Axis History Forum

This is an apolitical forum for discussions on the Axis nations and related topics hosted by Marcus Wendel's Axis History Factbook in cooperation with Michael Miller's Axis Biographical Research, Christoph Awender's WW2 day by dayand Christian Ankerstjerne’s Panzerworld.

Skip to content

If you found the forum useful please consider supporting us. You can also support us by buying books through the AHF Bookstore.

radio himalaya

Discussions on all aspects of Italy under Fascism from the March on Rome to the end of the war.

radio himalaya

Postby stein55 on 28 Jan 2005 17:36

Does anyone know anything about radio himalaya broadcast from Rome by Mohammed Iqbal Shedai and a small group of pows...
stein55
Member
France
 
Posts: 31
Joined: 24 Jan 2005 19:21
Location: Europe

Postby DrG on 28 Jan 2005 18:41

About Radio Himalaya itself I know just that even though it broadcasted from Rome it managed to make people believe it was a clandestine radio station in Northern India. Shedai (in Rome since the beginning of 1941) made speeches in Hindi language from that radio only sometimes.
Has your source (which one?) got further info?
My source for these info is Renzo De Felice, "Mussolini l'alleato I.1", page 506. He tells that a few info about Radio Himalaya are in Pietro Quaroni, "Il mondo di un ambasciatore", from page 106.
User avatar
DrG
Former member
Italy
 
Posts: 1136
Joined: 21 Oct 2003 22:23
Location: Italia

Postby stein55 on 29 Jan 2005 12:26

My source is M Hauner India in Axis strategy and brothers against the Raj

Shedai was Indian revolutionary with a rather bad character it seems who ended in Rome

Protégé ? of ciano

In anycase he seems to have had the complete confidence of the foreign ministry

Organized Himalaya

According to german reports very effective

Organized the Indo-Italian Hindustan Battalion

But as unable to read Italian my sources dod not go beyond that

Would love to see Shedai pic

After the war went to found a National Socialist party in Pakistan
stein55
Member
France
 
Posts: 31
Joined: 24 Jan 2005 19:21
Location: Europe

Postby DrG on 30 Jan 2005 17:16

Thank you for your source, I didn't know that book.
I see you haven't many info about Shedai; De Felice spends many pages talking about him (that author was not only one of the most important experts of Fascism, but also the first who studied the relations between Italy and the Indian indipendentism in his "Il fascismo e l'Oriente. Arabi, ebrei e indiani nella politica di Mussolini", 1988), I make just a brief summary:
- member of the Hindustan Gadar Party since 1914
- arrested several times in 1915-1919 because of anti-British activities
- 1920: moved to Kabul, then to Moskow (for this reason many believed he was a communist), Ankara, France
- in June 1923 in Italy with the aim of opening contacts with this country after the failure of the negotiations, opposed by the Indian communists, with the Comintern
- met in Rome Maulavi Barakatullah (an Indian nationalist) and dott. Carlo Arturo Enderle (an Italian, son of Rumanian parents, of Islamic faith with the mane Alì Ibn Giafar and an expert of Islamic culture; Shedai was a Muslim)
- the following year moved to Milan, where he met on. Lanfranconi, an industrialist interested in the Italian economic expansion in India
- in June 1926 met Arnaldo Mussolini, brother of the Duce and editor of the newspaper "Il Popolo d'Italia", and became his close friend
- opened contacts with the Fascist leader Piero Parini and with col. Tavazzani of the SIM (the intelligence service of the Italian Army)
- introduced Nehru to the Fascist leaders
- but Italy didn't think that Shedai's party was important in India and choose to keep contacts with Ghandi and Nehru, so Shedai left Italy and moved to Marseilles in 1926 and then, in 1928, to Paris
- lived in Paris until March 1938, when he was expelled from France because of his intelligence activity for Italy
- moved to Switzerland as a representative not only of his party, but also of the Mujahidin Party and of the Ahrar Party of Waziristan
- returned to Italy in 1941, where he made propaganda and supported the creation of the Indian battalion (see this older post of mine: http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic.php?p=383217#383217); his relations with Bose were very cold, probably because of personal jealousy and because Bose was Hindu. Unlike what is stated in your source, Shedai was never in good relations with Ciano (who opposed the indipendence of India because it would have been an example for coloured peoples who wanted the end of colonialism and because it would have been under the economic control of Japan instead of the control of a white power as the UK; Ciano wasn't interested in anti-Semitism, but was very racist towards non-whites), instead he had the full support of Mussolini and of dott. Enderle and of the supporters of Indian nationalism as Evola (philosopher "at the right of Fascism", as he described himself; a very intelligent and interesting thinker) and Farinacci (an extremist Fascist leader)
- after WW2 became a member of Pakistani diplomacy (nothing is told about any party founded by him).
User avatar
DrG
Former member
Italy
 
Posts: 1136
Joined: 21 Oct 2003 22:23
Location: Italia

Postby stein55 on 31 Jan 2005 13:24

Thanks a lot for your detailed answer

This is the reason I came to the forum – hoping to get answers like that to an unusual question

I will go through what you wrote carefully and then make a more detailed response

I have heard of Felice but not knowing Italian I have not read any of his works

The evola-shedai link would be fascinating to explore

It never occurred to me that this famous indologist would have met shedai

(rather ironic though that he was a Muslim)

perhaps bose also met Evola

by the way terrific link on the Hindustan battalion

seems to be the only detailed photo and text reference on the whole internet

very very rare pictures!
stein55
Member
France
 
Posts: 31
Joined: 24 Jan 2005 19:21
Location: Europe

Postby DrG on 31 Jan 2005 15:33

You are welcome Stein55. :)
About Shedai and Evola, in my source it's not told if they met or had direct contact, only that Evola and his political sponsor Farinacci supported Indian indipendentism; anyway, I wouldn't be surprised to discover some more personal links between these people (sadly my knowledge of Evola is rather sketchy, although I've read saveral texts by him and about him, I'm far from being an expert of that thinker).
The relations between Fascist Italy and India has been studied far less than those between Fascism and Islam, thus, except for the book by De Felice that I've already mentioned, there is just this one: Manfredi Martelli, "L'India e il Fascismo. Chandra Bose, Mussolini e il problema del Nazionalismo Indiano", Settimo Sigillo, 2002. If ever I'll read it (but I admit it's not among my list of future readings currently), I'll tell you if there are details about Shedai and maybe of personal relations between Evola and the Indian nationalists.
User avatar
DrG
Former member
Italy
 
Posts: 1136
Joined: 21 Oct 2003 22:23
Location: Italia

Postby zaptiè on 02 Feb 2005 11:06

I have read this book and in it is a section of 60 pages about shendai, his role and also radio himalaya .
in it is also a copy of his italian passport with photo . the name is false and he is a Somali colonial Subiect ( in Somalia thre where some people of indian origin )
zaptiè
Member
Italy
 
Posts: 204
Joined: 16 Dec 2004 12:22
Location: north italy

Postby FB on 02 Feb 2005 12:15

It would be really intersting to know if Mr. Shedai had indeed a personal, or written, relationship with Evola.

Since Mr. Shedai lived in France for a dozen of years maybe (this is of course just a very long shot) he met a Frechmen, a very important thinker, who had close (written) relationship with Evola: I'm referring to René Guénon who is probably the major expert in the field of oriental thought studies.

I'd say that an Indian-Muslim would have been probably an interesting combination for Guénon who was very expert in Hindu Tradition and a converted Muslim (Sufi) himself.

Best regards
FB
Member
Italy
 
Posts: 362
Joined: 13 Sep 2002 13:43
Location: Italy

Postby stein55 on 02 Feb 2005 18:43

These are great pieces of information !

Shedai from what I know increasingly became an ‘Islamist’

He gradually advocated the Pakistan solution to india’s problem

He detested bose and wrote some very nasty letters about him

He probably would not have appreciated Evola too much because of the latters attraction to the Hindu side of India

What could they have talked about ?

It would be interesting to know if bose met evola

I know he mat a famous Italian thinker during the war

I will try to get his name

I wonder if Evola was able to inluence policy on India ????

Re: Shedai in France does it say what he did in France , where he was staying and which political groups he was mixing with?

I heard he was expelled from there

I did not know that there was a scholarly book on Mussolini and Bose etc

It is high time and of great interest

Is it good???

Are the sources detailed?

I could not find anything about the author

Manfredi Martelli, "L'India e il Fascismo seems to come from a specialized right wing press or it quite available in Italy

Would buy it but don’t know italian

I know Mussolini met Tagore and Gandhi and a hindu nationalist leader Mookerjee of the Hindu Mahasabha

Anymore info would be more than welcome

BOSE L’ANTI GANDHI CHE SCELSE MUSSOLINI
Un libro raccoglie per la prima volta i documenti sulla vita del leader indù alleato prima del duce e poi di Hitler



Fu nazionalista e autoritario, la sua India affondò con l’Asse



La guerra di posizione che si combatte in questi giorni sulle montagne del Kashmir è soltanto l’ultimo episodio di un conflitto che scoppiò nel momento stesso in cui la Gran Bretagna decise di abbandonare il subcontinente e di concedere finalmente all’India la sua indipendenza. Sollecitato dal Viceré (Lord Mountbatten, zio di Filippo di Edimburgo) e dal governo laburista di Clement Attlee, il parlamento di Westminster approvò nel luglio del 1947 la nascita di due dominion : l’India, prevalentemente indù, e il Pakistan, prevalentemente musulmano. I maharajah avrebbero avuto il diritto di scegliere il dominion di cui far parte e avrebbero tenuto conto della religione dei loro sudditi. Così accadde effettivamente nella maggior parte dei casi, ma non in Kashmir dove il maharajah indù ignorò la volontà dei suoi sudditi musulmani e preferì l’India al Pakistan.
Mentre nel resto del subcontinente vi furono sanguinosi scambi di popolazione, qui indiani e pakistani celebrarono la loro indipendenza con una guerra che terminò, grazie all’intervento dell’Onu, nel gennaio del 1949. Ma fu soltanto una pausa. Il secondo atto, non meno sanguinoso, andò in scena nel 1965, il terzo nel 1971, il quarto nel 1989, il quinto nel 1999 e il sesto dopo l’inizio della guerra afghana. Non sarebbe stato preferibile evitare la spartizione e tentare la strada dello Stato unitario? Certamente. Ma negli anni che precedettero l’indipendenza gli inglesi restarono fedeli a una vecchia ricetta ( divide et impera ), incoraggiarono la formazione di un movimento musulmano e crearono in tal modo le premesse per la drammatica scissione del 1947.
Due grandi personalità, tuttavia, si batterono per una soluzione unitaria. Il primo fu il Mahatma Gandhi che finì per accettare, nell’ultima fase della sua vita politica, la creazione dei due Stati e fu ucciso per questo da un suo fanatico connazionale. Il secondo fu Chandra Bose, leader del fascismo indiano, ammiratore di Mussolini e supremo comandante di una «Indian National Army», teoricamente composta da 80 mila uomini, che nel 1944 combatté a fianco dei giapponesi lungo la frontiera birmana. Su Gandhi naturalmente sono apparsi molti libri. Ma di Chandra Bose il lettore italiano conosceva finora soltanto rari cenni nella grande biografia di Mussolini scritta da Renzo De Felice. Oggi un libro di Manfredi Martelli, L’India e il Fascismo , racconta la vita di questo singolare agitatore politico e dei suoi rapporti con il governo fascista.
La parabola di Bose meritava di essere ricostruita e Martelli lo ha fatto con molte letture e una paziente ricerca negli archivi della diplomazia italiana.
Fra i maggiori esponenti del nazionalismo indiano dopo la Grande guerra, Subhas Chandra Bose fu il più aggressivo e spericolato. A ventisei anni, nel 1921, aderì al movimento di Gandhi, ma rifiutò di accettare il programma della non-violenza e debuttò nella politica militante organizzando il boicottaggio della visita che il principe di Galles si apprestava a fare in India. Nel dicembre del 1927 conquistò con Nehru la segreteria del Partito del Congresso e nel settembre del 1930 divenne sindaco di Calcutta. Ma non smise di organizzare manifestazioni e, secondo la polizia, attentati terroristici. Fu arrestato, processato, liberato, nuovamente arrestato e confinato per parecchi mesi nella fortezza di Mandalay in Birmania. Nel 1932 ebbe la libertà a una condizione, la partenza dall’India, ma riuscì a trasformare l’esilio in una campagna di propaganda per l’indipendenza del subcontinente. Lanciò da Vienna un manifesto politico e nel novembre del 1934 pubblicò un libro ( La battaglia dell’India ) che ebbe una certa risonanza e apparve in Italia presso Sansoni, la casa editrice di Giovanni Gentile.
Fu quello il momento in cui cominciarono i suoi primi contatti con il governo italiano e con Mussolini. Bose era attratto dall’ideologia dei movimenti autoritari europei e intravide nell’Italia, soprattutto dopo la guerra d’Etiopia e la crisi dei rapporti italo-inglesi, una possibile alleata. Mussolini, dal canto suo, credette di potere usare il «fascismo» di Bose per piantare una spina nel fianco dell’impero britannico. Fra il nazionalista indiano e il capo del governo italiano nacque così un rapporto di convenienza e di reciproca simpatia. A Roma, nel frattempo, era nato un «partito dell’India» composto da uomini di cultura (Giovanni Gentile, Giuseppe Tucci, i ricercatori dell’Istituto per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente), e da diplomatici che conoscevano l’Asia e speravano di conquistare per l’Italia un’influenza in quelle regioni.
Nel dicembre del 1933 si tenne in Campidoglio un convegno di studenti asiatici che Mussolini inaugurò con un discorso: «Nei mali di cui si lagna l’Asia, nei suoi risentimenti, nelle sue reazioni, noi vediamo riflesso il nostro stesso volto. Ed è perciò che la nuova Italia vi ha qui convocati. Come già altre volte, in periodi di crisi morali, la civiltà fu salvata dalla collaborazione di Roma e dell’Oriente, così oggi noi italiani e fascisti, ci auguriamo di riprendere con voi la comune, millenaria tradizione della nostra collaborazione costruttiva».
Quando rimise piede in patria, verso la metà degli anni Trenta, Bose era ormai, anch’egli, un «duce». Nel 1938 divenne presidente del Congresso e ricevette le entusiastiche congratulazioni del maggiore pensatore indiano, Rabindranath Tagore. Nessuno meglio di lui rappresentava in quel momento l’ala militante del nazionalismo indiano e nessuno più di lui poteva aspirare, non appena il Paese avesse conquistato l’indipendenza, ad assicurarne la guida. Ma Gandhi non rinunciò mai alla speranza di un accordo con la Gran Bretagna e capì, dopo lo scoppio della Seconda guerra mondiale, che le simpatie fasciste e naziste del movimento avrebbero nuociuto all’India.
Privato della fiducia del Mahatma, Bose fondò un nuovo partito, il «Forward Bloc», e fu nuovamente arrestato. Riuscì a fuggire nel marzo del 1941 e raggiunse Kabul dove la Legazione italiana gli dette un falso passaporto intestato a un fantomatico Orlando Massota. Alla fine del mese, dopo un breve soggiorno in Russia, era a Berlino. Fra nazismo e fascismo preferiva il secondo, ma la Germania era molto più potente dell’Italia, e scelse quindi d’installare a Berlino il suo quartier generale. Vi rimase fino a quando i tedeschi lo trasportarono in Asia a bordo di un sottomarino e i giapponesi gli permisero di costituire a Singapore un governo indiano in esilio. La prima India indipendente ebbe allora un’amministrazione, un piccolo esercito composto da indù e musulmani, una bandiera, un inno e per alcuni mesi persino un piccolo territorio su cui Bose esercitò per qualche mese una precaria sovranità. Ma era uno Stato di cartapesta, destinato a scomparire di lì a pochi mesi.
Con la diplomazia italiana e con Mussolini il leader nazionalista continuò nel frattempo a tenere rapporti cordiali. Forse sperava che l’alleanza con l’Italia gli avrebbe permesso, dopo la guerra, di sfuggire all’egemonia giapponese. Ma l’amico italiano, estromesso dal potere, era ormai soltanto, all’ombra dei tedeschi, il debole presidente di una fragile Repubblica sociale. Fra i molti documenti raccolti da Martelli vi sono i patetici messaggi che i due sconfitti si scambiarono nella primavera del 1944. Mussolini si congratulò con Bose per il battesimo del fuoco della Indian National Army; e Bose si disse incoraggiato «dal pensiero di avere la buona volontà e la simpatia della Nazione italiana». Il secondo sopravvisse al primo di qualche mese e precipitò con un aereo giapponese al largo di Taiwan nell’agosto del 1945.

I got this extract from the Società Italiana per lo Studio della Storia Contemporanea website


Il libro: «L’India e il Fascismo. Chandra Bose, Mussolini e il problema del Nazionalismo Indiano» di Manfredi Martelli, Edizioni Settimo Sigillo, pagine 419, euro 38


http://www.sissco.it/rassegne/rassegna177.html


here is a rather poor english translation


BOSE ANTI THE GANDHI THAT CHOSE MUSSOLINI
A book collects for before then turns documents on the life of the allied indù leader before the duce and of Hitler



She was nationalist and authoritarian, its India sank with the Axis



The position war that is fought in these days on mountains of Kashmir is only the last episode of a conflict that burst in the same moment in which Great Britain determined to abandon the subcontinente and to finally grant to India its independence. Sped up from the Viceré (Lord Mountbatten, uncle of Filippo di Edimburgo) and from the laburista government of Clement Attlee, the parliament of Westminster approved of in the July of 1947 the birth of two dominion: India, mostly indù, and Pakistan, mostly muslim. The maharajah they would have had the right to choose the dominion of which making part and they would have held account of the religion of their sudditi ones. Therefore it happened effectively in the greater part of the cases, but not in Kashmir where the maharajah indù it ignored the will of its muslim sudditi ones and preferred India to Pakistan.
While in the rest of the subcontinente there were bloody exchanges of population, Indian and here Pakistani they celebrated their independence with a war that finished, thanks to the participation of the UN, in January of 1949. But pause was only one. According to action, not less bloody, it went in scene in 1965, the third party in 1971, the quarter in 1989, fifth in 1999 and sixth after the beginning of the afghana war. He would not have been preferibile to avoid the partition and to try the road of the unitary State? Sure. But in the years that will precede independence English remained faithful to an old prescription (divide impera ET), encouraged the formation of a muslim movement and in such a way created the premises for the dramatic division of 1947.
Two great personalities, however, struck for one unitary solution. The first one was the Mahatma Gandhi that ended in order to accept, in the last phase of its political life, the creation of the two States and was killed for this from a its connazionale fanatic. The second was Chandra Bose, leader of the Indian fascismo, admirer of Mussolini and supreme commander of a "Indian National Army", theoretically composed from 80 mila men, than in 1944 it fought to flank of the Japanese long the birmana frontier. On Gandhi naturally they are appeared many books. But of Chandra Bose the Italian reader up to now knew only rare signals in the great biography of Mussolini written from Renzo Happy De. Today a book of Manfredi Hammerings, India and the Fascismo, tells the life of this singular political agitator and its relationships with the fascist government.
The parabola of Bose deserved of being reconstructed and Hammerings it has made it with many readings and a patient searches in arches you of the Italian diplomacy.
Between the greater exponents of the Indian nationalism after the Great war, Subhas Chandra Bose most aggressive and was spericolato. To ventisei years, in 1921, it joined to the movement of Gandhi, but it refused to accept the program of the not-violence and toed make one's debut in militant politics organizing the boycotting of the visit that the prince of Wales got ready to itself to make in India. In the December of 1927 it conquered with Nehru the secretariat of the Party of the Conference and in the september of the 1930 divenne mayor of Calcutta. But it did not stop to organize the terroristic manifestations and, second police, attacks. It was arrested, tried, freed, newly arrested and confined for several months in the fortress of Mandalay in Birmania. In 1932 it had the freedom to a condition, the departure from India, but campaign of propaganda for independence of the subcontinente succeeded to transform the exile in one. A political manifesto launch from Vienna and in the November of 1934 the battle of India published a book () that it had a sure resonance and it appeared in Italy near Sansoni, the publishing house of Kind Giovanni.
The moment was that one in which first contacts with the Italian government and Mussolini began its. Bose was attracted from the ideology of the European authoritarian movements and caught a glimpse in Italy, above all after the war of Ethiopia and the crisis of the relationships Italian-English, one possible allied. Mussolini, from the song its, believed of being able to use the "fascismo" of Bose in order to plant one thorn in the flank of the British empire. Between the Indian nationalist and the head of the Italian government nacque therefore a relationship of convenience and mutual sympathy. To Rome, in the meantime, a "party of the India" composed from culture men was been born (Kind Giovanni, Giuseppe Tucci, the investigators of the Institute for the Mean and Far East), and from given a degree to to us that they knew Asia and they hoped to conquer for Italy an infuence in those regions.
In the December of the 1933 a convention of Asian students was kept in Campidoglio us that Mussolini inaugurated with a speech: "In the evils of which lagna Asia, in its resentments, its reactions, we see reflected our same face. And it is therefore that the Italy new has to you convenes to you here. Like already other times, in periods of moral crises, the civilization was saved from the collaboration of Rome and the East, therefore today Italian and fascist we, is augured to resume with you the common one, millenarian tradition of our constructive collaboration ".
When it replaced foot in native land, towards the half of years Thirty, Bose was by now, anch' he, "duce". In the 1938 divenne president of the Conference and it received entusiastiche congratulations of the greater Indian thinker, Rabindranath Tagore. No best of he more represented in that moment the militant wing of the Indian nationalism and no than he it could aspire, not hardly the Country had conquered independence, to assure of the guide. But Gandhi rinunciò never to the hope of an agreement with Great Britain and did not understand, after the explosion of the Second world war, than the fascist sympathies and nazi of the movement they would have nuociuto India.
Private of the confidence of the Mahatma, Bose founded a new party, the "Forward Bloc", and newly was arrested. It succeeded to escape in March of 1941 and caught up Kabul where the Italian Legation said a false passport intestate to a fantomatico Bordering Massota. To the end of the month, after a short stay in Russia, it was to Berlin. Between nazism and fascismo it preferred the second, but the Germany was the much most powerful one of Italy, and chose therefore to install to Berlin general its quartier. You it remained until when the Germans transported it in Asia to edge of a submarine and the Japanese allowed it to constitute to Singapore an Indian government in exile. The first independent India then had an administration, a small army composed from indù and Muslims, a flag, a hymn and for some months even a small territory on which Bose precaria sovereignty exercised some month one. But it was one Be of cartapesta, destined to disappear of lì to little months.
With the Italian diplomacy and Mussolini the leader nationalist continued in the meantime to hold cordial relationships. Perhaps he hoped that the alliance with Italy would have it permission, after the war, to escape to the Japanese hegemony. But the Italian friend, turned out the power, was by now only, to the shadow of the Germans, the weak person president of one fragile social Republic. Between many documents collected from Hammerings there are the pathetic messages that the two defeats were exchanged in the spring of 1944. Mussolini congratulò with Bose for the baptism of the fire of the Indian National Army; and Bose was said encouraged "from the thought of having the good will and the sympathy of the Italian Nation". The second survived to the first one of some month and fell with a Japanese airplane to the wide one of Taiwan in August of 1945.


The book: "India and the Fascismo. Chandra Bose, Mussolini and the problem of the Indian Nationalism "of Manfredi Hammerings, Editions Seventh I seal, pages 419, euro 38
stein55
Member
France
 
Posts: 31
Joined: 24 Jan 2005 19:21
Location: Europe

Postby zaptiè on 03 Feb 2005 11:04

it's a bit off topic , but i think that is interesting to know that the only indian territory on real govern of Bose's governament was the Andamane Islands , those recente hit by the disaster
zaptiè
Member
Italy
 
Posts: 204
Joined: 16 Dec 2004 12:22
Location: north italy

Postby stein55 on 05 Feb 2005 09:09

Wonder what happened when Mussolini fell in 43

was shedai arrested

by then he was discredited with everyone bose , germans, japanese etc

i suppose badoglio would not have had much use for him

did he go to salo or berlin
stein55
Member
France
 
Posts: 31
Joined: 24 Jan 2005 19:21
Location: Europe

Re: radio himalaya

Postby bhutta on 07 Mar 2011 18:21

iqbal shedai page is now avaible at wikipedia title; muhammed iqbal shedai.. his brief biography is written by his nephew prof tahir farooq.
bhutta
Member
Pakistan
 
Posts: 20
Joined: 20 Jan 2011 18:18

Re: radio himalaya

Postby Roger Tidy on 07 Mar 2011 20:34

There are many examples of Shedai's broadcasts in "The Daily Digest of World Broadcasts" published by the BBC Monitoring Service during the war. Shedai's "Radio Himalaya" was taken off the air after the fall of Mussolini but came back on the air when the latter formed his short-lived Social Republic. You can find more about Radio Himalaya and Shedai in the India Office Archives at the British Library. I also devote a chapter to German broadcasts to India (including those of Bose's three clandestine stations as well as 'Radio Himalaya', in my book 'Hitler's Radio War', published by Robert Hale Ltd, London.

Roger Tidy
Roger Tidy
Member
United Kingdom
 
Posts: 24
Joined: 12 Mar 2002 22:55

Re: radio himalaya

Postby UMachine on 10 Mar 2011 04:41

Roger Tidy wrote:There are many examples of Shedai's broadcasts in "The Daily Digest of World Broadcasts" published by the BBC Monitoring Service during the war. Shedai's "Radio Himalaya" was taken off the air after the fall of Mussolini but came back on the air when the latter formed his short-lived Social Republic. You can find more about Radio Himalaya and Shedai in the India Office Archives at the British Library. I also devote a chapter to German broadcasts to India (including those of Bose's three clandestine stations as well as 'Radio Himalaya', in my book 'Hitler's Radio War', published by Robert Hale Ltd, London.

Roger Tidy


Any role for Radio Marina in all this?
UMachine
Member
Canada
 
Posts: 395
Joined: 15 Apr 2006 15:35
Location: canada

Re: radio himalaya

Postby bhutta on 10 Mar 2011 19:25

Was Iqbal Shedai awarded with any Italian Civil Award during 1922-1945???
bhutta
Member
Pakistan
 
Posts: 20
Joined: 20 Jan 2011 18:18

Next

Return to Italy under Fascism 1922-1945

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 1 guest