On the morning of 1 March, the Japanese Navy opened fire on the Woosung Forts and one regiment of infantry landed south of Woosung Creek as a feint. Under cover of this move, and assisted by a dead calm on the Yangtze River, two regiments of infantry and some mountain artillery were landed against fairly light Chinese resistance at Liuho. Meanwhile the 24th Brigade, 9th Division, and Naval Landing Force, launched another determined offensive.
That same evening the Chinese 19th Route Army issued an order to withdraw all Chinese forces to their second line of defense,about 12 miles from Shanghai. The efficient manner in which the withdrawal was carried out leads one to believe that it was planned several days before the threat from the north was actually manifest. A limit to the Chinese Army’s resistance was in any case set by the increasing scarcity of its ammunition.
During the 2d, the Japanese pursued the Chinese largely with aviation, but, rapidly advanced once the area was vacated. The Chinese units escaped practically intact. The Chinese had now retreated outside of the 12-mile zone specified in the original Japanese ultimatum and the Japanese now made counter proposals to the agreements reached on board the British ship on the 28th. These were rejected by the Chinese as tantamount to dictation of terms to a defeated enemy.
On the morning of the 3d, the Japanese subjected the Woosung Forts to an intensive naval and aerial bombardment. The Chinese garrison managed to get away, leaving a small detachment to carry on a rear guard action. The Japanese made a landing under cover of the bombardment, dispersed the rear , guards and occupied the Forts and the village of Woosung.
No fighting of any consequence occurred after this date. This same day a special session of the League of Nations convened to consider the Sine-Japanese conflict, in response to China’s appeal under Article XV of the League Covenant. The Japanese representative, Mr. Sate, declared that hostilities had ceased at Shanghai, and the Chinese representative, Dr. W. W. Yen; declared that they had not.
On the 4th the League unanimously voted a resolution calling for Japan’s unconditional military withdrawal from the Shanghai area.
On the 5th, fifteen small powers made appeals to the League Assembly to uphold the sanctity of the Covenant’s obligations in the conduct of international relations. This pressure on Japan caused the Commanding General of their Expeditionary Army at Shanghai to issue an order to suspend action so long as the Chinese should refrain from hostilities.
The Chinese, for their part, officially announced on 7 March that they had no intention of relinquishing sovereignty to the invaded territory; that they would retreat only under pressure, and that they would advance eastward upon any Japanese retirement towards Shanghai.
This attitude might have brought on a diplomatic deadlock, but the Japanese were becoming alarmed over their national finances and were now willing to welcome any solution that would permit the Japanese troops to retire from Shanghai with honor.
Their troops began withdrawing on 18 March, and finally, on 5 May a formal armistice agreement was signed and on that date hostilities may be said to have officially ceased.
Conclusion follows. Best Regards. Tigre
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