Operations in Jehol.

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tigre
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Operations in Jehol.

Post by tigre » 13 Oct 2014 19:31

Hello to all :D; a short summary on this subject.........................

JAPANESE OPERATIONS IN JEHOL. [Extracted from: "Journal of the Royal United Service Institution," May 1933.]

The Japanese capture of Shanhai-kwan early this year obviously foreboded a further advance into Jehol. The Japanese were not long in moving eastwards into that province on the pretext that it is not politically part of China, being one of the four northern and "extra-Chinese" provinces: in many respects it should logically form part of Manchuria.

The Japanese advance began on 24 February. The movement was planned on a broad front and in three columns:

(i) the northern column starting from Kailu advancing on Chifeng;
(ii) the center column moved from Ichow on Ling-yuan;
(iii) the southern column from Suichung also on Lingyuan.

The two latter forces advanced by widely-separated routes. Within 3-4 days the Japanese stood on the line Chifeng-Lingyuan.The Japanese forces comprised 30,000 men, supported by a like number of the newly-formed Manchukuo Army. The three columns consisted, so it is reported, of the following troops:

(i) The northern column; 4th Cavalry Brigade and 6th Division.
(ii) The center; 8th Division.
(iii) The southern column; 14th Mixed Brigade.

Against them are said to have been some 55,000 irregular Chinese, mostly ex-Manchurian garrison, who could not be regarded as possessing great military value since they had previously been defeated with consummate ease in the first operations conducted by the Japanese in Manchuria. Behind them stood some four infantry divisions and three cavalry brigades of Jehol provincial troops. In addition Chang Hsuehliang had sent up some additional four divisions to support the local Jehol troops. The Chinese thus totalled over 150,000 men against the Japanese 30,000. In addition there were another 200,000 men in China proper, these latter probably possessing a higher military value.

Source: Abstracts-Foreign Articles. Military Review. Sep 1933.

More will follows. Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
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YC Chen
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Re: Operations in Jehol.

Post by YC Chen » 15 Oct 2014 12:47

Nice info. Thanks for posting it!

Jerry Asher
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Re: Operations in Jehol.

Post by Jerry Asher » 18 Oct 2014 18:56

I have a citation that says that two defense lines were authorized for construction in October 1932 in Jehol. Where were they to be built? and were they started? A discription I have of defensive works south of Shanhaiquan after January 3rd 1933 shows every competency--but from what I understand Song Ziwen was completely disgusted with Zhang Xueling had him sacked with Jiang's support in March 1933( aware of opium.) How professional were Zhang's troops? I have the sense of militias more than serious professional soldiers---bands more than squads, platoons, companies. Would like a chronolgy of units deployed. Finally anyone have any data on what Japanese ships were deployed from January 3rd through the Tanggu Truce.

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tigre
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Re: Operations in Jehol.

Post by tigre » 25 Oct 2014 12:50

Hello to all :D; you're welcome YC Chen :wink:. Now last part..........................

JAPANESE OPERATIONS IN JEHOL. [Extracted from: "Journal of the Royal United Service Institution," May 1933.]

It is important to note that the Japanese movement took place at a time when the cold weather in Manchuria was at its greatest intensity, the ground being hard frozen, while there were feet of ice on all the rivers. This condition exerted a threefold influence: firstly, it facilitated movement of motor transport to an incredible degree; secondly, it prevented any entrenching being done-the Chinese had dug trenches last year; thirdly, it imposed considerable hardships on the troops. In spite of the last-named circumstance, the Japanese plan worked out well, and there was little or no opposition at all, so that an astonishing rate of advance became possible.

The following examples of rapid movements are taken from Press reports: the 4th Cavalry Brigade covered 225 miles in 8 days, fighting three engagements; two infantry columns, moving at times in motor transport, covered 163 miles in 3 and a half days, and 180 miles in slightly less time respectively; skirmishing took place during these moves. The latter performance is remarkable, and could only be achieved with a liberal use of mechanical transport. Aircraft also appear to have been employed on a large scale. The Japanese do not seem to have been troubled by any supply difficulties, and depended largely on local resources. Nevertheless, in view of the very low temperatures-up to 10 degrees below zero-the whole operation is one of considerable military interest.

The Chinese line of resistance, Chifeng-Lingyuan, was penetrated on 2d March. Chengteh, capital of Jehol, was occupied on the 4th, while by the 5th the Japanese had reached the main passes in the Great Wall; the latter forms the frontier between Jehol and China proper. Of true fighting there was none after the first Chinese line was broken. Even where Chinese troops showed fight, cowardice or treachery prevented anything being achieved. The Japanese casualties amounted to 400, of which the greater number were the result of frost-bite.

Since the occupation of Chengteh, the Japanese have set about rounding up brigands, while Tang Yu-ling, Governor of Jehol, was finally defeated on 4th March in a trivial action at Fenguing. The Chinese troops appear to have been effectually dispersed, and to have abandoned Jehol to the Japanese.

After occupying the passes in the Great Wall, the Japanese advanced to the South of it on the plea that they were being threatened by Chinese troop concentrations in those districts. They occupied the town of Shihmeuchai, but failed to take Lengou, which is said to have been their main objective; but they protest that there is no intention of occupation at the back of these movements, although since 10th April they have once more moved southwards of tIw Wall at several points.

The Japanese operations have given rise to many intrigues among the Chinese War-Lords. But there seems no symptom of any real national Chinese movement to oust the Japanese. Any concentration of Chinese troops directed northwards appears to be connected in some way or another with intrigues among the War-Lords themselves. The Japanese hold on Jehol appears to be complete.

Source: Abstracts-Foreign Articles. Military Review. Sep 1933.

It's all folks. Cheers. Raúl M 8-).

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