Kiel. Headquarters: Riga.
Further positions to be filled: a Reich Commissariat for the Ukraine, a Reich Commissariat for the Caucasus and a Reich Commissariat for the Don and Volga Areas. Here also it would appear necessary to entrust this task to people who already have a previous knowledge of the Russian, Ukrainian and Caucasus problems, who have been in contact with the country and people, and if it is at all possible, who speak Russian, the language with which one can make oneself generally understood there. The undersigned suggests to the Fuehrer as Reich Commissar for the Ukraine and Caucasus, as they may be suitable: Secretary of State Backe and Stabsleiter Arno Schickedanz. Party member Backe himself comes from the Caucasus and will quickly be able to acquaint himself with the conditions, speaks fluent Russian and has never quite broken off his connections with the Caucasus. Pg. Schickedanz has been working in the Russian sphere for 20 years, formerly with Dr. Scheubner-Richter and then with the undersigned. He helped the latter with politically cautious advice, particularly in connection with Norway. He knows many of the people concerned with Russia, the Ukraine and the Caucasus so that he appears suitable for one of these posts, in order to survey the political situation correctly and serve the political aims for which we are to strive. If the undersigned could make a choice for this recommendation, he would name Backe for the Caucasus and Schickedanz for the Ukraine. As second in command to the Reich Commissar in the Caucasus, the Commissioner for the 4 year plan would have to name someone to lead an authoritative Oil Commission. For the Ukraine an agricultural department of particularly capable men would have to be established. Headquarters of the Reich Commissariats would be Kijew and Tiflis.
Prime Minister D. Klagges is recommended as Reich Commissar for the Don-Volga Area. As a result of his initiative in connection with the establishment of the Hermann-Goering Works in Salzgitter he knows the problems of mining and as Prime Minister of Brunswick he has collected
all the administrative experience. At the moment the undersigned can call to mind no one else who speaks Russian. Headquarters of the Reich Commissar: Rostov on Don.
In addition, it will eventually become necessary to occupy with troops not only Petersburg, but also Moscow. This occupation will definitely differ considerably from that in the Baltic provinces, in the Ukraine and in the Caucaus. It will be accomplished by suppressing any Russian and Bolshevik resistance and will necessitate an absolutely ruthless person, both as regards the military representation and also the eventual political direction. The problems arising from this need not be detailed here. If it is not intended to maintain a permanent military administration, the undersigned would recommend the Gauleiter of East Prussia, Erich Koch as Reich Commissar in Moscow.
A consideration of the problems as a whole shows that in order to overcome them a Central Office to direct the work of the various Reich Commissariats is urgently necessary. First of all in order to relieve the Fuehrer, so that he does not have to deal continuously with four or five Administrative Offices in the East, and secondly since it is necessary, from an authoritative and political , point of view, for all these areas to be surveyed and supervised by one office, and for the tasks allotted to be carried out in the manner desired by the Fuehrer by means of directives to the personalities in charge. The Fuehrer instructed the undersigned, on 4/2/1941, to establish a central political office to deal with work in the East in anticipation of the eventuality mentioned in the introduction to this memorandum. Bearing in mind the political aims described above, the most important task of such a central political office, immediately subordinate to the Fuehrer, would be the adaptation or actual preparation of suitable leaflets, as the first proclamation of the Military Commander. It would then have to take care that all proclamations and decrees issued later by the political directors of the Occupied Territories conform to the varied aims, that measures resulting from this central attitude, both cultural and economic, are in agreement with these, that mistakes which do not correspond to the political intention are, if possible, avoided or, if they have already occurred, remedied in a sensible manner. Furthermore the office would have the task of writing and editing the necessary enlightening articles on the history and relations with Germany of the various territories, or of finding collaborators who can write them. It would also be a good thing to have translations made of those articles and speeches which can be shown to have expressed a German-Ukrainian solution in the course of the national-socialist struggle. Scientific literature on this subject has been in preparation by colleagues of the undersigned for a considerable time. A basic work has been published ("Um die Neugestalt Europas" -- "The Changed Face of Europe," Central Party Publishers), a new book is in preparation and extensive research on the whole continental European question is well under way. In addition speeches must be composed in German, Ukrainian, Georgian etc., to be made into gramophone records. A large number of loudspeaker cars must be available in view of the widespread illiteracy still existing. In addition this Central Office would already have to have such authority, that the most efficient of the top-ranking Reich Authorities concerned, of the O.K.W. as well as the authorities controlling the 4 year Plan would be at the disposal of its chief, so that all future measures necessary for the realization of our political goals, political, economic, cultural, scientific and propaganda, may be instituted even now in such a way as to further these central ideas. Only by such a central direction of basic, decisive orders will it be possible to avoid confusion later on and will the enormous difficulties and misunderstandings unavoidably connected with the occupation of almost devastated areas be reduced to the minimum. The undersigned therefore makes the suggestion to the Fuehrer that when the eventuality arises this Central Office, which is fully empowered and is to be set up, should be changed into a component authority immediately subordinate to the Fuehrer, i.e. -- in order to avoid a repetition of existing official designations -- into a General Protectorate for the occupied Eastern territories with its seat in Berlin. The Head of this
Protectorate could then obtain the official designation of "The Protector-General of the German Reich for the Occupied Eastern Territories." (The name Commissar General is already in use, e.g. as the subordinate of the Reich Commissar in Holland.) The Fuehrer would then nominate and recall the Reich Commissar for the Baltic Provinces, the Ukraine Caucasia and the Don-Volga area (eventually Moscow and Turkestan) on the recommendation of the Protector-General. The official communications of all top-ranking Reich Authorities to the Reich Commissariats in the occupied territories would go through the Protectorate-General, whereby all technical, economic, etc., directions would be issued entirely authoritatively by the top ranking Reich officials in question. It is therefore not necessary to found a new large Reich Office, but rather a political centre for the East provided with all necessary powers, in combination with an Inspectorate and State Secretariat to control all questions concerning the connection between the Protector-General and the Reich Commissariats and top-ranking Reich Authorities. Should the Fuehrer agree to the proposal to alter the political central office, which is to be established shortly and with whose direction the undersigned is charged, when the eventuality arises into a General protectorate under the same direction, then the undersigned recommends Gauleiter Dr. Meyer of Munster as Secretary of State. Dr. Meyer is an old national-socialist fighter who sees the political problems clearly and from a national-socialist point of view. He has occupied himself so exhaustively in the last few years with State Law and administrative measures, that he can also carry out this work in addition to his burdensome work as Gauleiter. It is clear that from Dr. Meyer extraordinary service would be asked, but on the other hand he would certainly consider such an appointment a particular honour.
The Fuehrer has already granted to the undersigned the budget for a central office. If the Fuehrer approves the above trains of thought and proposals, as they are or in modified form, they could be set in motion immediately.
Translation of Document 865-PS, Prosecution Exhibit 589.Fuehrer Decree, 4/20/1941, Appointing Alfred Rosenberg Commissioner for the Central Control of Questions Concerning the East European Territory
I appoint Reich Leader, Alfred Rosenberg as my commissioner for the central control of questions concerning the East European territory.
An office, which is to be established in accordance with his orders, is at the disposal of Reich Leader Rosenberg for the carrying out of the duties thereby entrusted to him.
The necessary money for this office is to be taken out of the Reich Chancellery treasury in a lump sum.
Fuehrer Headquarters, 4/20/1941.
Signed: Adolf Hitler;
Reich Minister and Head of Reich Chancellery,
Signed: Dr. Lammers.
************************************************The Reich Minister and Head of the Reich Chancellery,
Berlin W 8,
At present Fuehrer Headquarters.
Mail without exception to be sent to the Berlin address.
[Stamp] Top Secret.
To the Chief of the High Command of the Armed Forces, Field Marshal Keitel,
My dear Field Marshal:
Herewith, I am sending you a copy of the Fuehrer's Decree by which the Fuehrer appointed Reich Leader Alfred Rosenberg as his commissioner for the central control of questions concerning the East European territory. In this capacity Reich Leader Rosenberg is to make the necessary preparations for the probable emergenCy with all speed. The Fuehrer wishes Rosenberg to be authorized for this purpose to obtain the closest cooperation of the highest Reich authorities, to receive information from them, and to summon the representatives of the highest Reich authorities to conferences. In order to guarantee the necessary secrecy to the commission and the measures to be undertaken, for the time being, only those of the highest Reich authorities should be informed, on whose cooperation Reich Leader Rosenberg will primarily depend. These are--the Commissioner for the Four Year Plan, the Reich Minister of Economies, and you yourself.
Therefore, may I ask you, in accordance with the Fuehrer's wishes, to place your cooperation at the disposal of Reich Leader Rosenberg in the carrying out of the task imposed upon him.
It is recommended in the interests of secrecy, that you name a representative in your office with whom the office of the Reich Leader can communicate and who, in addition to your usual deputy, should be the only one to whom you should communicate the contents of this letter.
I should be obliged if you would acknowledge the receipt of this letter. Heil Hitler! Yours very sincerely
[Signed] Dr. Lammers.
************************************************The Chief of the High Command of the Armed Forces,
[Stamp] Top Secret,
By courier, To the Head of the Reich Chancellery, Reich Minister Dr. Lammers, Personal.
Dear Reich Minister:
I acknowledge receipt of the copy of the Fuehrer's Decree in which the Fuehrer appointed Reich Leader Alfred Rosenberg as his commissioner for the central control of questions concerning the East European territory. I have named Lieutenant General Jodl head of the Armed Forces Operations Staff, as my permanent representative and Brigadier General Warlimont as his deputy.
Heil Hitler! Yours very sincerely
[initial] K [Keitel],
***************************************************The Chief of the High Command of the Armed Forces,
[Stamp] Top Secret,
By courier. To Reich Leader Rosenberg, Personal.
Dear Reich Leader:
The Head of the Reich Chancellery has sent me a copy of the Fuehrer's Decree, by which he has appointed you his commissioner for the central control of questions concerning the East European territory. I have charged Lieutenant General Jodl head of the Armed Forces Operations
Staff and his deputy, Brigadier General Warlimont with the solving of these questions, as far as they concern the High Command of the Armed Forces. Now I ask you, as far as your office is concerned, to deal with him only.
Yours very sincerely
[initial] K [Keitel],
Rue. I c.
2nd Copy Kapitaen Zdd [?] has come back.
3rd destroyed 12 May [initials]
4th Copy to Maj. Gaedke. 16 May Ha.
4 Copies, 1st copy
Conference with the Branches of the Armed Forces at 1000 hours on 4/29/1941
Purpose of meeting: introduction to the organizational structure of the economic sector of the action.
As already known, the Fuehrer, contrary to previous procedure, has ordered for this drive the uniform concentration in one hand of all economic operations and has entrusted the Reich Marshal with the overall direction of the economic administration in the area of operations and in the areas under political administration.
The Reich Marshal has delegated this function to an economic general staff, working under the director of the industrial armament office [Chef Wi Rue Amt].
Under the Reich Marshal and the economic general staff, the supreme central authority in the area of the drive itself is the Economic Staff Oldenburg for special duties under the command of Major General [Generaleutnant] Schubert.
His subordinate authorities, geographically subdivided are: 5 economic inspectorates 23 economic commands and 12 sub-offices, which are distributed among important places within the area of the economic commands.
These offices are used in the military rear area; the idea is that in the territory of each Army Group, an economic inspectorate is to be established at the seat of the commander of the military rear area, and that this inspectorate will supervise the economic exploitation of the territory.
A distinction must be made between the military rear area on the one hand and the battle area proper and the rear area of the arm on the other hand. In the last two, economic matters are dealt with by the IV Econ (IV Wi) of the Army Headquarters Commands, i.e. the liaison officer of the industrial armament office within the supreme command of the armed forces at the army headquarters commands. For the battle area, he has attached to him: technical battalions, reconnaissance and recovery troops for raw materials, mineral oil, agricultural machinery, in particular tractors and means of production.
In the territory between the battle and the military rear area, the rear area of the Army, group IV Econs at the various field commands are placed at the disposal of the liaison officer of the industrial armaments office in order to support the army headquarter commands specialists responsible for supplying the troops from the country's resources and for preparing the subsequent general economic exploitation.
While these units move with the troops, economic inspectorates, economic commands and their sub-offices remain established in the locality.
The new feature inherent in the organization under the command of the Economic Staff Oldenburg is that it does not only deal with military industry, but comprises the entire economic field. Consequently, all offices are no longer to be designated as offices of the military industries or armaments, but quite generally as economic inspectorates, economic commands-etc.
This also corresponds with the internal organization of the individual offices which, from the Economic Staff Oldenburg down to the economic commands, requires a standard sub-division into three large groups, i.e.
Group M dealing with troop requirements, armaments, industrial transport organization
Group L which concerns itself with all questions of food and agriculture, and
Group W which is in charge of the entire field of trade and industry, including raw materials and suppliers, further questions of forestry, finance and banking, enemy property, commerce and exchange of commodities and manpower allocation.
Secretary of State Backe is appointed Commissioner for Food and Agriculture in the General Staff; the problems falling within the field of activities of Group W are dealt with by General v. Hanneken.
Before giving further details of the particulars of organization and staffing of Group M, of which we have to take charge, there is a short summary on the plans.
II. Local Sub-Division
(Map already handed over) may entries explain code-names?
Of the 5 inspectorates, 4 have been established from the outset, while the 5th remains in reserve for an assignment temporarily undecided.
1. Leningrad (Holstein) with economic commands at Vilna Riga Reval Leningrad Murmansk and sub-offices at Wologda Archangel
2. Moscow (Saxony) with economic commands at Minsk Moscow Tula Gorki and sub-offices at Briansk
3. Kiev (Baden) with economic commands at
and sub-offices at
4. Baku (Westphalia) with economic commands at Krasnodar Grozny Tiflis Baku and a sub-office at Batum.
Besides the 5th inspectorate, with the code-name of Hesse, an economic command (Borkum) and 2 sub-offices are held in reserve.
The question is now how best to take into account local and technical requirements in staffing the individual offices.
In the Economic Staff Oldenburg and in the economic inspectorates, which in all essentials have the same organization, a differentiation according to geographical points of view appears unnecessary, as in each of the gigantic fields of activity every type of question arises and therefore all departments must be staffed.
The gentlemen will therefore find in the strength reports, which are in their hands, both in the Economic Staff Oldenburg and in all economic inspectorates, after each C. O. and his personal assistant a staff group, which in accordance with the scheme submitted to you contains:
the adjutants's office,
the office for the establishment of the authorities,
signals and communications,
command of the staff quartermaster,
messing officer, and
In the same manner, Group M is to be staffed uniformly with all branches of the armed forces (army, navy, air, administration) and the transport, technical, general and military supplies divisions. It is impossible to effect any economics here.
Economic commands also start from the common denominator of a normal strength which is likewise submitted to you. It is however neither necessary, nor desirable to fill it in all economic commands to the full extent or in an equal measure; the decisive factors here are the individual peculiarities of the various regions.
In all economic commands, the posts in the staff group, transport, technical and general offices will have to he filled. But whether the individual branches of the armed forces wish to be represented in the respective economic command will depend essentially on whether the branch of the armed forces in question has any interests of any significance to look after in the territory.
It must be borne in mind that the whole organization requires a gigantic staff apparatus and that, in view of the general lack of qualified personnel, only such posts can be filled as are justified by practical necessity.
The branches of the armed forces will therefore have to decide in which of the 23 economic commands they wish to be represented. To fill all 4 offices of army, navy, air and administration will be necessary only in a few centrally situated spots. If on the other hand in some cases all branches of the armed forces require no representation, we would substitute for the planned division into 4 parts, a joint office for armament industry and staff it from the Office of Industrial Armament.
In the interests of speed -- the establishment has to be completed by the 15th May -- we have to request the branches of the armed forces to communicate their decision to the Office of Industrial Armament by Friday 2nd May.
In order to prepare to a large extent and to facilitate this decision, Captain (Cav.) Jonas, who has a profound knowledge in this field, has compiled a list, on which after the name of each economic command he has indicated by means of the initial of the branch of the armed forces in question which of these branches is in his opinion likely represent by an office.
The material has been submitted to you in the form of the lengthy treatise R., in particular in the form of the economic map and the list showing all firms which are important from the point of view of industrial armaments. In order, however, to assist the gentlemen to form their own opinion in the short time at our disposal, Captain (Cav) Jonas will now illustrate the peculiarities of the different areas in the field of industrial armament by means of a short lecture.
Lecture Captain (Cav.) Jonas.
Further Points to be discussed
a. In the interests of staff economy, we want to staff some of the above-mentioned authorities by enlisting personnel from authorities already existing in occupied territories, e.g. the Moscow Economic Inspectorate is to be staffed by the armament industry office (Rue In A) to be withdrawn from France. Murmansk Economic Command is to be staffed from Norway Moscow Economic Command by Troppau Armament Command Lodz Economic Command by Radom Armament Command Sevastopol Sub-Office by Aarhus Sub-Office.
Even though these units will have to be brought up to the required strength and supplemented, their employment at least creates a basis and thus effects a considerable economy in staff.
b. Which members of branches of the armed forces are already earmarked for Rue VI?
c. In which economic commands are the commander or for instance the head of the transport office to be appointed from the members of a branch of the armed forces which has an overriding interest?
PARTIAL TRANSLATION OF DOCUMENT 873-PS
TOP SECRET L IV/Qu
Fuehrer's Hq., 1 May 1941
For senior Officers only
Only by officer
1 original copy
Conference with Chief "L" on the 30 April 1941
1. Timetable Barbarossa:
The Fuehrer has decided : Action Barbarossa begin 22 June. From 23 May maximal troop movements performance schedule. At the beginning of operations the OKH reserves have not yet reached the appointed areas.
2. Proportion of actual strength in the plan Barbarossa:
Sector North: German and Russian forces approximately of the same strength.
Sector Middle: Great German superiority.
Sector South: Russian superiority.
3. Russian strategic concentration:
Continued movements of strong forces to the German-Russian boundary.
4. Estimate by the Supreme Commander of the Army of course Barbarossa will take.
Presumably violent battles of the frontiers, duration up to 4 weeks. In course of the following development weaker resistance may be expected.
Opinion of Russian soldiers: A Russian will fight, on appointed spot, up to the last breath.
5. Conversations with Finland are approved by the Fuehrer according to the OKW WFST part II Op. 44594/41 g.K. Chefs of) the 28 April 1941.
6. Conversations with Hungary are only possible in the last third of May. The Fuehrer believes the Hungarians will be prepared to carry out defensive operations on the Russian border, but they will not allow any German attack from Hungary.
7. Conversations with Roumania will be possible only at a very advanced date.
8. Concealment of conversations with friendly countries: projected German assault in the West, hence Eastern Front must covered. Participation of friendly countries only as a purely defensive measure.
Stab Ia "Matter for Chief"
first copy to files Ia
second copy to General Schubert
May 2, 1941
1. The war can only be continued if all armed forces are fed by Russia in the third year of war.
2. There is no doubt that as a result many millions of people will be starved to death if we take out of the country the things necessary for us.
3. The seizure and shipping away of oil seeds, oil cakes, are most important, grain is only secondary. The armed forces will probably consume the fat and meat which are on hand.
4. Only those branches of industry are allowed to resume work which are engaged in fields of shortages, for instance:
The factories manufacturing means of transportation.
The factories in the general field of supply (iron).
The textile workers.
Only such armament factories in whose fields a shortage exists in Germany.
Establishment of repair centers for the troops naturally to a large extent.
5. Special troops, perhaps the Reich Labor-Service or reserve formations of the army, must be provided in order to guarantee the security in the vast areas between the main roads.
It is necessary to find out the most important areas which must therefore be protected.
[initialed] v G
Directions for the handling of the Jewish question
1. In General. The competency of the Chief of the Security Police and Security Service, who is charged with the mission of solving the European Jewish question, extends even to the occupied eastern provinces. Accordingly, the offices under the Security Police for the purpose of handling the Jewish question in the occupied eastern provinces are qualified for their present sphere of activity.
In the individual Reichs commissariats, and within these, in the General commissariats, Jewry represents a portion of the population which is very varied in strength. For example, millions of Jews live in White Russia and in the Ukraine who have lived here for generations. In the central province of the USSR however, the Jews have moved in, for by far the greatest part, during Bolshevistic times. Those Russian Jews who followed in the wake of the invading Red Army of 1939-1940 to East Poland, West Ukraine, West White Russia, the Baltic lands, Bessarabia, and Buchenland are one particular group.
All measures for the Jewish question in the occupied eastern provinces must be met with the point of view that the whole Jewish question will be solved in general for all of Europe after the war at the latest. They are therefore to be instituted as preparatory partial measures and must be in agreement with those decisions which may otherwise be met in this field. This is especially true for the preparation of at least temporary reception centers for Jews from the Reich province.
An eventual act by the civilian population against the Jews is not to be prevented as long as this is compatible with the maintenance of order and security in the rear of the fighting troops. Namely retaliatory measures are to be allowed against the Jews who come into the provinces which were newly occupied by the Red Army in the last few years. However, strict measures are to be taken against street mobs and other evil elements for whom it concerns only plunder of Jewish stores and stealing Jewish property for their own personal gain.
2. Definition of the term "Jew". The peaceful settlement of the Jewish question requires the previous determining as to who is to be considered a Jew in the occupied Eastern provinces. In reference to the solving of the European Jewish question and to the strong influence which Jewry had upon the remaining Russian population until the invasion of German troops, and which it still exercises at present, it appears necessary from a political, as well as from a popular point of view, for the purpose of avoiding a later regaining of strength of the Jews, to grasp the term "Jew" in the most far-reaching sense.
Therefore, he is a Jew, who belongs to the Jewish religion, or has been recognized as Jewish by other circumstances; he who has a parent who is a Jew in accordance with the above sentence is also a Jew.
3. Comprehension, mark of recognition, suspension of the rights of freedom and segregation. The first main goal of the German measures must be strict segregation of Jewry from the rest of the population. In the execution of this, first of all is the seizing of the Jewish populace by the introduction of a registration order and similar appropriate measures. Soviet Jewry has, constantly, attempted, since the Bolshevistic Revolution, to disguise itself in order to unobtrusively move into leading positions, especially in the grain regions of the USSR. For this purpose many Jews have dropped their Jewish names and have taken Russian family names and Russian surnames. It is to be decreed, that the person who must register must report all changes of name by Jews during his lifetime, or as far as he knows during the time of his forefathers, to his superior and to make them retrogressive. The same goes for previous departure from the religious congregation and acceptance of other faiths (other manifold). The erasure of the Jewish deception will be easier in the Reich commissariat Eastland and Ukraine, where the larger part of the Jews have been living for generations than in the other Reichs commissariats. The Soviet archive material, in so far as it is preserved, is to be brought to use for this.
Then immediately, the wearing of the recognition sign consisting of a yellow Jewish star is to be brought about and all rights of freedom for Jews are to be withdrawn. They are to be placed in Ghettos and at the same time are to be separated according to sexes. The presence of many more or less closed Jewish settlements in White Ruthenia and in the Ukraine makes this mission easier. Moreover, places are to be chosen which make possible the full use of the Jewish manpower in case labor needs are present. These Ghettos can be placed under the supervision of a Jewish self-government with Jewish officials. The guarding of the boundaries between the Ghettos and the outer world is, however, the duty of the police.
Also in the cases in which a Ghetto could not yet be established, care is to be taken through strict prohibitions and similar suitable measures that a further intermingling of blood of the Jews and the rest of the populace does not continue.
4. Removal of the Jewish influence in political, economical cultural and social fields. Relative with the measures to segregate the Jews physically from the rest of the populace, everything necessary is to be used in order to eliminate every influence of the Jewry upon the Russian people. This is to happen immediately in political and cultural fields, whereas in all other cases consideration is to be taken that the common interests are not impaired. This is especially true for the economic missions which are important due to the demands of the war and those which concern the national economy.
An entire reconversion of Jewish professional life must be brought about insofar as it does not deal with manual laborers. The group of State employees in the Russian government along with the strongest Jewish professional groups shall vanish entirely. Likewise, similar professional groups are to be divorced from the public life, whereby, however, the tempo of these measures must correspond with the general economical and social need.
The entire Jewish property is to be seized and confiscated with exception of that which is necessary for a bare existence. As far as the economical situation permits, the power of disposal of their property is to be taken from the Jews as soon as possible through orders and other measures given by the commissariat, so that the moving of property will quickly cease.
Any cultural activity will be completely forbidden to the Jew. This includes the outlawing of the Jewish press, the Jewish theatres and schools.
The slaughtering of animals according to Jewish rites is also to be prohibited.
5. Forced Labor. The present manpower shortage in the occupied eastern territories as well as ideological-political considerations make the demand appear of basic significance to introduce forced labor commitment in the strictest form. This will have to take place move by move by the elimination of the Jews from their professional life although they are to be permitted to work in their own occupations if they fall within the scope of the labor commitment. Moreover, the
Jewish manpower is to be used for heavy manual labor.
The standing rule for the Jewish labor employment is the complete and unyielding use of Jewish manpower regardless of age in the reconstruction of the occupied eastern territories. The missions, which are to be given to the Jews in their labor employment, are especially the highway, railroad and canal construction, as far as the ameliorations, etc. are considered. Also, it seems that agricultural employment above all, will be brought about under strict supervision. Nothing is to be done against the employment of the Jews in cutting of wood, production of straw shoes, brooms and brushes within the Ghettos.
In the employment of the Jews, care is to be taken that Jewish labor is only so used in those productions which will later suffer no noticeable interruption in case of a rapid withdrawal of these labor forces, and which excludes a specialization of Jewish workers. It is to be avoided in every case that Jewish workers become indispensable in essential production.
6. Violations. Violations against German measures, especially against the forced labor regulations, are to be punishable by death to the Jews. All violations are to be dealt with by courts.
[Memorandum from Rosenberg file, 5/7/1941] [Translation of Only Typewritten Material]
After the customary removal of Jews from all public offices, the Jewish question will have to have a decisive solution, through the institution of Ghettos. Insofar as the Jews have not been driven out by the Ukrainians themselves, the small communities must be lodged in large camps, in order to be kept busy by means of forced labor, in the same way as it has already been the practice in Letzmanorstadt (Lodz) .
[Translation of paragraph, excluding all crossed out words.] After the customary removal of Jews from all public offices, the Jewish question will have to undergo a decisive solution through the institution of ghettos or labor battalions. Forced labor is to be introduced.
Instruction for a Reich Commissar in the Baltic Countries and White Russia [Ostland]
[Found in Rosenberg's files.]
All the regions between Narwa and Tilsit have constantly been in close relationship with the German people. A 700-year-old history has moulded the inner sympathies of the majority of the races living there in a European direction, and has added this region to the living space of Greater Germany.
The aim of a Reich Commissar for Esthonia, Latvia, Lithuania and White Russia [last two words added in pencil] must be to strive to achieve the form of a German Protectorate, and then transform the region into part of the Greater German Reich by germanising racially possible elements, colonising Germanic races and banishing undesirable elements. The Baltic Sea must become a Germanic inland sea under the guardianship of Greater Germany.
For certain cattle-raising products, the Baltic region was a land of surplus, and the Reich Commissar must endeavor to make this surplus once more available to the German people, and, if possible, to increase it. With regard to the process of germanising or resettling, the Estonian people are strongly germanised to the extent of 50% by Danish, German and Swedish blood and can be considered as a kindred nation. In Latvia, the section capable of being assimilated is considerably smaller than in Esthonia. In this country, stronger resistance will have to be reckoned with, and banishment on a larger scale will have to be envisaged. A similar development may have to be reckoned with in Lithuania, for here too the emigration of racial Germans is called for in order to promote very intensive Germanisaton (on the East Prussian border).
White Russia is directly joined to these three territories. For a long time, White Russia had a strong Separatist movement, but presumably Bolshevist has succeeded in suppressing it. In any case, White Russia will first of all have the difficult task of admitting some of those elements who are expelled from Esthonia, Latvia and Lithuania and from the Polish section of the Warthe territory. It seems expedient not to accommodate the Poles in the General gouvernement but in the East of White Russia (Smolensk District) and to form there a buffer against Russianism. In addition, the Commissar-General in White Russia would have the task of rousing this country, which cannot be considered as a land of surplus, to productive activity by employment of labour on a vast scale. [Marginal note in pencil: Every autonomous White Russian awareness against Russia is to be encouraged.]
The task of a Reich Commissar with his seat of office in Riga will therefore largely be an extraordinarily positive one. A country which 700 years ago was captured by German Knights, built up by the Hanseatic League, and by reason of a constant influx of German blood, together with Swedish elements, was a predominantly Germanised land, is to be established as a mighty German borderland. The preliminary cultural conditions are available everywhere, and the German Reich will be able to guarantee the right to a later emigration to all those who have distinguished themselves in this war, to the descendants of those who gave their lives during the war, and also to all who fought in the Baltic campaign, never once lost courage, fought on in the hour of despair and delivered Baltic civilisation from Bolshevism.
For the rest, the solution of the colonisation problem is not a Baltic question, but one which concerns Greater Germany, and it must be settled on these lines.
The Reich Commissar, together with the other Reich Commissars, must strive to introduce the improvement of water-way communication between the Black Sea and the Baltic, i. e., start the construction of the Duena-Dnieper Canal. In this way the circulatiOn of a great European economic system can be completed which will guarantee the future exchange of goods, and render it independent of any overseas blockade.
Thus the Reich Commissar in the Baltic lands will have great problems to solve in the realm of economics, and particularly in the domain of racial politics.
General Instructions for all Reichcommissars in the occupied Eastern Territories [Found in Rosenberg's files.]
The contingency, that the German Reich may find herself confronted by Soviet Russian policy of aggression and of anti-German alliances, makes it obligatory to have a clear conception about the political aims of a German counterblow.
The only possible political goal of war can be the aim to free the German Reich from Pan-Slavic [Grossrussisch] pressure for centuries to come. This does not only correspond with German interests, but also with historical justice, for Russian Imperialism was in a position to accomplish its policy of conquest and oppression almost unopposed, whilst it threatened Germany again and again. Therefore, the German Reich has to beware of starting a campaign against Russia with a historical injustice, meaning the reconstruction of a Great Russian Empire no matter of what kind. On the contrary, all historical struggles of the various nationalities against Moscow and Petersburg have to be scrutinized for their bearing on the situation today. This has been done on the part of the National Socialist movement to correspond to the Leader's political testament as laid down in his book, that now the military and political threat, from the East shall be eliminated forever.
Therefore this huge area must be divided according to its historical and racial conditions into Reichs-Commissariats, each of which bears within itself a different political aim. The Reich Commissariat Eastland including White-Ruthenia will have the task, to prepare, by way of development into a Germanized Protectorate, a progressively closer cohesion with Germany. The Ukraine shall become an independent state in alliance with Germany and Caucasia with the contiguous Northern Territories a Federal State with a German plenipotentiary. Russia proper must put her own house in order for the future. These general viewpoints are explained in the following instructions for each Reich Commissar. Beyond that there are still a few general considerations which possess validity for all Reich Commissars.
As far as currency policy is concerned, a transitional state similar to that in other occupied territories shall be provided for, but with an early beginning of a new orientation, which has to correspond to the political goal to be achieved. In the Reich Commissariat Eastland, we will have to introduce as currency German marks, in the Reich Commissariat Ukraine a national "Karbowanez" currency (Ukrainian National bank), in the Reich Commissariat Caucasia a national currency too for the future Federal State.
The German people have achieved, in course of centuries, tremendous accomplishments in the Eastern European area. Nearly its entire real estate property was confiscated without indemnification, hundreds of thousands (in the South, on the Volga) starved or were deported or, like in the Baltic territories, were cheated out of the fruits of their cultural work during the past 700 years. The German Reich will now have to proclaim the principle, that after the occupation of the Eastern Territories, the former German assets have become property of the people of Greater Germany, irrespective of the consent of the former individual proprietors where the German Reich may reserve the right (assuming that it has not already been done during resettlement) to arrange a just settlement. The manner of compensation and restitution of this national property, will be subject to different treatment by each Reich Commissariat.
The moment for declarations of this kind will be determined by the Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern territories. [This sentence was added in pencil]
From the point of view of cultural policy, the German Reich is in a position to promote and direct national culture and science in many fields. It will be necessary, that in some territories an uprooting and resettlement of various racial stocks will have to be effected.
Partial Translation of Document NOKW-2730, Prosecution Exhibit 1403.
[Stamp] Top Secret.
High Command of the Navy,
Naval War Staff I Op
00599/41 Top Secret,
Matter for Chiefs, Berlin,
[Stamp] Matter for Chiefs,
Through officer only.
[Handwritten To Counterintelligence office.]
CinC (Operations Section), Copy 1;
CinC Air Force (Air Force Operations Staff), Copy 2.
For information to:
OKW Armed Forces Operations Staff/National Defense, Copy 3,
[Stamp] Copy No. 4.
Subject: Caucasian oil region.
Reference: OKW Armed Forces Operations Staff/National Defense No. 44564/41 Matter for Chiefs, dated 5/4/1941.
The Naval War Staff adopts the following attitude with regard to the study sent with reference number, concerning the importance, confiscation and exploitation of the Caucasian oil fields:
I. The consideration should take in two points.
1. Judgment of the possibilities for the supporting the occupation of the oil territories.
2. Possibilities for exploiting the presence of oil for the Axis Powers after the occupation.
II. Possibilities of support when taking possession.
1. The Navy has no fighting means of its own in the Black Sa. As long as the Soviet fleet is not eliminated from the Black Sea, the Rumanian fighting forces, training at present under a German instructional detachment, will not be sufficient, (even if the German training activity is completely successful) to protect any troops or important transports of equipment from the area at present under military control across the Black Sea as far as the Crimea, or still further eastwards against the superior Soviet Black Sea fleet.
3. Summarizing, it may be stated that, a support of the operation for the capture of the Caucasian oil fields by the navy is not possible because of the lack of all means and in view of a very much superior enemy.
III. Possibilities for the exploitation of the presence of oil.
1. The Naval War Staff has only the problem of transport by sea to consider here. This is divided up into, (a) a technical and (b) a military part.
2. From the technical point of view the exploitation of the presence of oil in the Caucasus for the Axis Powers is predominantly a question of the tanker space available.
The conveyance of tankers into the Mediterranean basin can only take place with the help of France or Spain and/or after the English have been dislodged from Gibraltar.
3. a. Military difficulties for the tanker voyage to Italy could only result from, at the most, isolated British submarines, after the Soviet Russian Fleet in the Black Sea has been put out of action. It is considered extremely improbable that submarines would penetrate into the Black Sea, in view of the possibilities we have of putting pressure on Turkey.
* * *
d. Endangerment coming from Gibraltar after Crete and Malta are eliminated is to be regarded as comparatively slight, except for the operation of submarines, above all west of the Aegean Sea.
Gibraltar has, however, its significance in the blocking of the Strait of Gibraltar, whereby the conveyance of further tanker space is rendered difficult and/or impossible.
4. Summing up, it can, therefore, be stated -- From the military viewpoint, the elimination of the enemy, first from the eastern Mediterranean by the capture of Crete and Alexandria, later from Malta, is desirable, if not necessary, for the secure exploitation of the oil supply from the Caucasian oil fields. An elimination of the enemy from Gibraltar will make the Mediterranean an area completely dominated by the Axis and, with that, the most important supply line of the Axis Powers, not for Caucasian oil alone.
[Signed] von Mellenthin, Lt. Commander
[Seal], High Command of the Navy.
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