Shanghai 1932

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tigre
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24 Mixed Brigade

Postby tigre » 22 Mar 2006 11:07

Hello asiaticus, as for your question regarding this unit, it's seems that it was called "mixed" due to the brigade was organized with independent battalions rather than regiments belonging to a one particular division. My point of view. Regards. Tigre.

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Re: 24th Mixed Brigade ?

Postby Akira Takizawa » 22 Mar 2006 15:35

asiaticus wrote:Am wondering if this 24th Mixed Brigade was actually a "mixed" Brigade or just an independant Infantry Brigade?


It was a "mixed" Brigade. Its organization is as follows.

24th Mixed Brigade
2nd Battalion/14th Infantry Regiment
1st Battalion/24th Infantry Regiment
1st Battalion/46th Infantry Regiment
1st Battalion/48th Infantry Regiment
2nd Battalion/3rd Independent Mountain Gun Regiment
2nd Company/18th Engineer Battalion


Taki

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Re: 24th Mixed Brigade ?

Postby asiaticus » 22 Mar 2006 20:19

Ok. good to know. I was under the impression that these mixed brigades dated from a later period.
Taki any idea when the Japanese started using them?

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Re: 24th Mixed Brigade ?

Postby Akira Takizawa » 23 Mar 2006 04:44

asiaticus wrote:Ok. good to know. I was under the impression that these mixed brigades dated from a later period.
Taki any idea when the Japanese started using them?


I don't know when it started. But, the mixed brigade was already organized in the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-95.

Taki

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THE JAPANESE ATTACKS AT SHANGHAI 1931-1932 - 5º part

Postby tigre » 27 Mar 2006 03:29

On the morning of 1 March, the Japanese Navy opened fire on the Woosung Forts and one regiment of infantry landed south of Woosung Creek as a feint. Under cover of this move, and assisted by a dead calm on the Yangtze River, two regiments of infantry and some mountain artillery were landed against fairly light Chinese resistance at Liuho. Meanwhile the 24th Brigade, 9th Division, and Naval Landing Force, launched another determined offensive.

That same evening the Chinese 19th Route Army issued an order to withdraw all Chinese forces to their second line of defense,about 12 miles from Shanghai. The efficient manner in which the withdrawal was carried out leads one to believe that it was planned several days before the threat from the north was actually manifest. A limit to the Chinese Army’s resistance was in any case set by the increasing scarcity of its ammunition.

During the 2d, the Japanese pursued the Chinese largely with aviation, but, rapidly advanced once the area was vacated. The Chinese units escaped practically intact. The Chinese had now retreated outside of the 12-mile zone specified in the original Japanese ultimatum and the Japanese now made counter proposals to the agreements reached on board the British ship on the 28th. These were rejected by the Chinese as tantamount to dictation of terms to a defeated enemy.

On the morning of the 3d, the Japanese subjected the Woosung Forts to an intensive naval and aerial bombardment. The Chinese garrison managed to get away, leaving a small detachment to carry on a rear guard action. The Japanese made a landing under cover of the bombardment, dispersed the rear , guards and occupied the Forts and the village of Woosung.

No fighting of any consequence occurred after this date. This same day a special session of the League of Nations convened to consider the Sine-Japanese conflict, in response to China’s appeal under Article XV of the League Covenant. The Japanese representative, Mr. Sate, declared that hostilities had ceased at Shanghai, and the Chinese representative, Dr. W. W. Yen; declared that they had not.

On the 4th the League unanimously voted a resolution calling for Japan’s unconditional military withdrawal from the Shanghai area.

On the 5th, fifteen small powers made appeals to the League Assembly to uphold the sanctity of the Covenant’s obligations in the conduct of international relations. This pressure on Japan caused the Commanding General of their Expeditionary Army at Shanghai to issue an order to suspend action so long as the Chinese should refrain from hostilities.
The Chinese, for their part, officially announced on 7 March that they had no intention of relinquishing sovereignty to the invaded territory; that they would retreat only under pressure, and that they would advance eastward upon any Japanese retirement towards Shanghai.

This attitude might have brought on a diplomatic deadlock, but the Japanese were becoming alarmed over their national finances and were now willing to welcome any solution that would permit the Japanese troops to retire from Shanghai with honor.

Their troops began withdrawing on 18 March, and finally, on 5 May a formal armistice agreement was signed and on that date hostilities may be said to have officially ceased.

Conclusion follows. Best Regards. Tigre
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Reservists at Shanghai

Postby asiaticus » 31 Mar 2006 18:43

I am curious about the Japanese reservists in the battles in Shanghai. They are discribed in the article on the 1932 battle in this thread :

The Japanese themselves, who seem to have had insufficient regular force for the defense of their area, had mobilized and armed all their so-called reservists, who wore civilian clothes distinguished by a brassard.


Up to 5000 appeared in the 1937 battle of Shanghai too. I have found mention of a 1st and 2nd Reserve Regiment being involved in that second battle.

Is there any details on these Reserve formations? How they were organized, equiped and armed?

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THE JAPANESE ATTACKS AT SHANGHAI 1931-1932 - Conclusions.

Postby tigre » 07 Apr 2006 02:36

CONCLUSIONS.

There is no doubt that the Japanese were astonished over the Shanghai affair. Using every known modern weapon, except chemicals, they never did force their will upon the Chinese forces. The latter even withdrew intact in the face of a wide envelopment and took up a second position with few losses.

Had the Chinese not been fighting a strictly passive defense, the cost to the Japanese might have been much greater.
The Japanese continually underestimated the amount of resistance to be expected. They assumed that the Chinese would withdraw, particularly on the appearance of artillery and airplane bombs. Their previous experience with Chinese troops in Manchuria made such an assumption logical.

The Japanese did not show their usual dash and spirit. This was partly due to their surprise at the unexpected resistance offered by the Chinese, but mostly because they were under strict orders to carry on the operations as economically as possible. There is no question that their morale was considerably shaken by the activity of snipers in their rear.

Coordination between Japanese infantry and artillery was very poor if not entirely nonexistent. Their tanks were ineffectual in the narrow streets of Chapei and were also unsuitable in the flat, open country, criss-crossed by creeks, ditches and canals
Bombing operations from the air had very little effect upon Chinese soldiers. The Japanese planes usually flew at an altitude of 2,000 feet, dropping to 1,500 when releasing bombs. This is considered the minimum height for protection from .30caliber machine guns on the ground. Flying was very conservative at all times and no chances were taken.

It's all gentlemen. Best Regards. Hasta la vista. Tigre.
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Postby Peter H » 07 Apr 2006 02:54

18,000 civilians were also killed in the fighting:

http://www.earnshaw.com/shanghai-ed-ind ... -war01.htm

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NLF forces in Shanghai with photos

Postby asiaticus » 03 Jun 2006 03:04

To link some relavant pics and info to this thread:

NLF forces in Shanghai with photos
viewtopic.php?t=102369

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Peter H
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Postby Peter H » 10 Jun 2006 12:26

Chinese public domain photos from Wikipedia.


Image


Image

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tigre
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Shangai 1932 pictures

Postby tigre » 10 Jun 2006 16:32

Thank you both asiaticus and Peter H, great complement. Cheers. Tigre.

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asiaticus
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Shanghai Volunteer Corps

Postby asiaticus » 15 Jun 2006 03:30

Here is a mention of the Armed force that the International Settlement organized to protect itself during this crisis.

http://www.earnshaw.com/shanghai-ed-ind ... t-volu.htm

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Peter H
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Postby Peter H » 15 Jun 2006 14:00

Photos of Old Shanghai can also be found here.

Type in Search ,"Japanese" or "1932" for photos from the period:

http://virtualshanghai.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr/Image.php

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Photos of Armoured Train at Shanghai

Postby asiaticus » 12 Jul 2006 10:06

Photos of Armoured Trains at Shanghai on CDF History forum

http://www.china-defense.com/forum/inde ... wtopic=127

According to the oob above these had a crew of 500 men.

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Postby Gerrie_Coetzee » 13 Jul 2006 12:02

Pictures of the Chinese army in Shanghai 1932

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