Why would a Russian military dictatorship result in a civil war? This didn't happen in Poland, or in the Baltics.
Poland had a military dictatorship throughout the 1920s so it wasn't like they installed one in 1935. Furthermore if the a military dictatorship is able to displace a Czarist or Socialist faction than various military rivals would probably rise up.
The Czar abdicated and the Socialists were trying to function as a government and the the Reds rose up, followed by the Whites. If the Reds rise up in the 1930s there are still going to be Whites, and if it is some fascist Browns that rise up, than the Reds and Whites might both rise up too.
But to be honest I don't see a way that Russia could have transitioned from Czar to any other form of government without a civil war...that is why they had one. It went from revolution to all out civil war. Too many factions, too many unhappy people and too much in the way to win or lose!