1937-45 Chinese Division Questions

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asiaticus
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1937-45 Chinese Division Questions

Post by asiaticus » 27 Oct 2005 07:25

Chinese Division Questions

Information on the composition of KMT Chinese Divsions 1937-45 seems to be very sketchy. There seem to have been several types originally they were organized in Brigades but sometime between 1937 and 1942 they began coverting to an organization based on the Infantry Regiment and discarded the Brigade structure.

Division types

The plan of German advisor Frankenhausen is to train a total of 60 divisions, trained and equipped by Germans. However, the Chinese government did not have money to buy all that equipment. So most of the reorganized units were still using Chinese equipment. The 60 divisions are designed as the regular division of a new army, to be known as the Type A (25th year (1936)) reorganized division (調整師). There is also the Type B (24th year (1935)) adjusted division (整理師) which was going to be used as reserve.

[1] Type A (25th year (1936)) reorganized division (調整師).

Reorganized Division strength: *
2 Brigades of 2 Infantry Regiments
1 Artillery Battalion
1 Battalion of Engineers
1 Quartermaster Battalion
? Other non infantry units?

10923 Officers and men
3821 rifles
243 Grenade launchers
274 light Machineguns
54 heavy Machineguns
30 Battalion and Regimental guns, mortars
1 Artillery Battalion
- 16 Howitzers or Pack Howitzers **
1 Battalion of Engineers
1 Quartermaster Battalion
? Other non infantry units?

Pg. 174. Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) 2nd Ed. ,1971. Translated by Wen Ha-hsiung , Chung Wu Publishing; 33, 140th Lane, Tung-hwa Street, Taipei, Taiwan Republic of China.

* 20 divisions,
8 fully German trained divisons:

3rd, 6th, 9th, 14th, 36th, 87th, 88th, and the Training Division of the Central Military Academy. Also the "Tax Police" regiment (equivalent of a division) under T.V. Soong's Ministry of Finance, later converted to the New 38th Division during the war.

12 other Divisions on the reorganized model with 2 German advisors:
2nd, 4th, 10th, 11th, 25th, 27th, 57th, 67th, 80th, 83rd, 89th Division

From: "History of the Frontal (i.e. KMT) War Zone in the Sino-Japanese War", published by Nanjing University Press. Posted by yexu on Apr 7 2005, 04:28 AM - http://www.china-defense.com/forum/inde ... ntry176135

** German trained divisions had 12 M1903 75mm L/29 field artillery that are either made in Germany or Chinese copies. Also 4 Pak 35 in its TOE.

[2] Provincial, Warlord Division strength: 172 divisions
2 Brigades of 2 Regiments
1 Artillery Battalion
1 Battalion of Engineers
1 Quartermaster Battalion
? Other non infantry units?

- 3000 - 5462 Officers and men
-1910 rifles
-122 Grenade launchers
-137 light Machineguns
-27 heavy Machineguns
-15 Battalion and Regimental guns, mortars
- 8 Howitzers or Pack Howitzers

"The equipment listed in the organization of our forces was from the more than 10 divisions reorganized in 1937. The strength of other divisions was 50% of the above. However there were exceptional cases. For example, each Division in the 29th Corps had 4 brigades with a total of more than 700 light machineguns." From [Note 1] Pg. 174. Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) 2nd Ed. ,1971. Translated by Wen Ha-hsiung , Chung Wu Publishing; 33, 140th Lane, Tung-hwa Street, Taipei, Taiwan Republic of China.

Would this also be the organization of the Type B (24th year (1935)) adjusted division (整理師) or Reserve Division?

By 1942 these Divisions seem to have been reorganized at least in the Burma theater and we find them organised without Brigades in 3 Infantry Regiments:

49th Division
--- 145th Regiment
--- 146th Regiment
--- 147th Regiment

93rd Division
--- 277th Regiment
--- 278th Regiment
--- 279th Regiment

96th Division
--- 286th Regiment
--- 287th Regiment
--- 288th Regiment

When did this conversion occur?


29th Corps
-37th Division * (15750 men)
-- Special Operations Regiment
--109th Brigade
--110th Brigade
--111th Brigade
--Indpendent 35th Brigade

-38th Division * (15400 men)
--Special Operations Regiment,
--112th Brigade
--113rd Brigade
--114th Brigade
--Independent 26th Brigade

-132nd Division *(15000 men)
--Special Operations Regiment,
--1st Brigade
--2nd Brigade
--Independent 27th Brigade
--Independent 28th Brigade

-143rd Division (from Chahar province) (15100 men)*
-- Special Operations Regiment,
--1st Brigade
--2nd Brigade
--Independent 29th Brigade
--Independent 31st Brigade
--Security Brigade


*Ea 3 Brigades of 2 Regiements
Plus : 1 Separate Infantry Brigade of 2 Regiments


[3] 29th Corps Division strength:
3 Brigades of 2 Regiments
1 Separate Infantry Brigade
1 Special Operations Regiment
1 Artillery Battalion
- 16 Howitzers or Pack Howitzers
1 Battalion of Engineers
1 Quartermaster Battalion

Estmated Equipment:
15000+ Officers and men
? rifles
? Grenade launchers
700 light Machineguns
? heavy Machineguns
? Battalion and Regimental guns, mortars
? Howitzers or Pack Howitzers



[4] Provincial Divisions
Organization as above [2] with 2 Brigades? There seems to have been a
Reform somewhere along the line so that by 1942 in Burma one appears with only 3 Regiments:

-- 55th Provincial Division
--- 1st Regiment
--- 2nd Regiment
--- 3rd Regiment


[5] Reserve Divisions
Was this the Type B (24th year (1935)) adjusted division (整理師) which was going to be used as reserve?. Organization as above [2] with 2 Brigades? Was it reformed by 1942 along with the New and Provincial Divisons to having 3 Regiments instead of the 2 Brigades of 2 regiments?


[6]Mechanized Division
Only one existed in 1938-39 equiped with the reminants of China's old armor and all the Soviet Armoured Cars and Tanks sent to it in 1937-38. In the battle of Kunlun Pass it was nearly destroyed and lost most of its armour late 1939 - 1940. Organization was this as best as I can determine:

One armored vehicle regiment
- 50 odd BA armored cars

One armored regiment
- 70 T-26, 4 BT-5, 18, 20 CV-33's

One motorized infantry regiment with Soviet trucks

One artillery regiment
- with 122mm howitzers, 75mm field guns and 45mm ATguns


[7]Motorized Divison
200th Mechanized was reformed as a motorised infantry Division after the battle of Kunlun Pass where it lost most of its armour. It reappeared in Burma in 1942 with this organization.

200th Division
-- 598thRegiment
-- 599th Regiment
-- 600th Regiment

Were there more sub units? If the original reorganized Divison pattern was otherwise followed then it would be thus:

200th Division
-- 598thRegiment
-- 599th Regiment
-- 600th Regiment
1 Artillery Battalion
1 Battalion of Engineers
1 Quartermaster Battalion
? Other non infantry units?

[8] New Divisions
- Unknown organizaton until 1942 when some of these appeared in Burma with 3 Regiments instead of the 2 Brigades of 2 regiments of the 1937 Chinese Division.
Were there more sub units? If the original reorganized Divison pattern was otherwise followed then it would be thus:

1st Infantry Regiment
2nd Infantry Regiment
3rd Infantry Regiment
1 Artillery Battalion
1 Battalion of Engineers
1 Quartermaster Battalion
? Other non infantry units?

I found the first of these (New 2nd Division) appearing in the Battle of Taiyuan (Sept. – Early Nov. 1937). I am wondering if these New Divisions were being organized with only 3 Regiments and no Brigades that early and if that was then a result of Soviet influence in organizing Divisions to streach limited command personel and equipment by eliminating unnessasary levels of commnd (the brigades) as the Russians later had to do to their own units in 1941-42.


[9] New Divisions (Burma Theatre)
In Burma these were organized with 3 Regiments presumably of infantry in 1942. Were there more sub units? If the original reorganized Divison pattern was othewise followed then it would be thus:

1st Infantry Regiment
2nd Infantry Regiment
3rd Infantry Regiment
1 Artillery Battalion
1 Battalion of Engineers
1 Quartermaster Battalion
? Other non infantry units?

Regiments seem to have been enumerated in sequence with the Divison, the third of its regiments 3x the Division # and the previous two regiments numerated one and two less, ie.:

New 22nd Division
-- 64th Regiment
-- 65th Regiment
-- 66th Regiment

New 28th Division
-- 82nd Regiment
-- 83rd Regiment
-- 84th Regiment

New 29th Division
-- 85th Regiment
-- 86th Regiment
-- 87th Regiment

New 38th Division
-- 112th Regiment
-- 113th Regiment
-- 114th Regiment

Any info on the organization of these units especilally the lower level units, Regiment, Battalion, Company structucture of any of these Divisons would be of interest.

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