The Sino-Japanese War(Campaigns in detail)

Discussions on all aspects of China, from the beginning of the First Sino-Japanese War till the end of the Chinese Civil War. Hosted by YC Chen.
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Akira Takizawa
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Post by Akira Takizawa » 17 Mar 2007 03:22

(1) where do you obtain the useful information which you have been posting

My main sources are Senshi Sosho and "一億人の昭和史-日中戦争" 毎日新聞社.

(2) I know most of the quoted figures come from the relevant volumes of the Senshi Sosho, but these were compiled a long time ago -- are there more recent studies?

No. Senshi Sosho was based on IJA documents. There are no other data than them.

Taki

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Post by sjchan » 17 Mar 2007 04:52

Thanks Taki.

I realize that Senshi Sosho is the official history, but are there unit histories for particular military units? Also, just curious whether Senshi Sosho and "一億人の昭和史-日中戦争 provide different perspectives or are they based on pretty much the same information. I am thinking of getting them and other worthwhile Japanese sources to form the basis of a balanced viewpoint of the war. Any suggestions will be much appreciated.

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Post by Akira Takizawa » 17 Mar 2007 06:04

The casualities in "一億人の昭和史" came from Senshi Sosho.

Some regiments have an unit history book and some of unit history books have a KIA name list. But, all units don't have their unit history book and all unit history books don't have a KIA list. So, it is impossible to count KIA in a particular battle from these books.

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Post by sjchan » 03 May 2007 08:36

Thanks Taki.

I know that getting exact KIA is hard, particularly for the Chinese side, but I thought it should be easier for the Japanese side. I think the commonly accepted viewpoint is that the total casualties on the while Sino Chinese War is pretty accurate, but that the numbers for individual battles might not be so (given that during a messy battle, it is not always possible to record everything instantly -- hence some commentators speculate that sometimes the casualties figures ballooned towards the end or after a battle when there was finally a chance to tabulate everything -- what do you think ?

I was able to locate some used copies of Senshi Sosho in Amazon Japan, but unfortunately they do not ship overseas (since these are used books held by associated bookstores and not Amazon). Do you have know of some on-line used book stores which ship overseas?

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Post by Akira Takizawa » 03 May 2007 10:09

sjchan wrote:
I know that getting exact KIA is hard, particularly for the Chinese side, but I thought it should be easier for the Japanese side. I think the commonly accepted viewpoint is that the total casualties on the while Sino Chinese War is pretty accurate, but that the numbers for individual battles might not be so (given that during a messy battle, it is not always possible to record everything instantly -- hence some commentators speculate that sometimes the casualties figures ballooned towards the end or after a battle when there was finally a chance to tabulate everything -- what do you think ?


As for the Japanese side, such an exaggeration has never happened, because the data on Senshi Sosho is widely believed in Japan.

sjchan wrote:
I was able to locate some used copies of Senshi Sosho in Amazon Japan, but unfortunately they do not ship overseas (since these are used books held by associated bookstores and not Amazon). Do you have know of some on-line used book stores which ship overseas?


No. You need to find somebody in Japan to get these copies.

Taki

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Post by sjchan » 03 May 2007 11:38

Thanks Taki.

I certainly believe that Senshi Sosho is widely accepted in Japan, but in China there are some who accept the data entirely and some who question all or parts of it. Some claim that there is a deliberate attempt to underestimate the figures (though I personally find that quite hard to believe since there does not seem to be any underestimation rin the battles against the Americans or British) while others point to the lack of reliable records since much of the historical records were destroyed.

Perhaps I will start a new thread on this after I examine the data at hand a bit more.

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Re: The Sino-Japanese War(Campaigns in detail)

Post by tigre » 04 May 2008 14:44

Hello to all people :D ; after one year I'm back............................

Bombardment Operations in China.

Japanese bombardment aviation operates under conditions where enemy aircrafts (Chinese) is considerably weaker, when control of the air and an overwhelming superiority is on the side of the Japanese. This circumstance, naturally, gives a special aspect to the nature of the combat functions Japanese bombardment aviation. Which are not always in accordance with Japanese Field Service Regulations in existence before the war with China.

Japanese bombardment aircrafts performs the following basic missions:

1. Bombardment of hostile airdromes.
2. Operations against railways and transport vessels.
3. Bombardment of ground forces on the battlefield or behind the lines.
4. Bombardment of larges industrial and political centers.

1. Bombardment of hostile airdromes: In accordance with the Japanese Field Service Regulations, the primary mission of aircraft is the destruction of the hostile air forces at their airdromes. At the beginning of the war (July of 1937) the center of operations was in North China. The Chinese had no aviation there and due to this fact the Japanese bombardment aviation was employed to attack ground forces and peaceful inhabitants.

The Japanese actions on the Shangai front were preceded by active Japanese aerial operations against Chinese airdromes in the Shangai – Nanking – Hangchow area, where the bulk of the Chinese air force had been concentrated. During the period 13-31 August 1937 Japanese bombardment aviation made about 250 air raids on Chinese airdromes. The Chinese air force did not suffer any great losses in military planes as a result of these raids; however due to the fact that the Chinese lacked aircraft factories to make up for losses, Chinese aviation manifested little activity from the middle of September to December 1937 as a result of these raids.

During the first phase of the operations against airdromes (August 1937) Japanese bombers raided Chinese airdromes without the protection of pursuit craft, at low altitudes (180 to 350 feet) and in small groups; as a result they suffered heavy losses inflicted upon them by antiaircraft fire and Chinese pursuit. During this period the Japanese bombers demolished airdrome structures at Hanchow, Nanking and Shangai, they destroyed about 50 Chinese planes (mainly training planes at school airdromes). The Chinese aircraft proved quite efficient in changing airdromes and in slipping away from under the assaults of the Japanese bombardment craft.

The second phase of important bombardment operarions by the Japanese against Chinese airdrome began in December 1937 when a considerable strengthening of Chinese aircraft became apparent (with planes purchased abroad); the Chinese air service began putting up strong resistance against Japanese air raids, and, later on assume active operations against Japanese airdromes.

Source: taken from JAPANESE BOMBARDMENT AVIATION by Major E.M. Benitez. Coast Artillery Corps. Foreign Military Digest – March 1939.

More follows. Regards. Raúl M 8-).
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Re: The Sino-Japanese War(Campaigns in detail)

Post by tigre » 10 May 2008 12:41

Hello to all people :D ; a bit more..............................

1. Bombardment of hostile airdromes (2º part).

As a rule the Japanese bombardment craft undertake flights up to 250 miles from the front, escorted by pursuit, often meeting this escort along the route of flight at some distance from their objective. Raids on airdrome are carried out by large groups (of 30 to 40 planes) and seldom by less than one company (nine planes).
The accompanying pursuit planes (15 to 30) fly by elements echeloned in two or three altitudes – above in rear, on the right and left of the combat formations of the bombardment craft at a distance from them of about 1000 to 2200 yards.

The Japanese bombers usually approach the hostile airdrome at an altitude of from 6.000 to 13.000 feet, from the direction of the sun, in column of nine plane flight formations-when the raid is made wih a large group of planes- or in wedge-shaped formation of nine planes by elements (when the raid is made by a single aviation company).

When the bombers meet Chinese pursuit craft, the bombardment is carried out directly from the flight in the same formation in which the approach to the objective has been made, except that the planes close in more, forming an almost parade formation. Where there is no hostile pursuit, the bombers make one free flight over the airdrome to examine their targets and sometimes even for the purpose of dropping trial bombs then the varios elements separate and drop their bombs with each separate element (or company in case a large number of planes) attacking its own target.

Where no hostile pursuit craft is present the larger groups of Japanese bombers remain over their objective anywhere up to 30 minutes. There have been instances when their accompanying pursuit craft has departed and the bombers still continued to remain over their objective.

The bombs are dropped by planes while flying horizontally in column of flight behind the lider. Bombardment objectives include the following: first-hostile planes at their airdromes. When there are no hostile planes at their airdromes, the bombsare dropped on hangars and other airfield buildings, or along the edge of the airfield if there is natural covers where hostile planes might be concealed. Departured from the objective is effected by turning in the direction of the home base at full speed, by separate groups, over differents routes (when no hostile pursuit craft is present) in order to carry out reconnaissance missions on the return flight. There have been some instances when planes have taken refuge behind clouds immediately upon execution of their missions.

In bombing hostile planes at their airdromes the Japanese bombers employ small incendiaries and fragmentation bombs (20 to 100 lbs), in action against Chinese flying field and airfield structures they use high explosive bombs of 110 to 450 lbs.

Source: taken from JAPANESE BOMBARDMENT AVIATION by Major E.M. Benitez. Coast Artillery Corps. Foreign Military Digest – March 1939.

More follows. Regards. Raúl M 8-).

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Re: The Sino-Japanese War(Campaigns in detail)

Post by tigre » 17 May 2008 11:33

Hello to all people :D; a bit more..............................

1. Bombardment of hostile airdromes (3º part and last).

The experience of the Japanese raids on Chinese airdromes has shown the poor effectiveness of bombing upon airfields. It is most difficult to tear up a field with bombs to the extent that it cannot be used by hostile aircraft. There has been cases where as many as 40 Japanese bombers simultaneously have dropped over 200 bombs on a single airdrome, and in spite of this, the Chinese planes still have continued to operate from this airdrome, finding undamaged parts of the field for to take-off or landing of planes.

In the preparations for and execution of air raids by the Japanese bombers against airdromes the following characteristics have been noted:

a. The major portions of the raids are delivery in day-time, from 11:00 hours to 2:00 PM.
b. The bombardment of airdromes is carried out sistematically and persistently until they have been abandoned by the Chinese and until all airfield buildings have been destroyed.
c. Airdromes to be bombardment are selected in advance and the bombardment is then carried out by separate groups raiding designates airdromes, regardless as to whether or not there are any Chinese planes present. There have been some instances where Japanese bombers passed over some airdromes where there was Chinese craft and continues they flight in order to bombard other airdromes from which the Chinese planes had been removed.

The Japanese undertook some bombardment missions at night in the summer of 1937; these, however proved so uneffective that the Japanese abandones night raids.

In spite of the frecuent massed atacks of the Japanese bombardment aviation against Chinese airdromes, it should be noted that the latter has not yet suffered particularly heavy losses from these raids because timely information by the warning service has given them enough time to remove their craft.

Source: taken from JAPANESE BOMBARDMENT AVIATION by Major E.M. Benitez. Coast Artillery Corps. Foreign Military Digest – March 1939.

More follows. Regards. Raúl M 8-).

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Re: The Sino-Japanese War(Campaigns in detail)

Post by tigre » 24 May 2008 13:20

Hello to all people :D; a bit more..............................

2. Aerial operations against railways have been carried out most extensively in South China where the Japanese bombardment aviation has been given the mission of halting rail movements over the Canton – Hankow and Canton –Kowlon railways.

This mission has been carried out by Japanese bombers in the following manner. Repeated raids are made for two or three days (four or five times daily) over a large section of the railways (200 to 400 miles) with all available forces. Proceeding to the raid simultaneously with a large group of bombers (30 to 80 planes) the planes split up into elements.

Each elements bombards two or three railway sections or a like numbers of small railway stations, dropping bombs from low altitudes, at times from power dives, one or two bombs at a time from each plane on a single target; they then proceed to their second and third targets. On the railway they destroy the rail-bed and moving trains. At railways stations the targets consists of trains that are stopping there and only parts of the station buildings. This is due to the effort of the Japanese to halt the movement of foreign military supplies from South to Central China. This system of repeated, concentrated raids on definite railway sections has often interrupted railway transportation for as long as twenty-four hours, but, as a rule repairs are quickly made and traffic resumed within from 6 to 8 hours.

Complete interruption of traffic can be caused by the destruction of large railway bridges, but Japanese aircrafts has very seldom suceeded in destroying railways bridges in China.

The bombardment of large railway centers has failed to interrupt railway traffic; it has however caised much damage by starting fires which have destroyed much rolling stock.

Operation of Japanese bombardment aviation against transport vessels has been carried out without much interference on the part of the meager Chinese naval craft, and has proved to be very effective. Japanese bombers have attacked defenseless Chines transports, releasing their bombs while power diving from an altitude of from 1900 to 2500 feet. A particularly large number of Chinese river boats have been sunk.

Source: taken from JAPANESE BOMBARDMENT AVIATION by Major E.M. Benitez. Coast Artillery Corps. Foreign Military Digest – March 1939.

More follows. Regards. Raúl M 8-).

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Re: The Sino-Japanese War(Campaigns in detail)

Post by tigre » 28 May 2008 18:39

Hello to all people :D; more follows............................

Bombardment Operations in China.

3. Bombardment of ground forces on the battlefield and behind the lines has been carried out by the Japanese aviation very intensively whenever not otherwise engaged in combat with hostile aircraft. As a rule , the light bombardment craft (single motor planes especially) operates entirely for the benefit of the ground forces and in close cooperation with them. Heavy bombers are seldom utilized in the battlefield, except for the bombardment of large reserve concentrations and in the pursuit of large hostile forces (at the crossings of wide rivers, while troops are entraining at railway stations and similar places).

The bombardment of small troop objectives (batteries, small columns, separate trenchs) is effected from power dives by small groups of planes (elements) and by single planes and it is followed by machine gun fire against these objectives. In action against troops the Japanese employ small fragmentation bombs (20 lbs), each bombing plane carries from 30 to 40 such bombs.

In the technique of their air raids against ground forces it had been noted that attacks are never made at low altitudes. Even the Japanese single motor bombardment craft seldom fly lower than at from 200 to 450 feet from the ground.

Japanese bombardment craft are frecuently utilized where there is lack of artillery for the neutralization or destruction of Chinese fortified positions.

It should be noted that in operations against ground forces Japanese bombers executed frequent flights and carry on intensive activity while maintaining close contact with their own forces in battle, coming to their aid with their bombs and machine guns at those places where the ground forces encounter strong enemy resistence. The Chinese army is poorly equipped with antiaircraft weapons; consequently the Chinese forces are unable to inflict much damage to Japanese bombers during operations on the battlefield.

Source: taken from JAPANESE BOMBARDMENT AVIATION by Major E.M. Benitez. Coast Artillery Corps. Foreign Military Digest – March 1939.

More follows. Regards. Raúl M 8-).

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Re: The Sino-Japanese War(Campaigns in detail)

Post by tigre » 31 May 2008 22:47

Hello to all people :D; more follows............................

Bombardment Operations in China.

4. Action against large industrial and political centers in China has been conducted by Japanese bombers on an extensive scale since the beginning of the war. Objectives of their raids have been universities (considered centers of Chinese anti-Japanese movements), thickly populated Chinese sections of towns, hospital and government buildings.

The larger Chinese cities: Shanghai, Canton and Nanking, have been subjected to relentless bombardment. Chinese quarters in Shanghai and Chapei were thoroughly destroyed and burned by Japanese aircraft and artillery. The city of Canton has been the object of ceaseless bombardment by Japanese bombing craft.

In raids on cities, the Japanese employ a great veriety of air bombs, preferring however, incendiary bombs when operating against Chinese quarters, the buildings of which are overcrowded and made of wood.

In operations against sections of cities of European types construction the Japanese bombers employ bombs of large size (550 lbs) which possess great power of destruction.
Japanese bombers in raids on defenseless cities have felt little constrain in the selection of targets, and their tactics in these instances, therefore, have been very simple, amounting to the release of bombs with as little loss of time as possible, and the quick safe return to their base. During the first phases of the war, raids were delivered at low altitude with “parade” demonstrations over the defenseless Chinese cities, but later, when the Chinese aircraft and antiaircraft artillery began inflicting heavy losses on the Japanese bombers, they raised their altitudes to from 10.000 to 12.000 feetand now deliver their raids with powerful aviation groups under the protection of their own pursuit craft.

The savage bombardment of peaceful citizens and cities that have no military importance, have been made in an effort to secure an important political objective: namely to force the Chinese government to capitulate, to compel it to accept the “peaceful” conditions of the Japanese – which would practically amount to a liquidation of Chinese independence. However, in spite of all sacrifices, the Chinese people seem to be resolve to carry on the struggle against the Japanese until the invader has been completely routed and driven from the Chinese territory.

Source: taken from JAPANESE BOMBARDMENT AVIATION by Major E.M. Benitez. Coast Artillery Corps. Foreign Military Digest – March 1939.

It's all folks. Regards. Raúl M 8-).

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Re: The Sino-Japanese War(Campaigns in detail)

Post by tigre » 25 Apr 2009 16:56

Hello to all :D; taking in account the previous article, here goes some pictures showing japaneses planes and pilots...I think it could be in China; anyone could tell me the type and unit, army or navy?

Source: an auction from eBay (now expired).

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
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Re: The Sino-Japanese War(Campaigns in detail)

Post by tigre » 02 May 2009 19:54

Hello to all :D; two more..................

Source: an auction from eBay (now expired).

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
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Re: The Sino-Japanese War(Campaigns in detail)

Post by tigre » 12 Jul 2009 17:05

Hello to all :D; something more..............................

The Sino-Japanese war

For many months the Sino-Japanese War has been a stalemate when one considers the actual fighting, with no indications that it will not continue indefinitely.

The most eventful happening during the last three months is the journey of Matsuoka, Japanese Foreign Minister, in mid-March to Moscow, Berlin and Rome, it having been announced just before Congress passed the Lease-Lend Bill. His stay in Europe was somewhat overshadowed by the coup d’Etat in Yugoslavia when the king was overthrown because of hostility to the agreement entered into by him with Hitler. This and the Ionian Sea battle, an Italian disaster, did not leave a very pleasant taste for Matsuoka at the banquets in Berlin and Rome. As we all know, however, Hitler’s armored entry into Greece changed greatly the diplomatic outlook; so, when Matusoka reached Moscow and signed the not-yet-quite-understood Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact, the Axis march of agression was well on its way near-eastwards.

This Russo-Japanese Pact, signed 13 April, provided as stated in the New York Times, (1) “that Japan and the U.S.S.R. should ‘maintain peaceful and friendly relations between them ; (2) if either were attacked by a third power, the other should remain neutral; (3) in return for Russian recognition of the ‘inviolability’ of Japanese-dominated Manchukuo, Japan should recognize the ‘inviolability of the neighboring Soviet-supported Mongolian Peoples’ Republic.”

This new Soviet-Japanese agreement would seem to bear out the statement in the March Review, and reports from London in early May, that, despite the Axis-Japanese Alliance of 1940, Japan has preserved “the right to decline to join the Axis in conflict should it suit her if the occasion arises.”

While this new pact made no specific reference to the four-year-old undeclared war with China, it can be seen “that Japan, because of her public utterances and the publication, about 1 May, of “exploratory” peace terms embodying both the “incident” in China and World War II, would like very much to clear up the “incident” in order to be ready should the occasion arise for a movement southward, diplomatic, military or both.

With the Thailand-indo-China conflict settled to Japan’s liking in the treaty of 9 May in which Japan has been termed the underwriter, Japan has such a strong economic hold on French Indo-China that she can now march southward with both Indochina and Thailand furnishing her bases and economic aid whenever desired.

In April, Chiang-Kai-Shek’s Chungking government was considerably strengthened. Dr. John E. Baker, long-time adviser and administrator in China, was designated as Director of the Burma Road, bearing with it the hope that shortly the theoretical capacity of the road (20,000 tons of freight a month) will soon be realized. China is still fighting on, her millions still unsubdued. Early in April Chiang KaI Shek claimed the capture of Japanese outposts south of the Yangtze River and the destruction of some 20,000 Japanese troops.

On the other hand, despite the peace talk in Japan and the usual but more apparent conflict between the so-called “conservatives” and “military-fascist” elements, the Japanese Army early in May began a new offensive in Central China, which, by the middle of the month, had become a major campaign. Reports state the heaviest fighting has been in the region northeast of Paoki, with the Japanese trying to move south and west, together with other attacks against the Chinese along the western front in the region just north of the Yangtze. Counterattacks were made by the Chinese in the northern sector, resulting, according to Chiang Kai-Shek, with the capture of some territory by the Chinese.

Soviet Russia still continues to send military supplies to Chiang Kai-Shek in spite of the Soviet-Japanese pact, and neither Soviet nor Japanese troops have been withdrawn from the Manchuria frontier.

And so as June comes in Japan finds herself much in the same position as she has been for several months. She knows, with England not defeated, what a dangerous venture will be an offensive either toward Singapore (recently reinforced) or the Netherlands East Indies. With her export and import trade with other-than-the-Axis powers cut off, should she attempt a southward move, with her relations with Russia never a known factor in spite of the treaty, she really can do no more than remain in status quo trusting for an Axis victory and a British Empire impotent in Asiatic waters.

Source: Wordl War II. Military Review Vol XXI Nº 81.

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
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