Early Japanese Campaign(s) in the 2ndSino-Japanese War

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Jerry Asher
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Postby Jerry Asher » 11 Aug 2006 06:01

Within the fight for Tianjin and Bejing was a minor fray at Daku, in late July spilling over into August 1937. Can anyone identify the IJN ships guarding that area? My reading of Hsu indicates that a small SNLF force was put ashore at Daku to desecure the wharfs, warehouses and berths for Japanese shpping. That one of these ships or one of three others that arrived July 28, 29, or 30 crossed the Daku bar and entered the Peiho River to bombard a Chinese army unit. Can anyone identify the individual ships or their unit designation. Advanced elements of the IJA 5th Division, began arriving either with the three ship unit or on freighter. How were the 5th Division forces transported? By which ships?

Please excuse me if I am not using this forum right; I'm new to this, but will learn. I asked the same question in the Japan at war category last week.

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Re Daku question.

Postby asiaticus » 11 Aug 2006 10:55

Actually its right on topic as part of the Peiking Tientsin battle.

As to your question, I hope to find an answer too.

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Postby asiaticus » 15 Aug 2006 20:41

Ok. Seems from what I have been reading that was what was happening. Thanks for the reply.

I intend to go thru these conflicts like the other thread, orbats and maps discussion.

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Peiking Tientsin Operation

Postby asiaticus » 15 Aug 2006 21:06

Here is what I have on the Peiking Tientsin Operation (July-August 1937)

Japan:
Garrison Forces Peiking Railway
China Garrison Army ( became 1st. Army 26 August 1937)
– Lt. General Kanichiro Tashiro (1 May 1936 - 12 Jul 1937)
– Lt. General Kiyoshi Katsuki (12 Jul 1937 - 26 Aug 1937) *


- China Stationed Army - Lt. Gen. Tashiro [PWf]
-- Kawabe Brigade (China Stationed Infantry Brigade) - Major Gen. Kawabe)
---- 1st China Stationed Infantry Regiment
---- 2nd China Stationed Infantry Regiment
-- China Stationed Cavalry Unit
-- China Stationed Artillery Regiment
-- China Stationed Engineer Unit
-- China Stationed Tank Unit (17 tanks?)
-- China Stationed Signal Unit
-- Army Hospital

- Main Force of East Hopei Army (Chinese Puppet forces) **[2]
-- 1st Corps “Tungchow’” 4,000 men
-- 2nd Corps ‘Tsunhua” 4,000 men
-- 3rd Corps “Tungchow’” 4,000 men
-- 4th Corps ‘Tsunhua” 4,000 men
-- Training Corps “Tungchow’” 2,000 men

- 5th Division (Motorized Square Division) - Gen. Seishiro Itagaki
--9th Infantry Brigade
---11th Infantry Regiment
---41st Infantry Regiment
--21st Infantry Brigade
---21st Infantry Regiment
---42nd Infantry Regiment
-- 5th Mountain Artillery Regiment
-- 5th Cavalry Regiment
-- 5th Engineer Regiment
-- 5th Transport Regiment

- 20th Division (Square Division) - Lieutenant-General Bunsaburo Kawakishi
--39th Infantry Brigade
---77th Infantry Regiment
---78th Infantry Regiment
--40th Infantry Brigade
---79th Infantry Regiment
---80th Infantry Regiment
--26th Field Artillery Regiment
--28th Cavalry Regiment
--20th Engineer Regiment
--20th Transport Regiment

- Sakai Brigade (1st Independent Mixed Brigade)- Lt. Gen Sakai Koji +,***
-- 4th Tank Battalion (12 Type 89 Medium Tanks, 13 Type 95 Light Tanks, 12 Type 94 Tankettes, 4 Armored Engineer Vehicles)
-- 1st Independent Infantry Regiment
-- 1st Independent Artillery Battalion
-- 1st Independent Engineer Company

- Suzuki Brigade (11th Independent Mixed Brigade)- Gen. Suzuki +
-- 11th Independent Mixed Brigade
-- 12th Independent Infantry Regiment
-- 11th Independent Cavalry Company
-- 11th Independent Field Artillery Regiment
-- 12th Independent Mountain Gun Regiment
-- 11th Independent Engineer Company
-- 11th Independent Transport Company



- Temporary Aviation Army Corps (Rinji Hikodan -Temporary Hikodan). [CDF] [PWf] [4]
-- 1st Army Air Force Battalion (reconnaissance aircraft) Ki-4, Ki-5
-- 2nd Army Air Force Battalion (fighter aircraft) Ki-10
-- 3rd Army Air Force Battalion (long range reconnaissance aircraft)
-- 5th Army Air Force Battalion (light bomber) Ki-2
-- 6th Army Air Force Battalion (large bomber) Ki-2
-- 8th Army Air Force Battalion (fighter aircraft) Ki-10
-- 9th Army Air Force Battalion (light bomber) Ki-1
-- 3rd independent squadron (large bomber)
-- 4th independent squadron (reconnaissance aircraft)
-- 6th independent squadron (reconnaissance aircraft)
-- 9th independent squadron (fighter aircraft) Ki-10
-- 1st, 2nd Airfield companies
-- 8th, 9th Signal platoons
-- 1st Truck Transport Co.
-- 3rd Field aircraft depot

Navy:
IJN Second Fleet [involved in landings of 5th Division at Ta Ku Kou ]
– 2nd Fleet - Admiral Zengo Yoshida [M144]
-- composition?

(IJN Mutsu)
8.11.1937: depart from Sasebo, sail to western Korean coast as escort force of a transport flotilla to Northern China
8.15.1937: returen to Sasebo

Third Fleet was assigned for over-all operations in China. Second Fleet was assigned to escort army transports. With the dispatch of troops to the Tsingtao area, the Second Fleet assumed responsibility for operations in North China waters, while the Third Fleet operated in Central and South China waters. These areas of operation were divided by the Lung-Hai railroad, starting from Hai-chou, and included the area of North China Operations.

Notes:
* replaced Gen. Koichiro after his death.

+ Sakai and Suzuki Brigades, from Kwangtung Army were temporarily attached. [PWf]
11th IMB Suzuki Bde later became 26th Div. [PWf]

** E. Hopei Army consisted of these units in May 1937: [2 ]

*** Sakai Brigade armour 12 Type 89 Medium Tanks, 13 Type 95 Light Tanks
12 Type 94 Tankettes, 4 Armored Engineer Vehicles. This was the strength of the 4th Tank Battalion. The 3rd Tank Battalion equipped with Type 94 Tankettes and Type 95 Light Tanks that was to have been assigned to Sakai Brigade remained behind in Manchukuo. [T]


China:

29th Route Army - Commander: Sung Che-yuan, [1,5]
Deputy: Tung Lin-keh
-37th Division * (15750 men)
-- Special Operations Regiment
--109th Brigade
--110th Brigade
--111th Brigade
--Indpendent 35th Brigade

-38th Division * (15400 men)
--Special Operations Regiment,
--112th Brigade
--113rd Brigade
--114th Brigade
--Independent 26th Brigade

-132nd Division *(15000 men)
--Special Operations Regiment,
--1st Brigade
--2nd Brigade
--Independent 27th Brigade
--Independent 28th Brigade

-143rd Division ( Chahar province) (15100 men)*
-- Special Operations Regiment
--1st Brigade
--2nd Brigade
--Independent 29th Brigade
--Independent 31st Brigade
--Security Brigade

-9th Calvary Division (3000 men)
-- 1st Brigade
--2nd Brigade
- Independent 13th calvary brigade (1500 men)
- Hopei Peace Preservation force (Pei-wan, 2500 men)
-Independent 39th B (3500 men)
-Independent 40th B (3400 men)

-1 Brigade of 53rd Corps?

Air Forces - ? [4]


Notes:- Each Chinese Division in 29th Corps had 3 Infantry Brigades and had an attached indipendant brigade.
- 1 Brigade of 53rd Corps took part in the attack on Feng-tai.


Sources:
[1] Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) 2nd Ed. ,1971. Translated by Wen Ha-hsiung , Chung Wu Publishing; 33, 140th Lane, Tung-hwa Street, Taipei, Taiwan Republic of China.
Pg. ?-?
Map 2


[2] Jowett, Phillip S. , Rays of The Rising Sun, Armed Forces of Japan’s Asian Allies 1931-45, Volume I: China & Manchuria, 2004. Helion & Co. Ltd., 26 Willow Rd., Solihul, West Midlands, England.

[M144] Monograph 144 Chapter II http://www.ibiblio.org/pha/monos/144/14 ... 20Incident

[T] Taki’s IMPERIAL JAPANESE ARMY PAGE http://www3.plala.or.jp/takihome/

[PWf] Forum: Pacific War 1941-1945, discussion about Peiking Tientsin Operation http://www.f16.parsimony.net/forum27947 ... s/6086.htm


[CDF] China Defense Forum: IJA in China orbat, 1937 to 1945
http://www.china-defense.com/forum/inde ... topic=2726
http://www.china-defense.com/forum/show ... php?t=1168

[3] Madej, W. Victor
Japanese Armed Forces Order of Battle, 1937-1945 [2 vols]
Allentown, PA: 1981


[4] Sino-Japanese Air War 1937-45 http://surfcity.kund.dalnet.se/sino-japanese.htm


[5] Organization of the 29th Route Army
http://www.china-defense.com/forum/inde ... topic=8763

Organization of the 29th Army:
37th D - spec op regiment, 109th B, 110th B, 111th B, Indpendent 35th B (15750 men)
38th D - spec op regiment, 112th B, 113th B, 114th B, Independent 26th B (15400 men)
132th D - spec op regiment, 1st B, 2nd B, Independent 27th B, Independent 28th B (15000 men)
143th D - spec op regiment, 1st B, 2nd B, Independent 29th B, Independent 31st B, Security B (15100 men)
9th Calvary D- 1st B, 2nd B (3000 men)
Independent 39th B (3500 men)
Independent 40th B (3400 men)
Independent 13th calvary bragade (1500 men)
Hopei Peace Preservation force (2500 men)

The Chinese name of the spec op regiment is 特務團. The "spec op" regiments are often used by the army HQ as final reserve. It happens many times during the war of resistance that whenever these units are used, it is the begining of a heroic last stand.

You have to understand that the 29th Army is a very special unit in China. Sung was allowed to maintain 1 army in the whole area he controled. So what he did is to make this army very huge. Note that each division has 3 brigades, and there are many independent units. This is Sung's way to both increase and conceal his strength.

Sung owns a quasi-independent part of China (part of Hopei and Chahar), controls the tax, the government, the military. The same way Shantung was ruled by Han and Shansi, Shuiyan was ruled by Yan. This is also why the Japanese had advocated the "North China 5 provinces Special Zone"
Last edited by asiaticus on 18 Aug 2006 20:23, edited 1 time in total.

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Map Peiking Tientsin Operation

Postby asiaticus » 15 Aug 2006 21:42

Map 2 Peiking Tientsin Operation from

Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) 2nd Ed. ,1971. Translated by Wen Ha-hsiung , Chung Wu Publishing; 33, 140th Lane, Tung-hwa Street, Taipei, Taiwan Republic of China.
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Peiking Tientsin Operation (July 8 - August 4th 1937)

Postby asiaticus » 22 Sep 2006 09:13

Peiking Tientsin Operation (July-August 1937)[1]

Following the Marco Polo Bridge Incident on July 8th, the Japanese China Stationed Army sent reinforcements from Tientsin, while General Sung Che-yuan, ordered his forces to hold their positions, and attempted to avert war through negotiations. After repeated negotiations both sides agreed to cease fire and return to their stations. On July 9th Chiang Kai-shek ordered 26th Route Army (later 1st Army) under Gen. Sun Lien-chung to take 2 Divisons to Baoding and Shihchiachuang to be under the command of Gen. Sung.

However on the afternoon of July 10th, after receiving reinforcements the Japanese renewed the attack. Again they were repelled. After the Japanese attack failed Lt. General Kanichiro Tashiro commander of China Stationed Army fell ill and died on the 12th of July, being repaced by Lt. General Kiyoshi Katsuki. On that same the Japanese ordered a Division, two brigades and an air regiment as reinforcements for the China Stationed Army. Later in July three more Divisons were sent to the Peiking Tientsin area.
Since these reinforcements had not yet arrived, the Japanese claimed that they would not aggrivate the situation and agreed on an investigation by both sides hoping to resolve it as a local incident.

By July 25th the Japanese reinforcements arrived and attacks began first at Lanfang on the 38th Division.

On July 26th, Japanese planes bombed Lanfang. Japanese units attempted to enter Kuang An Gate in Peiking but were stopped. The Japanese then issued an ultimatum to Gen. Sung demanding the withdrawal of Chinese forces on the outskirts of Peiking to the west of the Yungting River. Gen. Sung flatly refused, and ordered his units to prepare for action and requested large reinforcements from the Central Government.

On July 27th, the Japanese laid seige to Chinese forces in Tungchow, one battalion broke out and fell back to Nanyuan. Japanese planes also bombed Chinese forces outside Peiking and reconnoitered Kaifeng, Chengchow and Loyang.

On July 28th, the Japanese 20th Divison and three brigades launched an offensive against Chinese forces in Peiking. The main attack was against Nanyuan and a secondary attack against Peiyuan. Scores of planes made bombing runs in rotation. Bitter fighting ensued with Gen. Tung Ling-ko Deputy Commander of 29th Corps and Gen. Chao Teng-yu commanding 132nd Divison being killed. The Peace Preservation units were also mauled. However the a brigade of 38th Division under Gen. Liu Chen-san beat back the Japanese in the Langfeng area and a brigade of the 53rd Corps and another unit recovered the rail station at Fengtai.

132nd Division Chief Zhao Dengyu as well as Deputy Corps Chief Tong Linge

That night realizing that fighting the Japanese in this situation was futile, Gen. Sung lead the main force of 29th Corps to withdraw south of the Yungting River. Mayor Chang Tze-chung of Tientsin was left in Peiking to take charge of political affairs in Hopei Chahar in an acting capacity. Gen. Liu Ju-chen's New Separate 29th Brigade was left in Peiking.

On July 29th, the puppet Eastern Hopei Army troops mutinied against the Japanese in Tungchow killing most of their Japanese advisors and other civilians. Meanwhile on the coast at dawn the 5th Division and naval forces separately attacked the Tientsin and the port at Taku-kou. Units of 38th Divison under their acting commander Liu Wen-tien and its local Peace Preservation forces defended Tientsin. Gen. Huang Wei-kang's brigade defended Taku fighting gallantly and killing many Japanese troops. It also attacked the nearby Japanese airfeild at Tungchutzu, destroying many aircraft. At night Gen. Chang Tze-chung was ordered to withdraw toward Machang and Yangliuching south of Tientsin.

On July 30th, the Japanese captured Tientsin and Taku, looting and burning caused heavy distruction.

On August 1st, Gen. Chiang Kai-shek appointed Gov. Fu Tso-yi of Sui-yuan as commander in Chief of the 7th Army Group, with (1 division, 3 Brigades and units of 19th, 35th and 61st Corps) and Gen. Tang En-po as frontline overall commander ( also commanding 13th and 17th Corps) coming from Shanxi and Suiyuan to reinforce Chahar.
Governor of Cahar Liu Ju-ming as Deputy CinC commanded 143rd Division and 2 Peace Preservation Brigades garrisoning the province.

The Japanese entered Peiking and soon on August 4th, Gen. Chang Tzu-chung finding it impossible to carry out his duties left Peiking, and Liu Ju-chens forces withdrew into Chahar.


Sources:
[1] Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) 2nd Ed. ,1971. Translated by Wen Ha-hsiung , Chung Wu Publishing; 33, 140th Lane, Tung-hwa Street, Taipei, Taiwan Republic of China.
Pg.177-180
Map 2

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Postby Jerry Asher » 25 Sep 2006 06:16

Japanese naval units at Daku, late July 1937, Aug 1 Still speculating, but beleive now that Japanese light cruisers Tatsuta and Tenryu were the first units if IJN to Daku as guards.
They would have had the manpower to put shore party ashore to protect Japanese wharfs and warehouses at Daku-which we know was done. Des Div 10 as part of DesRon1 was at Lushan from 23 July on. Orders of 28 July to DesRon 2 do not allow time for DesRon2 Div's to arrive. DesDiv 10 is detached and stays with DesRon2 until Sept 5th when the initial movement of the three divisions is complete. I have DesDiv 10 as comprising three units, Akatsuki, Sagari and Sazanami---Still feel that a solid history of the 5th Division would yield the names of the transports and guarding naval units.

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Operation Chahar / Peiking –Suiyuan Railway Operation

Postby asiaticus » 23 Nov 2006 20:26

Known by the Japanese as チャハル作戦, Operation Quhar and variously by the Chinese as the 长城抗战 (Battle of the Great Wall), or Peiking – Suiyuan Railway Operation. This campaign occurred in August 1937 following the Battle of Beiping-Tianjin at the beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War. This was the second attack by Kwangtung Army and the Mongol forces of Prince Teh Wang on Inner Mongolia after the failure of the Suiyuan Campaign (1936). The Chahar Expeditionary Force was under the direct command of General Hideki Tojo, the chief of staff of Kuangtung Army. A second force from the Peiping Railway Garrison Force, later the 1st Army under General Kiyoshi Katsuki was also involved in the attack from the south at Nankou.

The Chinese forces opposing this invasion of Suiyuan were the Suiyuan Pacification Headquarters under the command of General Yen Hsi–shan. Fu Zuoyi governor of Suiyuan was made commander of the 7th Army Group and Liu Ju-ming, governor of Chahar was made its deputy commander, defending Chahar with 143rd Division and two Brigades. General Tang Enbo was sent by Chiang Kai-shek with 13th and 17th Corps from the Central Army and made Frontline Commander in Chief. 1st Cavalry Corps was in Chahar under the command of Chiao Cheng-shou facing the Mongolian forces of Teh Wang.

Battle of Nankou

On August 8th the Japanese 11th Independent Mixed Brigade, commanded by Gen. Shigiyasu Suzuki began their attack on the left flank of the 13th Corps position at Nankou but were thwarted after three days by the difficult terrain and stubborn resistance of the Chinese. A new attack on August 11th supported by tanks and aircraft took Nankou Station after which Gen. Suzuki's brigade advanced on Juyong Pass.
That same day, Chiang Kai-shek ordered the activation of the 14th Army Group (10th, 83rd and 85th Divisions) under Gen. Wei Li-huang. Coming by rail from Yingchia-chuang to Yi Hsien, elements of it were sent on a ten day march through the plains west of Peiking in a turning movement in support of Tang Enbo's forces. 1st Army made attacks on the Japanese forces in Lianghsiang and Chaili to distract them and sent a detachment to Heilung Pass to cover 14th Army Groups advance.

On Aug 12th, Tang Enbo's army counterattacked surrounding the Japanese cutting them off from their supplies and communications. On Aug 14th, Itagaki Seishiro's 5th Division was sent to the relief of the 11th IMB at Juyongguan.

On August 16th, Itagaki arrived at Nankou and began an enveloping attack on the right flank of 13th Corps making a five pronged attack at Huanglaoyuan. 7th Brigade of 4th Division under Shih Chueh was moved to block this move and reinforcements of Li Hsien-chou's 21st Division and Chu Huai-ping's 94th Division were brought up, engaging in days of heavy fighting. On August 17th General Yen His-shan, Director of the Taiyuan Pacification Headquarters, directed 7th Army under Fu Zuoyi to move its 72nd Division and three brigades by rail from Tatung to Huailai to reinforce Gen. Tang Enbo's forces.

Battle the Great Wall

Meanwhile in northern Chahar the Chinese 1st Cavalry Corps captured Shangtu, Nanhaochan, Shangyi and Huateh from the puppet Mongolian Army of Prince Teh Wang. Elements of 143rd Division took Chungli, while its main force reached Changpei. During this Chinese advance the Japanese Chahar Expeditionary Force under Lt. General Hideki Tojo composed of the mechanized 1st Independent Mixed Brigade and the 2nd and 15th Mixed Brigade gathered for a counteroffensive from Changpei to Kalgan.

From August 18th to 19th the Chahar Expeditionary Force counterattacked from Changpei, and took Shenweitaiko on the Great Wall and Hanno Dam. The scattered and poorly equipped Chinese forces were unable to stop them and they now threatened the Peiking – Suiyuan Railway at Kalgan. On the 20th Gen. Fu Zuoyi's 7th Army diverted its 200th and 211th Brigades moving south by rail to join Gen. Tang Enbo's forces back to defend Kalgan, while its remaining 72nd Division arrived to reinforce Chenpien and and 7th Separate Brigade to defend the rail head at Huailai.

On August 21st, the Japanese forces broke through at the cities of Hengling and Chenpien. Gen. Tang En-po's forces awaiting reinforcement, but having suffered over 50% casualties, still defended Huailai, Chuyung Pass and Yenching. Liu Ju-ming's 143rd Divison fell back to defend Kalgan from the advancing Japanese.

On August 23rd, as Itagaki Seishiro's 5th Division pushed toward Huailai from Chenpien against Ma Yen-shou's 7th Separate Brigade, advance elements of the 14th Army Group arrived on the Japanese flank at Chingpaikou, driving off the Japanese outpost there and contacted the Japanese forces advancing to Chenpien and the front beyond. However they were delayed in crossing the Yungting River and their attack was delayed until it was too late to stop the Japanese advance, and due to poor communications they failed to link up with Gen. Tang En-po's forces. After 8 days and 8 nights fighting, Itagaki on Aug 24th, linked up with Kwantung army's 2nd Independent Mixed Brigade at Xiahuayuan.

On August 26th, Gen. Tang En-po's forces were ordered to break out toward the Sangchien River while Liu Ju-ming's forces were ordered to withdraw to the far side of the Hsiang-yang River.

On August 29th the Japanese Oui Column moved south from Tushihkou, and on the 30th attacked Yenching via Chihcheng, After repulsing the attack 17th Corps withdrew to join the rest of Tang En-po on the far side of the the Sangchien River.

Kalgan/Zhangjiakou, fell Sept. 3, and after Gen. Fu Zuoyi's 200th and 211th Brigades failed in a counterattack to recapture it and fell back to the west to defend the railway to Suiyuan at Chaikoupao. This brought and end to Operation Chahar.

September 4th, the South Charhar Government was set up at Kalgan. After the fall of Kalgan, Chahar's "complete independence" from China was declared by "100 influential persons," headed by the 36-year-old Prince Teh, a pro-Japanese Mongolian, of the "Inner Mongolia for Inner Mongolians" movement whose Mongolian troops helped the Japanese to take Kalgan.


Sources:
[1] Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) 2nd Ed. ,1971. Translated by Wen Ha-hsiung , Chung Wu Publishing; 33, 140th Lane, Tung-hwa Street, Taipei, Taiwan Republic of China.
Pg. 180- 184
Map 3

[2] Jowett, Phillip S. , Rays of The Rising Sun, Armed Forces of Japan’s Asian Allies 1931-45, Volume I: China & Manchuria, 2004. Helion & Co. Ltd., 26 Willow Rd., Solihul, West Midlands, England.

[3] RESISTANCE WARS
http://www.uglychinese.org/war.htm#Ichigo
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Orbats for Operation Chahar / Peiking – Suiyuan Railway Oper

Postby asiaticus » 23 Nov 2006 20:29


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more on Operation Chahar:

Postby asiaticus » 05 Dec 2006 02:30

more on Operation Chahar:
the Oui Column, Manchukuoan forces involved, and a Japanese map of the operation.

Oui Column in Aug. 1937 Operation Chahar?

viewtopic.php?t=111890


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