Info: Lesser Known JAAF Types

Discussions on the equipment used by the Axis forces, apart from the things covered in the other sections. Hosted by Juha Tompuri
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Info: Lesser Known JAAF Types

Post by Robert Hurst » 01 Oct 2003 11:22

Hi

Kawasaki Ki-60

While negotiating with Daimler-Benz A G for the manufacturing rights for the German DB 601A inverted-vee liquid-cooled engine, Kawasaki were successful in impressing upon members of the Koku Hombu that most contemporary foreign high-performance fighters were powered by liquid-cooled engines. Consequently, in February 1940, Kawasaki were instructed to design around the German engine, or its Japanese version, two fighter aircraft: the Ki-60 heavy interceptor and the Ki-61, a lighter all-purpose fighter. Priority was given to the Ki-60 and, in a complete reversal from previous Japanese Army requirements, speed, rate of climb and cannon armament were stressed at the expense of range and manoeuvrability.

Designed by Takeo Doi and Shin Owada, the Ki-60 was a relatively clean, all-metal stressed-skin low-wing monoplane fighter powered by one 1,100 hp Daimler-Benz DB 601A liquid-cooled engine, rated at 1,150 hp for take-off and 1,100 hp at 4,000 m (13,125 ft), and was armed with two fuselage-mounted 12.7 mm (0.5 in) Type 1 (Ho-103) machine-guns and two wing-mounted 20 mm (0.79 in) Mauser MG 151/20 cannon imported from Germany. The first prototype was completed and flown in March 1941. Although basically successful, the Ki-60 was not liked by Service test pilots who reported negatively on the aircraft's high wing loading and resultant high landing speed and noted that the aircraft reached a maximum speed of only 550 km/h (342 mph) compared to 600 km/h (373 mph) as calculated by the manufacturers. Consequently, the second Ki-60 prototype was fitted with a wing of increased area - 16.2 sq m (174.375 sq ft) against 15.9 sq m ((171.146 sq ft) - featured a redesigned and cleaner engine cowling offering reduced drag and was slightly lighter. Maximum speed increased to 560 km/h (348 mph) and manoeuvrability improved somewhat. Further improvements were obtained with the third and last prototype which, retaining the larger wing of the second prototype, had an ever smoother cowling. Weight was reduced by careful attention to detail fittings and replacement of the wing-mounted Mauser MG 151 by a pair of Ho-103 machine-guns. Despite these modifications maximum speed was still only 570 km/h (354 mph) and the Ki-60 was finally abandoned in favour of the lighter and faster Ki-61.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Kawasaki Kokuki Kogyo KK (Kawaskai Aircraft Engineering Co Ltd).
Type: Single-engined heavy interceptor fighter.
Crew (1): Pilot in enclosed cockpit.
Powerplant: One 1,100 hp Daimler-Ben DB 601A twelve-cylinder liquid-cooled engine, driving a three-blade constant-speed metal propeller.
Armament: (first and second prototypes) Two fuselage-mounted 121.7 mm (0.5 in) Type 1 (Ho-103) machine-guns aand two wing-mounted 20 mm (0.79 in) Mauser MG 151 cannon, (third prototype) two fuselage-mounted 12.7 mm (0.5 in) Type 1 (Ho-103) machine-guns and two wing-mounted 12.7 mm (0.5 in) Type 1 (Ho-103) machine-guns.
Dimensions: Span 10.5 m (34 ft 5 3/8 in); length 8.47 m (27 ft 9 15/32 in); height 3.7 m (12 ft 1 21/32 in); wing area 16.2 sq m (174.375 sq ft).
Weights: Empty 2,150 kg (4,740 lb); loaded 2,750 kg (6,063 lb); wing loading 169.8 kg/sq m (38.4 lb/sq ft); power loading 2.4 kg/hp (5.3 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed 560 km/h (348 mph) at 4,500 m (14,765 ft); climb to 5,000 m (16,405 ft) in 8 min; service ceiling 10,000 m (32,810 ft).
Production: A total of three Ki-60 prototypes were built in 1941 by Kawasaki Kokuki Kogyo KK.

The first two photos were taken from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, by Rene J Francillon. The bottom photo was taken from Warplanes of the Second World War Vol 3: Fighters, by William Green

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 01 Oct 2003 11:41

Hi

Kawasaki Ki-64

Despite active efforts to cure the early difficulties of the Ki-45 and to commence preliminary design studies for what were to become the Ki-60 and Ki-61, Takeo Doi found time in 1939 to conceive a highly unorthodox high-speed fighter. However, as a pressing need existed for the more conventional aircraft, the Japanese Army did not authorise Kawasaki to proceed with the design until October 1940 when the project was revived under the Ki-64 designation to meet a specially drafted specification calling for a maximum speed of 700 km/h (435 mph) at 5,000 m (16,405 ft) and a climb to 5,000 m (16,405 ft) in 5 min.

Takeo Doi, co-operating with his colleagues of the Akashi engine plant, decided to use the Kawasaki Ha-201, rated at 2,350 hp for take-off and 2,200 hp at 3,900 m (12,795 ft). The Ha-201 which actually comprised two Ha-40 twelve-cylinder liquid-cooled engines mounted in tandem fore and aft of the pilot's cockpit and drove two three-blade contra-rotating propellers. The forward propeller, driven by the rear engine, was of the controllable-pitch type and the rear propeller, driven by the front engine, was of fixed-pitch. Perhaps the most unusual feature of the powrplant was the steam vapour cooling system which utilised the wing and flap surfaces for cooling area. The coolant used was water, carried in a 70 litre (15.4 Imp gal) tank in each wing, and the total cooling area was 24 sq m (258.333 sq ft). The front engine used the cooling elements in the port wing while the rear engine used those in the starboard wing. The wings themselves were of modified laminar flow section and contained the fuel tanks and two 20 mm (0.79 in) Ho-5 cannon. The entire powerplant installation was tested during extensive wind-tunnel experiments and a Ki-61 was specially modified to test the surface evaporation cooling system. These various tests, although delaying completion of the prototype until December 1943, proved conclusively that the cooling system performed satisfactorily. It permitted an increase in speed of some 40.2 km/h (25 mph) and combat damage to it was not believed to create special problems, but it had the disadvantage of limiting the space available for fuel tanks thus reducing range.

The prototype was completed in December 1943, and flight trials began at the end of the month. Although the first four flights were relatively successful, during the fifth flight a fire started in the rear engine as the result of an oil lead fracturing, necessitating a forced landing. The only serious damage was suffered by the undercarriage. The engine was sent to Akashi for repair and the airframe to Gifu. The engine repair was not competed, and the airframe was captured at the end of the war and elements of the cooling system seent to Wright Field for evaluation.

The initial flight trials had indicated the need for modifications to the contra-rotating propellers. It was then decided to replace the original propellers with electrically-operated constant-speed contra-rotating propellers with which the fighter prototype was to have been redesignated Ki-64 KAI. The Ki-64 KAI was a proposed production version with a more powerful Ha-201 engine, rated at 2,800 hp at altitude. A maximum speed of 800 km/h (497 mph) was anticipated.

The development of a suitable contra-prop took appreciably longer than had been anticipated, however, and as by this time the war situation had become extremely crititcal for Japan, it was decided to suspend further work on the Ki-64 KAI in favour of research offering the prospect of more immediate results.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Kawasaki Kokuki Kogyo KK (Kawasaki Aircraft Engineering Co Ltd).
Type: Single-seat fighter with tandem-mounted engines.
Crew (1): Pilot in enclosed cockpit.
Powerplant: One Kawasaki [Ha-72] 11 (Ha-201) twenty-four cylinder inverted-vee liquid-cooled engine, driving a three-blade contra-rotating propellers.
Armament: Two 20 mm (0.79) Ho-5 cannon in the fuselage decking and two 20 mm (0.79 in) Ho-5 cannon in the wings.
Dimensiosn:Span 13.5 m (44 ft 3 1/2 in); length 11.03 m (36 ft 2 1/4 in); height 4.25 m (13 ft 11 5/16 in); wing area 28 sq m (310.388 sq ft).
Weights: Empty 4,050 kg (8,929 lb); loaded 5.100 kg (11,244 lb); wing loading 182.1 kg/sq m (37.3 lb/sq ft); power loading 2.17 kg/hp (4.78 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed 690 km/h (429 mph) at 5,000 m (16,405 ft); climb to 5,000 m (16,405 ft) in 5 min 30 sec; service ceiling 12,000 m (39,370 ft); range 1,000 km (621 miles).
Production: One Ki-64 prototype completed in December 1943.

The top photo was taken from Warplanes of the Second World War Vol 3: Fighters, by William Green, and the bottom photo was taken from The Complete Book of Fighters, by William Green and Gordon Swanborough.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 02 Oct 2003 12:40

Hi

Kawasaki Ki-66

The achievements of the German dive-bombers during the Spanish Civil War and the campaigns in Poland and France - magnified by Nazi propaganda - had attracted the attention of the Koku Hombu which, in September 1941, instructed Kawasaki Kokuki Kogyo KK to initiate the design of an aircraft specially intended for dive-bombing attacks in support of land forces. The Japanese Army specified that the aircraft was to be of twin-engined design and that armament was to consist of two forward-firing 12.7 mm (0.5 in) machine-guns and one flexible rear-firing 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-gun. Normal and maximum bomb-load were respectively specified at 300 kg (661 lb) and 500 kg (1,102 lb).

Drawing heavily on the experience acquired in designing the twin-engined Ki-45 heavy fighter and Ki-48 light bomber, Takeo Doi began in October 1941 to design the Ki-66 to meet this new Army requirement. Bearing a strong resemblance to its two predecessors, the aircraft had mid-mounted wings and was powered by a pair of 1,150 hp Nakajima Ha-115 engines, rated at 1,130 hp for take-off, 1,100 hp at 2,850 m (9,350 ft) and 940 hp at 5,600 m (18,370 ft). Snow-fence dive-brakes were flush-mounted under the wings outboard of the engine nacelles and were hinged clear of the undersurface when opened. Armament consisted of two 12.7 mm (0.5 in) Type 1 machine-guns mounted in the nose, one flexible rear-firing 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Type 89 machine-gun firing from dorsal position and on flexible 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Type 89 machine-gun firing through a ventral hatch. The crew consisted of a pilot and a radio-operator/gunner.

Six protoypes were completed between October 1942 and April 1943 but, despite successfully completing its flight test programme, the Ki-66-Ia was not placed in production as its performance was only marginally superior to that of the Ki-48-II already in production. However, the aircraft contributed to the development of a dive-bomber version of the Ki-48-II which used dive-brakes similar to those fitted to the Ki-66.

Several versions of the aircraft including the Ki-66-Ib powered by two 1,360 hp Nakajima Ha-315-I engines, rated at 1,350 hp for take-off and 1,210 hp at 4,200 m (13,780 ft) - of which one prototype was built by modifying one of the six Ki-66-Ias, the Ki-66-Ic with two 2,100 hp Nakajima Ha-39, the Ki-66-Id with two 1,900 hp Nakajima Ha-45 and the Ki-66-II heavy fighter powered by two 1,360 hp Nakajima Ha-315-II engines were projected but all development work was suspended in October 1943.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Kawasaki Kokuki Kogyo KK (Kawasaki Aircraft Engineering Co Ltd).
Type Twin-engined dive-bomber.
Crew (2): Pilot and radio-operator/gunner.
Powerplant: (Ki-66-Ia) Two 1,150 hp Army Type 1 (Nakajima Ha-115) fourteen-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, driving three-blade metal propellers; (Ki-66-Ib) two 1,360 hp Nakajima Ha-315-I fourteen-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, driving three-blade metal propellers.
Armament: two forward-firing 12.7 mm (0.5 in) Type 1 (Ho-103) machine-guns mounted in the nose, one flexible 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Type 89 machine-gun in the ventral position and one flexible rear-firing 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Type 89 machin-gun in the dorsal position. Bomb-load - normal 300 kg (661 lb), - maximum 500 kg (1,102 lb).
Dimensions: Span 15.5 m (50 ft 10 1/4 in); length 11.2 m (36 ft 8 15/16 in); height 3.7 m (12 ft 1 21/32 in); wing area 34 sq m (365.972 sq ft).
Weights: Empty 4,100 kg (9,039 lb); loaded 5,750 kg (12,677 lb); wing loading 169.1 kg/sq m (34.6 lb/sq ft); power loading 2.5 kg/hp (5.6 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed 535 km/h (332 mph) at 5,600 m (18,370 ft); climb to 5,000 m (16,405 ft) in 7 min 30 sec; service ceiling 10,000 m (32,810 ft); range 2,000 km (1,243 miles).
Production: A total of six Ki-66 prototypes were built by Kawasaki Kokuki Kogyo KK between October 1942 and April 1943.

The photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, by Rene J Francillon.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 02 Oct 2003 13:49

Hi

Kawasaki Ki-78

Begun in 1938 as a civil project for use in a high-speed research programme and for a contemplated attempt on to break the world air speed record, the KEN III (indicating Kensan III or Research III) project was taken over by the Imperial Japanese Army under the Ki-78 designation upon Japan's entry into the war.

Designed by a team from the Aeronautical Research Institute of the University of Tokyo, led by Shoroku Wada and comprising Mineo Yamamoto (fuselage design), Eichiro Tani (wing design) and Seichi Kurino and Shojiro Nomura (engine installation), the Ki-78 introduced several advanced design features not previously used by the Japanese aircraft industry. To minimize drag a fuselage of minimum cross section was designed and a laminar flow section was adopted for the wings. As the wing area was remarkably small, 11 sq m (118.404 sq ft), a combination of Fowler and split flaps and drooping ailerons was selected to reduce landing speed. An imported 1,175 hp Daimler-Benz DB 601A twelve-cylinder inverted-vee liquid-cooled engine was selected to power the aircraft and was modified to incorporate a system of water-methanol injection - the first such device used in Japan - to momentarily boost its power to 1,550 hp. Radiators of small frontal area were mounted on each side of the rear fuselage, and a fan, driven by a 60 hp turbine, was used to improve cooling.

A wooden mock-up of the KEN III was completed in May 1944 and production of two prototypes was entrusted to Kawasaki, where Isamu Imashi took charge of the project. Eventually only the first protoype, construction of which had begun at Gifu in September 1941, was completed and this aircraft first flew on 26 December, 1942. It was found extremely difficult to fly at low speeds, and take-off and landing speeds were repectively 205 km/h (127 mph) and 170 km/h (106 mph). Furthermore, loaded weight and wing loading exceeded calculated values and elevator flutter was experienced at 635 km/h (395 mph). On 27 December, 1943, during its 31st flight, the Ki-78 reached a maximum speed of 699.6 km/h (434.9 mph) at 3,527 m (11,539 ft). This was considerably less than the speed of 850 km/h (528 mph) which had been set as the ultimate goal for the programme. To achieve the calculated performance too many airframe and engine modifications were required and the flight trials of the Ki-78 were suspended after the 32nd flight, on 11 January, 1944.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Kawasaki Kokuki Kogyo KK (Kawasaki Aircraft Engineering Co Ltd).
Type: Single-engined high-speed research aircraft.
Crew (1): Pilot in enclosed cockpit.
Powerplant: One Daimler-Benz DB 601A twelve-cylinder inverted-vee liquid-cooled inline engine, drivng a three-blade metal propeller.
Dimensions: Span 8 m (26 ft 2 31/32 in); length 8.1 m (26 ft 6 29/32 in); height 3.07 m (10 ft 0 7/8 in); wing area 11 sq m (118.403 sq ft).
Weights: Empty 1,930 kg (4,255 lb); loaded 2,300 kg (5,071 lb); wing loading 209 kg/sq m (42.8 lb/sq ft); power loading 2 kg/hp (4.4 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed 700 km/h (435 mph) at 3,500 m (11,485 ft); ceiling 8,000 m (26,245 ft); range 600 km (373 miles).
Production: One Ki-78 was completed by Kawasaki Kokuki Kogyo KK, at the Gifu plant in December 1942.

The photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, by Rene J Francillon.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 03 Oct 2003 11:13

Hi

Kawasaki Ki-88

With its 1,500 hp Kawsaki Ha-140 liquid-cooled engine mounted behind the cockpit and driving a tracotr propeller via an extension shaft, the Kawasaki Ki-88 was inspired by the Bell P-39 Airacobra of the US Army Air Forces. Proposed armament comprised a 37 mm (1.46 in) cannon in the propeller shaft and two 20 mm (0.79 in) cannon in the lower section of the nose. Design of the Ki-88 was undertaken in August 1942 but, following the inspection of a full-scale mock-up, development was discontinued within a year as its calculated maximum speed of 600 km/h (373 mph) at 6,000 m (19,685 ft) was only slightly higher than that of the Ki-61 already in production. Span 12.4 m (40 ft 8 3/16 in); length 10.2 m (33 ft 5 9/16 in). Loaded weight 3,900 kg (8,598 lb).

Kawasaki Ki-91

Design of a four-engined bomber with a pressurised cabin and having a radius of action of 4,500 km (2,796 miles) with a bomb-load of 4,000 kg (8,818 lb) was undertaken by Kawasaki in May 1943. Planned production was suspended in Fevruary 1945 when tooling was destroyed during a B-29 raid before completion of the prototype. Power-operated turrets housing two 20 mm (0.79 in) cannon were to installed, one in the nose, one above the fuselage and two mounted beneath the fuselage. A four-cannon turret was planeed for the tail. Four 2,500 hp Mitsubishi Ha-214 Ru engines. Span 48 m (157 ft 5 3/4 in); length 33 m (108 ft 3 7/32 in).
Loaded weight 58,000 kg (127,868 lb). Maximum speed 580 km/h (360 mph) at 10,000 m (32,810 ft); maximum range 10,000 km (6,214 miles).

The two photos were taken from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, by Rene J Francillon.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 03 Oct 2003 11:53

Hi

Kawasaki Ki-96

In August 1942, as the Ki-45 KAIa Toryu (Dragon Killer) was entering service with the 5th Sentai, Takeo Doi and his team started working on the Ki-45-II, an improved version of the Toryu designed around a pair of Mitsubishi Ha-112-II engines, rated at 1,500 hp for take-off, 1,350 hp at 2,000 m (6,560 ft) and 1,250 hp at 5,800 m (19,030 ft). Compared with its forerunner, the Ki-45-II had a refined airframe of larger dimensions - span being increased from 15.02 m (49 ft 3 5/16 in) to 15.57 m (51 ft 1 in) - and larger square-tipped vertical tail surfaces were adopted to improve handling characteristics with one engine out. Detailed design studies progressed slowly as the Army did not show much interest in a new two-seat fighter and Kawasaki had several projects under development, but the construction of three prototypes was authorised. However, in December 1942 the Koku Hombu revised their requirements and instructed kawasaki to complete the aircraft as a single-seat fighter since the addition of a second crew member to handle a single manually-operated machine-gun did not then appear to justify the extra weight. Thus revised the project received the designation Ki-96, a change justified by the fact only a few components were common to the Ki-45 KAI and the new aircraft.

In 1943 work on the Ki-96 a low mid-wing monoplane of all-metal construction with an oval-section flush-rivetted stressed-skin fuselage gained tempo and in September of that year the first prototype was completed. As the decision to adopt a single-seat configuration had been taken after the construction of the fuselage of the first Ki-45-II was already well in hand, the first Ki-96 made use of this fuselage and was characterised by a larger canopy than the one used on subsequent machines, the second cockpit being faired over. Two additional prototypes, built from the outset as single-seaters, with all-round vision canopies, also took part in the flight trials. Results of these tests were most satisfactory, the Ki-96 combining good handling characteristics with performance exceeding design estimates, a maximum speed of 600 km/h (373 mph) at 6,000 m (19,685 ft) but, even before the first flight of the aircraft, the Army had again reversed its position regarding single-seat twin-engined heavy fighters and consequently the Ki-96 had only a brief life as an aerodynamic prototype for the two-seat Ki-102 which supplanted it.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Kawasaki Kokuki Kogyo KK (Kawasaki Aircraft Engineering Co Ltd).
Type: Twin-engined experimental heavy fighter.
Crew (1): Pilot in enclosed cockpit.
Powerplant: Two Mitsubishi Ha-112-II fourteen-cylinder air-cooled radial engines, driving three-blade constant-speed metal propellers.
Armament: One 37 mm (1.46 in) Ho-203 cannon in the nose and two 20 mm (0.79 in) Ho-5 cannon under the fuselage. External stores: two 200 litre (44 Imp gal) drop tanks, or two 250 kg (551 lb) bombs.
Dimensions: Span 15.57 m (51 ft 1 in);length 11.45 m (37 ft 6 25/32 in); height 3.7 m (12 ft 1 21/32 in); wing area 34 sq m (365.972 sq ft).
Weights: Empty 4,550 kg (10,031 lb); loaded 6,000 kg (13,228 lb); wing loading 176.5 kg/sq m (36.1 lb/sq ft); power loading 2 kg/hp (4.4 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed 600 km/h (373 mph) at 6,000 m (19,685 ft); climb to 5,000 m (16.405 ft) in 6 min; service ceiling 11,500 m (37,730 ft); range 1,600 km (994 miles).
Production: Three prototypes built in 1943 by Kawasaki Kokuki Kogyo KK.

The top photo and middle photos were taken Warplanes of the Second World War Vol 3: Fighters, by William Green. The bottom phot was taken from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, by Rene J Francillon.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 03 Oct 2003 12:20

Hi

Kawasaki Ki-108

Development of the Ki-108 began in April 1943 to meet an operational requirement for a single-seat high-altitude fighter. As the Kawasaki engineering team was already committed to several new projects, Takeo Doi suggested that to save time the new aircraft be developed along the lines of the Ki-96. The proposal was accepted by the Koku Hombu and design of the pressure cabin for installation in the Ki-108 began at once. Benefitting from the experience acquired with the Tachikawa SS-1 research aircraft, Kawasaki's engineers strove to obtain a hermetically sealed cabin to avoid boosting the capacity of the cabin blowers. Accordingly the pressure cabin of the Ki-108 was fitted with an airtight entrance door and a double-glazed canopy, and it was hoped that an equivalent pressure of 3,000 m (9,845 ft) could be maintaned up to 10,000 m (32,810 ft).

In the spring of 1944 the seventh and eighth Ki-102b airframes were fitted with the pressure cabin and modified tail surfaces to serve as Ki-108 prototypes. Completed respectively in July and August 1944, these two aircraft were powered by two turbosupercharged Mitsubishi Ha-112-II Ru fourteen-cylinder radials, rated at 1,500 hp for take-off, 1,250 hp at 8,200 m (26,900 ft) and 1,000 hp at 10,000 m (32,810 ft), and armament comprised one 37 mm (1,46 in) Ho-203 and two 20 mm (0.79 in) Ho-5 cannon.

Prior to the commencement of flight trials there was some discussion of the possible effects of a bullet penetrating the cabin. The answer was provided somewhat unexpectedly when, on an early flight test, the entrance door of the pressure cabin suddenly blew out at an altitude of 10,000 m (32,810 ft) owing to an insecure lock. The pressure in the cabin dropped suddenly, but the test pilot had the presence of mind to put the Ki-108 into a steep dive to safer altitude and the managed to land his crippled aircraft safely. This accident indicated that the possibility of battle damage at extreme altitude would not be catastrophic.

Flight trials, although hampered by many air raid alerts and plagued by minor technical difficulties with the turbosuperchargers, progressed slowly, the aircraft itself was considered to be a success. While the two Ki-108 prototypes were undergoing flight trials, production of two modified aircraft began. To improve performance and manoeuvrability at high altitudes the Ki-108 KAI, which was a further modifcation based on the Ki-102c night fighter. The Ki-108 featured a similar wing of greater span and area, a lengthened fuselage and redesigned tail surfaces, and two prototypes were built, the first being completed in March and May 1945, both were still being tested by the JAAF at the end of the war.

No production plans had been finalised for either version when Japan capitulated.

The top photo was taken from Warplanes of the Second World War Vol 3: Fighters, by William Green. The bottom photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft of the pacific War, by Rene J Francillon.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Kawasaki Kokuki Kogyo KK (Kawasaki Aircraft Engineering Co Ltd).
Type: Twin-engined high-altitude fighter.
Crew (1): Pilot in enclosed pressure cabin.
Powerplant: Two Mitsubishi Ha-112-II Ru fourteen-cylinder air-cooled radial engines, driving three-blade constant-speed metal propellers.
Armament: One 37 mm (1.46 in) Ho-203 cannon in the nose and two 20 mm (0.79 in) Ho-5 cannon in the fuselage belly.
Dimensions: Span (Ki-108) 15.67 m (51 ft 4 15/16 in), (Ki-108 KAI) 56 ft 11 1/16 in); length (Ki-108) 11.71 m (38 ft 5 in), (Ki-108 KAI) 13.05 m (42 ft 9 25/32 in); height 3.7 m (12 ft 1 21/32 in); wing area (Ki-108) 34 sq m ( 365.972 sq ft), (Ki-108 KAI) 40 sq m (430.555 sq ft).
Weights: Empty (Ki-108) 5,300 kg (11,684 lb), (Ki-108 KAI) 5,200 kg (11,464 lb); loaded (Ki-108) 7,200 kg (15,873 lb), (Ki-108 KAI) 7,600 kg (16,755 lb); power loading (Ki-108) 2.4 kg/hp (5.3 lb), (Ki-108 KAI) 2.5 kg/hp (5.6 lb/hp).
Performance: Maxiumum speed (Ki-108) 580 km/h (360 mph) at 10,000 m (32,810 ft), (Ki-108 KAI) 600 km/h (373 mph) at 10,000 m (32,810 ft); service ceiling 13,500 m (44,290 ft); range (Ki-108) 1,800 km (1,118 miles), (Ki-108 KAI) 2,200 km (1,367 miles.
Production: two Ki-108s, modifed from Ki-102b airframes, and Ki-108 KAIs were built between July 1944 and May 1945 by Kawasaki Kokuki Kogyo KK at Gifu.

Regards


Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 04 Oct 2003 10:50

Hi

Kawasaki Ki-119

In early 1945, as the Allies were fast closing their ring around Japan, the Koku Hombu foresaw an urgent need for a new type of light bomber to supplement the suicide forces in the defence of the homeland. The aircraft had to be easy to manufacture, to maintain and to fly, had to have good performance and load-carrying capability and had to make minimal demands on the already overtaxed engine manufacturing facilities. As range requirement was less than for previous bombers, choice of a single-seat, single-engined configuration became attractive. Acccordingly the JAAF instructed Kawasaki in March 1945 to proceed immediately with the design of a single-seat aircraft to meet the following requirements: (1) normal radius of action, 600 km (373 miles) with an 800 kg (1,764 lb) bomb-load; (2) built-in armament, two 20 mm (0.79 in) Ho-5 cannon; (3) power-plant, one Army Type 4 eighteen-cylinder radial; (4) good take-off and landing performance; and (5) ease of manufacture in dispersed underground factories.

In less than three months a team led by Takeo Doi and Jun Kitano completed the basic design of the aircraft and a mock-up was readied for inspection. A wing of high aspect-ratio and large area was selected to obtain good airfield performance and flying characteristics, and a wide-track undercarriage, utilising the same shock absorbers as the Ki-102, was adopted as the aircraft was to be flown by pilots of limited experience. The design of the fuselage was influenced by that of the Ki-100, this aircraft also providing most of the equipment. The airframe was designed to be built in several sub-assemblies manufactured in shadow factories, with final assembly at Misunami in a converted tunnel.

The Ki-119 had been conceived as a light bomber armed with two fuselage-mounted cannon and carrying one 800 kg (1,764 lb) bomb under the fuselage; but alternative missions included dive-bombing with two 250 kg (551 lb) bombs, and fighter escort, without bomb, but with two additional 20 mm (0.79 in) Ho-5 cannon in the wings.

it was initially planned that the first flight would take place in September 1945, but most of the drawings were destroyed during air attacks on the Kagamigahara plant in June 1945. Despite this setback, Kawasaki stroved to complete a new set of drawings and it was hoped that the first prototype would be ready in November 1945 but the Japanese surrender halted further work.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Kawasaki Kokuki Kogyo KK (Kawasaki Aircraft Engineering Co Ltd).
Type: Single-engined light bomber, dive-bomber and escort fighter.
Crew (1): Pilot in enclosed cockpit.
Powerplant: One Army Type 4 (Mitsubishi Ha-104) eighteen-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, driving a three-blade constant-speed metal propeller.
Armament: Two fuselage-mounted 20 mm (0.79 in) Ho-5 cannon and (escort fighter) two wing-mounted 20 mm (0.79 in) Ho-5 cannon. External stores: two 600 litre (132 Imp gal) drop tanks, or one 800 kg (1,764 lb) bomb, or two 250 kg (551 lb) bombs.
Dimensions: Span 14 m (45 ft 11 3/16 in); length 11.85 m (38 ft 10 17/32 in); height 4.5 m (14 ft 9 5/32 in); wing area 31.9 sq m (343.367 sq ft).
Weights: Empty 3,670 kg (8,289 lb); loaded 5,980 kg (13,184 lb); wing loading 187.4 kg/sq m (38.4 lb/sq ft); power loading 3 kg/hp (6.6 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed 475 km/h (295 mph) at sea level and 580 km/h (360 mph) at 6,000 m (19,685 ft); climb to 6,000 m (19,685 ft) in 6 min 6 sec; service ceiling 10,500 m (34,450 ft); radius of action - normal, 600 km (373 miles), maximum 1,200 km (746 miles).

The drawing was taken from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War , by Rene J Francillon.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Marcus » 04 Oct 2003 10:56

Another excellent thread, thanks.

/Marcus

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Post by Robert Hurst » 04 Oct 2003 11:21

Hi

Kayaba Ka-1 and Ka-2

Although relatively unknown the kayaba Ka-1 autogyro deserves a special pace in aviation history since it was the first armed machine of the autogyro/helicopter family to have been used operationally.

In the late thirties the Imperial Japanese Army began to show considerable interest in the use of the autogyro as an artillery spotter and in 1939 a Kellet KD-1A single-engined two-seat autogyro was imported from the United States. Powered by a 225 hp Jacobs L-4M4 seven-cylinder air-cooled radial, the KD-1A featured an advanced version of the kellet direct control rotor system. Unfortunately, shortly after its arrival in Japan, the aircraft was seriously damaged during flight trials at low speeds. The Kellet KD-1A had been damaged beyond repair, but the Japanses Army delivered the wreck to KK Kayaba Seisakusho (Kayaba Industrial Co Ltd), a small company doing autogyro research, with instructions to develop a similar machine.

At the request of the Koku Hombu the Kayaba engineering team developed a two-seat observation autogyro based on the Kellet KD-1A but modified to Japanese production standards. Designated Ka-1, this autogyro was powered by a 240 hp Argus As 10c eight-cylinder inverted-vee air-cooled radial engine driving a two-blade propeller, and also had a three-blade rotor. Completed in May 1941 at the Sendai plant, Miyagi Prefecture, of Kayaba, the first Ka-1 made its maiden flight at Tamagawa on 26 May, 1941. During its flight test programme the Ka-1 performed remarkably well, demonstrating its ability to take-off after running only 30 m (98 ft) in still air. By running the engine at full power and holding the the nose 15 degrees up, the Ka-1 could hover and could also execute a full 360 degree turn while hovering. As maintenance in the field appeared to present less difficulty than anticipated the aircraft was placed in produciton for service with artillery units.

When shipping losses began to rise alarmingly the Japanese Army commissioned the light escort carrier Akitsu Maru, a converted merchant ship. The short take-off charactersistics of the Ka-1 rendered it suitable for operation from this small vessel and accordingly a small number of Ka-1s were modified as anti-submarine patrol aircraft. As the load-carrying capability of the standard two-seat Ka-1 was too limited, the carrier-borne Ka-1s were operated as single-seaters and carried two 60 kg (132 lb) depth-charges. In this role the Ki-1 operated over Japanese coastal waters and particularly over the Tsugara and Korean channels. At least one of these aircraft, the Ka-1 KAI, was tested with powder rockets on the rotor tips in an attempt to improve its load-carrying capability while another aircraft was fitted with a 240 hp Jacobs L-4MA-7 seven-cylinder air-cooled radial engine. With the Jacobs engine the type became the Ka-2.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: KK Kayaba Seisakusho (Kayaba Industrial Co Ltd).
Type: Single-engined artillery observation (anti-submarine) autogyro.
Crew (2): Pilot and observer (anti-submarine version pilot only) in tandem open cockpits.
Powerplant: (Ka-1) One 240 hp Kobe-built Argus As 10C eight-cylinder invereted-vee air-cooled raidla engine, driving a two-blade propeller, (Ka-2) one 240 hp Jacobs L-4MA-7 seven-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, driving a two-blade propeller.
Armament (Anti-submarine version): Two 60 kg (132 lb) depth-charges.
Dimensiosn: Length 9.2 m (30 ft 2 7/32 in); rotor diameter 12.2 m (40 ft 0 5/16 in).
Weights: 775 kg (1.709 lb); loaded 1.170 kg (2,579 lb); power loading 4.9 kg/hp (10.7 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed 165 km/h (102.5 mph); cruising speed 115 km/h (71.5 mph); climb to 1,000 m (3,280 ft) in 3 min 20 sec and to 2,000 m (6,560 ft) in 7 min 30 sec; service ceiling 3,500 m (11,485 ft); range 280 km (174 miles).
Production: Approximately 240 Ka-1s, including one Ka-1 KAI and one Ka-2 were built by KK Kayaba Seisakusho at their Sendai plant.

The photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, by Rene J Francillon.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 06 Oct 2003 11:08

Hi

Kokusai Ku-8

The design of this, the only Japanese transport glider to be met in combat, began in December 1941 when the airframe of a Ki-59 twin-engined light transport was modified as the Ku-8-I glider by removing the engines and conventional undercarriage and by fitting landing skids beneath the fuselage. Following flight trials the glider was considerably modified and fitted with a swinging nose section with ramp loading, and was placed in production as the Army Type 4 Large-size Transport Glider . Code-named 'Gander' by the Allies, the Ku-8-II could accommodate up to 20 soldiers or a mountain gun with crew and was normally towed by a Mitsubishi Ki-21-II. Span 23.2 m (76 ft 1 3/8 in); length 13.31 m (43 ft 8 in). Loaded weight 3,500 kg (7,716 lb). Maximum towing speed 234 km/h (139 mph).

Kokusai Ku-7 Manazura (Crane)

Largest glider ever built in Japan, the Ku-7 remained experimental, as by the time of its first flight in August 1944 the war was going against Japan. Design of this twin boom glider with central nacelle, accommodating either 32 fully armed troops or one 8-ton tank, was undertaken in late 1942. Fitted with four non-retractable mainwheels and one nosewheel, the Ku-7 was towed either by the Nakajima Ki-49-II or the Mitsubishi Ki-67-I and was fiotted with a swinging laoding door in the rear of the central nacelle. Span 35 m (114 ft 9 15/16 in); length 19.92 m (65 ft 4 1/4 in). Loaded weight 12,000 kg (26,455 lb).

Kokusia Ki-105 Ohtori (Phoenix)

Initially designated Ku-7-II, the Ki-105 was apowered version of the Kokusai Ku-7 fitted with two 940 hp Mitsubishi Ha-26-II fourteen-cylinder radials. Commnecing in April 1945, nine prototypes were tested and plans were onn hand to produce 300 aircraft of this type to be used as fuel tankers to carry supplies to Japan. In a typical flight between the Sumatra oilfields and the Japanese mainland, 80 per cent of the fuel load would have been consumed, but the critical fuel shortage in Japan rendered even this solution attractive. Span 35 m (114 ft 9 15/16 in); length 19.92 m (65 ft 4 1/4 in). Normal payload 3,300 kg (7,275 lb); maximum weight 12,500 kg (27,558 lb). Cruising speed 220 km/h (137 mph); maximum range 2,500 km (1,553 miles).

Other Japanese gliders and sailplanes included:

Maeda Ku-1 - Army Type 2 Light Transport Glider - limited production
Kayaba Ku-2 - Army Experimental Tailless Glider
Kayaba Ku-3 - Army Experimental Tailless Glider
Fukuda Ku-5 - Army Two-seat Training Glider
Maeda Ku-6 - Army Experimental vehicle Troop Command Glider
Fukuda Ku-9 - Army Experimental Transport Glider
Maeda Ku-10 - Army Special Training Glider
Nihon Kogata Ku-11 - Army Experimental Transport Glider
Fukuda Ku-12 - Army Two-seat Secondary Training Glider
Yokoi Fu-13 - Army Experimental Shisui Training Glider
Nihon Kogata Ku-14 - Army Training Glider.
Fukuda Ki-23 - Army Training Sailplane
Tachikawa Ki-24 - Army Primary Training Glider
Tachikawa Ki-25 - Army Experimental Training Glider
Tachikawa Ki-26 - Army Experimental Training Glider


The above photos were taken from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, by Rene J Francillon.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 06 Oct 2003 11:50

Hi

Mansyu Ki-98

In 1943 Mansyu undertook design of the Ki-98 single-seat ground attack aircraft. Of twin-boom configuration, it was to be powered by a 2,200 hp turbosupercharged Mitsubishi Ha-211-Ru radial engine mounted in the central nacelle behind the pilot;s seat and driving a four-blade propeller. Nose-mounted armament consisted of one 37 mm (1.46 in) and two 20 mm (0.79 in) cannon. A prototype was still under construction when Japan surrendered. Span 11.26 m (36 ft 11 5/16 in); length 11.4 m (37 ft 4 13/16 in). Loaded weight 4.500 kg (9,921 lb). Maximum speed 730 km/h (454 mph) at 10,000 m 32 ,810 ft).

The drawing was taken from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, by Rene J Francillon.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 06 Oct 2003 14:33

Hi

Mitsubishi Ki-83

The Mitsubishi Ki-83, one of the cleanest Japanese aircraft of World War II, was designed by a team led by Tmio Kubo to meet the requirements of a specification issued in May 1943 by the Koku Hombu calling for a long-range escort fighter. In answer to this specification Tomio Kubo, assisted by engineers Mizuno, Kato and Sugiyama, first investigated the possiibility of meeting the requirements with a single-engined design, the Ki-73, powered by a 2,600 hp Mitsubishi Ha-203-II twenty-four cylinder horizontal-H liquid-cooled engine. When development problems with the Ha-203 engine delayed the programme, the Ki-73 was abandoned before contruction had actually started. Yet, as captured documents led them to believe that the Ki-73 was about to enter service with the Japanese Army, the Allies gave it the code-name 'Steve'.

After this inauspicious start, Tomio Kubo called on his experience with the Ki-46 and designed the Ki-84, an exceptionally clean two-seat all-metal stressed-skin mid-wing monoplane powered by two turbosupercharged Mitsubishi Ha-211 Ru eighteen-cylinder air-cooled radials, rated at 2,200 hp for take-off, 2,070 hp at 1,000 m (3,280 ft), 1,930 hp at 5,000 m (16,405 ft) and 6,400 m (21,000 ft) and 1,720 hp at 9,500 m (31,170 ft). Armament consisted of two 30 mm (1.18 in) Ho-105 and two 20 mm ((0.79 in) Ho-5 cannon mounted in the lower nose of the aircraft. Two 50 kg (110 lb) bombs could e carried in a small internal bomb-bay. The first prototype, completed in October 1944, made its maiden flight on 18 November 1944. During successive test flights, often interrupted by Allied bombing raids and fighter sweeps, the aircraft demonstrated exceptional manoeuvrability for its size, and performance was truly spectacular. However, engine and tail vibration delayed the flight test programme and three additional prototypes had modified engine mountings and strengthened horizontal tail surfaces with external mass balances.

Although the original specification had not demanded extreme manoeuvrability, the Ki-83 could execute a loop in thirty-one seconds at 684.6 km/h (403 mph) at 2,896 m (9,500 ft), the diameter of the loop being 670.6 m (2,200 ft). The performance of the aircraft - a maximum speed of 686 km/h (426 mph) at 8,000 m (26,250 ft) being demonstrated - attracted the attention of the Japanese Navy and arrangements were made for that Service to receive some of the production aircraft, but the war ended before actual production had started. At the time of the Japanese surrender an advanced version of the aircraft, designated Ki-103, was under development while the Ki-95 was a projected version of the aircraft being developed to replace the Mitsubishi Ki-46 as a Command Reconnaissance Plane equipped with aerial cameras, with armament to be reduced to two 20 mm (0.79 in) Ho-5 cannon.

Plans for the production of the Ki-83 were never finalised, because in 1945 the JAAF had to give priority to the production of interceptor fighters. Had the war lasted longer, the Ki-83 would have been a formidable weapon as its performance compared favourably with that of the contemporary Gumman F7F Tigercat and the de Havilland Hornet.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Mitsubishi Jugogyo KK (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Co Ltd)Type: Twin-engined long-range high-altitude fighter.
Crew (1): Pilot in enclosed cockpit.
Powerplant: Two Mitsubishi Ha-112-II Ru ([Ha-43] 11) eighteen-cylinder air-cooled raidla engines, driving four-blade constant-speed metal propellers.
Armament: Two 30 mm (1.18 in) Ho-105 cannon and two 20 mm (0.79 in) Ho-5 cannon in the lower forward fuselage section. Two 50 kg (110 lb) bombs carried internally.
Dimensions: Span 15.5 m (50 ft 10 1/1 in); length 12.5 m (41 ft 0 1/8 in); height 4.6 m (15 ft 1 3/32 in); wing area 33.52 sq m (360.805 sq ft).
Weights: Empty 5,980 kg (13,184 lb); loaded 8,795 kg (19,390 lb); maximum 9,430 kg (20,790 lb); wing loading 262.4 kg/sq m (53.7 lb/sq ft); power loading 2 kg/hp (4.4 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed 704.5 km/h (438 mph) at 9,000 m (29,530 ft) and 655 km/h (407 mph) at 5,000 m (16,405 ft); cruising speed 450 km/h (280 mph) at 4,000 m (13,125 ft); climb to 10,000 m (32,810 ft) in 10 min; service ceiling 12,660 m (41,535 ft); range - normal 1,953 km (1,213 miles), maximum 3,500 km (2,175 miles).
Production: Four Ki-83 prototypes were built between October 1944 and May 1945 by Mitsubishi Jukogyo KK.



The photos were taken from Warplanes of the Second World War Vol 3: Fighters, by William Green.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 06 Oct 2003 15:20

Hi

Nakajima Ki-62

The Ki-62 was a light fighter designed in 1941 by T Koyama to compete with the Kawasaki Ki-61. Although this design appeared to be promising, its development was discontinued to enable Nakajima to concentrate on production of their Ki-43 and Ki-44. Later, the Ki-62's data and design features were incorporated in the Ki-84 design. One 1,175 hp Kawasaki Ha-40 liquid-cooled engine. Span 12 m (39 ft 4 7/16 in); length 8.75 m (28 ft 8 1/2 in). The Ki-63 was a projected version powered by a 1,050 hp Mitsubishi Ha-102 radial.

The photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, by Rene J Francillon.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 07 Oct 2003 10:04

Hi

Nakajima Ki-87

In mid-1942 the Technical Branch of the Koku Hombu approached Nakajima with a preliminary specification for a heavily armed high-altitude fighter capable of reaching a maximum speed of 800 km/h (497 mph) and having a maximum range of 3,000 km (1,864 miles). As these performance requirements appeared somewhat unrealistic they were soon revised and the endurance requirment was lowered to 30 min at combat rating at 500-800 km (310-497 miles) from its base plus one hour loiter time. The maximum speed was no longer specified, but the aircraft was to be armed with two 20 mm (0.79 in) and two 30 mm (1.18 in) cannon. An agreement between Nakajima and the JAAF was reached in November 1942, and an order was placed for three Ki-87 prototypes, expected to be completed between November 1944 and January 1945, and seven pre-production machines, to be completed between February and April 1945.

The Ki-87 was powered by a turbosupercharged Nakajima [Ha-44] 11 or 21 (Ha-219 Ru) eighteen-cylinder radial engine, rated at 2,400 hp for take-off, 2,200 hp at 1,500 m (4,920 ft), 2,050 hp at 6,000 m (19,685 ft) and 1,850 hp at 10,500 m (34,450 ft), driving a four-bladed propeller, and was cooled by a sixteen-blade fan, geared to run at 150 per cent of the speed of the propeller. The JAAF wanted the supercharger to be installed in the bottom of the rear fuselage in a similar fashion to that of the P-47 Thunderbolt, but in order to minimise fuel leakage in the event of battle damage, Nakajima preferred to mount the supercharger on the starboard side of the forward fuselage. The wing was a single-spar stressed-skin unit built in one piece, and the oval-section semi-monocque fuselage was designed to house a light alloy pressure cabin. The necessary pressurisation was assisted by sealing the bulkhead, floor and side walls round the pilot's cockpit and, in addition, the sliding canopy.

Armament consisted of one synchronised 20 mm (0.79 in) Ho-5 cannon was mounted in each wing root, and one 30 mm (1.18 in) Ho-105 cannon was placed in each wing outboard of the wheel well. In order to conserve space in the inboard wing sections for the self-sealing fuel tanks and 30 mm (1.18 in) ammunition tanks for the Ho-105 cannon mounted outboard of the wheel wells and the 20 mm (0.79) ammunition tanks and Ho-5 cannon mounted in the wing roots, the main undercarriage members rearwards and the wheels turned through 90 degress to lie flat, in a similar fashion to that used by the Curtiss P-40. Provision was made for a ventral rack carrying a single 250 kg (551 lb) bomb.

Before completion of the first machine changes were already being planned. Starting with the third aircraft Nakajima intended to change the engine reduction gear ratio from 0.578 to 0.431 and to improve cooling on the tenth aircraft by using a faster-running fan. Due to numerous difficulties with the electrical undercarriage retraction mechanism and to teething troubles with engine's turbosupercharger, only one prototype (c/n 8701) was completed in February 1945. Test flights began in April 1945, but only five were made during which no attempts were made to retract the troublesome undercarriage and no performance data were recorded. Although the aircraft demonstrated good flying characterstics, thought to be superior to those of the Ki-84, difficulties with the engine prevented further testing.

An improved model, the Ki-87-II, powered by a 3,000 hp Nakajima [Ha-46] 11 (Ha-217) with a turbosupercharger mounted in the fuselage belly, was still on the drawing boards when the war ended. It was anticipated that this aircraft would ahve had a top speed of 738 km/h (459 mph) at 11,000 m (33,530 ft) and a service ceiling of 12,850 m (42,160 ft).

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Nakajima Hikoki KK (Nakajima Aeroplane Co Ltd).
Type: Single-engined high-altitude interceptor fighter.
Crew (1): Pilot in enclosed pressurised cockpit.
Powerplant: One Nakajima [Ha-44] 11 eighteen-cylinder air-cooled rdial engine, driving a four-blade constant-speed metal propeller.
Armament: Two 20 mm (0.79 in) Ho-5 cannon and two 30 mm (1.18 in) in the wings. External stores: one 250 kg (551 lb) bomb.
Dimensions: Span 13.423 m (44 ft 0 1/2 in); length 11.82 m (38 ft 9 3/8 in) height 4.503 m (14 ft 9 5/16 in); wing area 26 sq m (279.860 sq ft).
Weights: Empty 4,387 kg (9,672 lb); loaded 5,632 kg (12,416 lb); maximum 6,100 kg (13,448 lb); wing loading 216.6 kg/sq m (44.3 lb/sq ft); power loading 2.3 kg/hp (5.2 lb/hp).
Performance: (Manufacturer's estimates) maximum speed 706 km/h (439 mph) at 11,000 m (36,090 ft); climb to 10,000 m (32,810 ft) in 14 min 12 sec; service ceiling 12,855 m (42,175 ft); endurance 2 hr.
Production: One Ki-87 prototype was completed in February 1945 by Nakajima Hikoki KK at their Ota plant.

The top two photos were taken from Warplanes of the Second World War Vol 3: Fighters, by William Green, and the bottom one was taklen from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, by Rene J Francillon.

Regards

Bob
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