Luxembourg in ww one

Discussions on all aspects of the First World War not covered in the other sections. Hosted by Terry Duncan.
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Balrog
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Luxembourg in ww one

Post by Balrog » 06 Oct 2003 03:18

i have been reading about Luxembourg during world war one. it was attacked at the beginning of the war as part of the german army's preplanned stragtegy of defeating france. luxembourg had important rail way junctions.
The grand duchess who ruled Luxembourg was informed that german army columns were marching toward the border of her country. the grand duchess jumped in her car and sped down to intercept the german army by herself. she pulled her car across the road and blocked the german 4th army from crossing the border. baffled german soldiers did stop. a german army officer approached her and told her she would have to move, and that they would have to follow orders and invade Luxembourg. the grand duchess was driven back to her palace by a german officer in her car.
As far as i've read, the uxembourg army did nothing to impede the german army and surrendered.
In 1923 the grand duchess awarded medals for "resistance". what kind of partisan activity did people in Luxembourg engage in? i can't find reference to any.
Who were these people who were rewarded for "resistance" activity?
What kind of partisan activity(if any) went on during ww 1 in Luxembourg?
What happened to the Luxembourg army after it surrendered?
What happended to the grand duchess during ww1? was she under house arrest in Luxembourg? held prisoner in germany?
Any photos of the grand duchess who ruled during ww1?
Any photos of occupied Luxembourg?
Any photos of the Luxembourg army before ww1?
Was there any fighting in Luxembourg (between central and allies armies) in ww1?
When was Luxembourg liberated?

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Peter H
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Post by Peter H » 06 Oct 2003 03:34

Grand Duchess Maria Adelaide was booted out after WW1 for 'co-operating' with the Germans.Her sister,Charlotte,took over the Grand Duchy in 1919.

'Resistance' doesn't anyways mean taking up arms--in the Luxembourg case I think the passive type pre-dominated.

The German 16th Infantry Division was the first unit to cross the Luxembourg frontier in 1914---a stop,start affair prompted by the famous exchange between the Kaiser and Moltke when the former taked aloud of stopping the Western advance and marching all forces against Russia.Moltke suffered a nervous collapse and bewailed that the trains could not be turned around.

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Balrog
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Post by Balrog » 09 Oct 2003 19:55

Luxembourg was invaded by german troops on july 31,1914. the german army was commanded by general Tessmar. apparently he became the military governor until the german army evacuated in 1918. there was no armed resistence, the grand duchess marie adeliade and her elderly prime minister Paul Eyschen surrendered and the extent of government response was an official protest sent to the kaiser of germany.
The germans maintained a tight grip on the country throughout the entire war. there was little opportunity to resist the german army. travel for Luxembourg citizens was highly restricted, the press was heavily censored, and food was rationed to the luxembourg population throughout the war.
thousands of Luxembourg citizens did managed to take of arms and fight the germans. 3200 luxembourgers joined the french army. most were living abroad at the time the country was invaded, but a few managed to escape even after occupation and join up. of the 3200 Luxembourgers that joined the french army, by 1918, 2800 had been killed in action. i believe for such a small country that would be a huge loss of military age males.
on november 6, 1918, with the germany on the brink of collapse, general Tessmar ordered german troops to evacuate the country.
General Pershing entered Luxembourg with american and french troops on november 18, 1918.
the Luxembourg government and grand duchess marie adelaide were extremely unpopular with not only the allies, but with the native population for having failed to resist the germans and being to cooperative with german government and generals. there was popular resentment of the grand duchess and on janurary 9,1919, a debate in parliament sparked pro republican demostrations that flooded the streets of the capital with demonstrators. the french army had to be called in to restore order. three days later, grand duchess Marie Adelaide abdicated in favor of her sister Charlotte and went into exile.
the debate was not over. pro republican groups demanded a referendum on the future of the monarchy. on september 28, 1919 the vote was a landslide to keep the monarchy. there was still a strong feeling for monarchy to be maintained, but as well a fear that a republican government would become a secular government like france, and the strongly roman catholic population did not want that separation of church and state to occur in Luxembourg. the parliament did vote on may 15,1919 to limit the power of the grand duchy's monarch, but the grand duchess did retain her veto(though it has not been used again).
during the paris peace conference, belgium attempted to annex Luxembourg, along with the dutch provinces of north barbount and south limburg. additionally the belgians demanded that the german territories of Morsnet, Eupen and Malmedy also be incorporated into a greater belgium. the treaty of versailles refused this. Luxembourg's independence was guaranteed in articles 40 and 41 of the treaty of versailles.
i am looking for photos of either grand duchess.
does anyone have a photo of general Tessmar? i would like to know his army record. it does not seem that he was involved in anymore military activity after invading Luxembourg, is that correct? was general Tessmar a very good general? he seemed to spend the entire war sitting in Luxembourg. was he an elderly general pulled out of retirement for occupation duty?
i am still looking for photos of Luxembourg during ww1.
the fortress in Luxembourg was built over a period of centuries and said to be impregnable. does anyone have photos of the luxembourg fortess called the "Gibraltar of the north"?
does anyone have information of the Luxembourg volunteers in the french army? any photos? 2800 killed in action out of 3200 volunteers 8O. i can see that numbers like that would probably effect most of the families in the country. does anyone know the 1914 population of Luxembourg?
Last edited by Balrog on 09 Oct 2003 23:29, edited 1 time in total.

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Post by Balrog » 09 Oct 2003 20:07

in 1923, the duchy awarded medals for "resistence". i would still like to know what kind of resistence was offered by these individuals? does anyone have a photo of any medals awarded for actions in ww1 by Luxembourg citizens?

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Post by Balrog » 09 Oct 2003 23:47

grand duchess Adeliade went into exile in italy, becoming a nun and joining a carmelite order in modena ,italy. she died in bavaria, at the family owned castle Hohenburg, on january,24,1924. she was 29 years old.
her deep rooted belief in the divine right of kings got her into trouble during ww 1. in 1915, the prime minister, Paul Eyschen, died. the grand duchess decided to APPOINT a right wing government. the socialists, who had been trying to abolish the monarchy since 1907, were furious. she had acted beyond the boundaries of the constitution.
in 1914 she had held a reception for Kaiser Wilhelm. that was considered an act of treason by many of her subjects.
the day after ww 1 ended, the socialists argued that with her cooperation with the german government , the royal welcome for the german emperor, the appointment of a rightwing government, and apparently a pro german stance during the war, the grand duchess was little more than a traitor.
the grand duchess was also viewed badly by the allied governments. she had really very little choice. she had to abdicate.
Last edited by Balrog on 24 Dec 2003 01:57, edited 1 time in total.

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Peter H
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Post by Peter H » 11 Oct 2003 09:54

The German Army crosses in Luxembourg 1914.
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Glenn2438
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Teßmar

Post by Glenn2438 » 11 Oct 2003 11:15

Joel,

Generalmajor a.D. Richard Teßmar: 2 Feb 1853 - 15 Sep 1927 was already a retired officer at the outbreak of WW1. He was recalled to duty initially as the Landwehr Inspector of the VIII Army Corps and then as the commander of troops in Luxembourg and as the Plenipotentiary of the Quartermaster General. He had as such no field command and his appointment was administrative. He was a former Field Artillery Officer having commanded the 2nd Lower Alsatian Field Artillery Regiment Nr. 67 from 11 Sep 1903 until 14 April 1907.

Teßmar did not command troops in the invasion of Luxembourg. The Prussian 16th Infantry Division (Generalleutnant Georg Fuchs) of VIII Army Corps, 4th Army occupied Luxembourg.

Regards
Glenn

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Post by Balrog » 12 Oct 2003 17:10

does anyone have a photo of General Teßmar?
does anyone have a photo of the german Kaiser in Luxembourg?

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Re: luxembourg in ww one

Post by tigre » 17 Jun 2019 13:34

Hello to all :D; a complement here: War surprises Luxembourg - Paralysis of a country.
The assassination of Sarajevo on June 28, 1914, during which the Serbian student Gavrilo Princip shot the Austrian heir to the throne Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie, was the immediate trigger of the First World War. It was, so to speak, the fuse that detonated the barrel of political and military gunpowder in Europe. In 1914, Europe was divided geo-strategically into two camps, two alliances, the Central Powers, on the one hand, which consisted mainly of Austria-Hungary and the German Reich (later, other states would join this alliance) and, on the other hand, the States of the Entente, mainly France, England and (until 1917) Russia.

The assassination of Sarajevo was followed by the so-called "Crisis of July" of 1914 that led the supporters of the war and those opposed to it to a passionate struggle for war and peace. All diplomatic efforts to avoid a war failed. Over time, the "hawks" prevailed. On July 28, 1914, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. On July 30 the mobilization in Russia begins. On August 1, 1914, Germany declared war on Russia, France mobilized. On August 3, Germany declares war on France. On August 4, 1914, Britain entered the war as a protective power of Belgium after German troops occupied neutral Belgium. Almost clearly, the British Foreign Secretary, Edward Gray, had prophesied in early 1914: "The lights go out all over Europe, we will never see them shine again in our lives."
What role played Luxembourg in the war plans of the German Empire of Wilhelm II? After Germany declared war on Russia, the German General Staff assumed that it would take some time for Russia to mobilize. Meanwhile, France should be defeated in a quick campaign. Subsequently, the liberated troops would be relocated to the Eastern Front. That's what the so-called Schlieffen Plan was about. Luxembourg should only act as a transit station in this plan.
July 30, 1914 - Minister of State Paul Eyschen interrupted his vacation in Evian, France, and returned to Luxembourg. On this day it also started the shopping for panic. The price of flour increased by 5 francs per bag (100 kg). In Grevenmacher the grocery stores were assaulted. The first foreigners fled the country. Luxembourg faced political, economic and social difficulties before 1914. In particular, its international status was considered uninsured due to its neutrality, since it was seen as an appendage of the German Reich. In terms of economy, the domination of Germany was overwhelming, Luxembourg was then a member of the Zollverein (Customs Union of the States of Germany). Two thirds of the steel industry was dominated by German companies. The railway contract with Germany assured the latter extensive access to the railway network and not least its dynasty came from Germany.
Until 1914, the Grand Duchy maintained very close relations with Germany. Membership in the German customs union had brought wealth to the country; our businessmen praised the quality of German products; We value German literature and German art, we trust in a working and peace-loving Germany. Here the German craftsmen and workers were valued, as long as they were modest and did not want to impose themselves on us as rulers. Luxembourg had no army worthy of mention. The volunteer company of 170 men shared the fate of the civilian population during the First World War.
Sources: http://waldbillig.lu/la-commune-la-regi ... es-landes/
https://www.histolux.org/get_file.php?i ... vnr=162728

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
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Re:

Post by Helmut0815 » 17 Jun 2019 19:25

Balrog wrote:
09 Oct 2003 19:55
during the paris peace conference, belgium attempted to annex luxembourg, along with the dutch provinces of north barbount and south limberg.
I have never heard that before. Do you have any sources?
Balrog wrote:
09 Oct 2003 19:55
additionally the belgians demanded that the german territories of morsnet,eupen,and malmedy also be incorporated into a greater belgium. the treaty of versailles refused this.
That's not correct. According to the Versailles Treaty the German municipalities of Eupen, St. Vith (german speaking) and Malmedy (french speaking) as well as the condominium of Neutral Moresnet were occupied by belgian troops and annexed to the Kingdom of Belgium by 10th January 1920.


regards


Helmut

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Re: luxembourg in ww one

Post by tigre » 24 Jun 2019 21:21

Hello to all :D; more...............................

War surprises Luxembourg - Paralysis of a country.

July 31, 1914. - The Paris train, which arrived at the Luxembourg station at eleven-thirty, was full of compatriots returning home. In particular, many Luxembourgers who worked in France were among them.

Saturday, August 1, 1914. - All telephone connections with Germany are interrupted and trains in the direction of St. Vith only reach Wilwerdingen. Mobilization in France and Germany. Thousands of soldiers are in position along the Franco-German border. Germany declares war on Russia. The declaration of war was delivered at 19:10 in St. Petersburg.

In Luxembourg there is no more salt. Stores that still have stock sell it at the highest prices. The salt costs 20, 30 even 50 francs per pound. Other foods are also rapidly increasing their prices. That is the solidarity of entrepreneurs. As very often, they benefit from the difficulties of the working population.

At the railway station of Ulflingen (Troisvierges, Elwen), the First World War begins in Luxembourg.

Ulflingen was at that time an important transshipment station for goods of all kinds. Luxembourg received most of its consumer goods from the port of Antwerp in Belgium. In this station, the Belgian and German railway lines touched each other. The strategic importance of this station no longer needs to be explained. The station was guarded by three "gendarmes", François Mambourg, Michel Duhr and Michel Rausch.

At 19:00 hours, a company of the 69th Infantry Regiment of the 16th Division (25 men) was ordered to occupy the crossing of the Ulflingen station and to dismantle the tracks towards Gouvy. This was the unleashing of the so-called Schlieffen Plan. A little later, the first five military vehicles, each with 20 (16) armed soldiers, arrive at Ulflingen from Wemperhardt. From the station, the message spreads: "D'Preise sënn do!" (The Prussians are here). A coal transport train in the direction of Dudelange is the last train that the Germans still let pass from the north. Then at the exit of the tunnel in the village "Knierchen", they began removing the railroad tracks. Under the command of Lieutenant Feldmann, they begin to dismantle the tracks in a length of about 150 meters. It is the first German border violation in the war not yet declared. There is a brief confusion among the German soldiers, since in the neighboring city of Clerf (Clervaux) an important music festival of the Union Grand-Duc Adolphe (UGDA) Boeller had finished: the soldiers fear to meet with the advance of the enemy troops but this was false. It is said that a German officer telephoned from Ulflingen to Clerf, with the request to immediately stop the shelling of the Imperial German army. In Clerf, this message was not taken seriously, but created fun and laughter among those present.

In Ulflingen, the Gendarme Duhr drove to the station and addressed a German officer. Did they (German soldiers) know that they were in the neutral territory of Luxembourg? "We know that very well," the officer replied. Duhr did not give up and wanted to know why the soldiers were destroying the rails and the telegraphic material. "We are already in the capital and if you say a word now, I will shoot you" was the answer.

The Gendarme Mambourg has telephone contact during the night with the Commander of the army, Major-Kommandant Emile van Dyck, and informs his immediate superior about the events at the Ulflinger station. Alarmed, Van Dyck informed Minister of State Paul Eyschen in Luxembourg about the events.

Sources: http://waldbillig.lu/la-commune-la-regi ... es-landes/
https://www.histolux.org/get_file.php?i ... vnr=162728

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
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Re: luxembourg in ww one

Post by tigre » 01 Jul 2019 23:10

Hello to all :D; more...............................

War surprises Luxembourg - Paralysis of a country.

Saturday, August 1, 1914. - The mayor of Clerf, Emil Prüm, after being informed about the events in Ulflingen, sent a telegram to the Minister of State Eyschen to inform him about the invasion. The Minister of State Paul Eyschen (Minister of State from September 22, 1888 until his death on October 12, 1915) wrote a letter of protest to the Secretary of State at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Berlin, Gottlieb von Jagow, on the incident in Ulflingen:

"Prussian officers and soldiers have occupied the Ulflingen station in Luxembourg and destroyed the rails before it on our land, they must belong to the Regiment 69 of Trier. I can only assume there is an error and wait for the apologies of the case. I demand that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, through the German Ambassador, declare that the Government of the Reich, as it did in 1870, that it will respect the neutrality of Luxembourg, as long as it is not violated by another power ".

The evaluation of Minister of State Eyschen is incredible. It describes a military act of sabotage in Luxembourgian territory as "accidental", as if it were simply an excursion of drunken soldiers from Trier, who in their excesses had ended up in Ulflingen. From today's point of view, the events in Ulflingen certainly can not be considered as a trivial matter but as a military aggression. The soldiers attacked the station, causing havoc and threatening the gendarmerie and the station chief with violence in case of disobeying orders.

At dusk a military car arrives with the Lengeler's station chief to deliver the order to the German troops for immediate withdrawal behind the border. The ordered occupation was a mistake, they said. One hour after the attack, the "outbreak of war" is over.

The bridges of Schengen, Remich and Wormeldingen were blocked. The young people of French nationality, who live in Luxembourg, receive during the night of August 1 to 2 the following telegram: "Joignez votre corps" (join your Army Corps). Although the general mobilization took place in France and in the Empire, Kaiser Wilhelm II still expects a neutrality from Great Britain and France in case of a German entry into the war in the East. But according to Chief of Staff Helmuth von Moltke, a war with the French was inevitable and quickly victorious to contain itself, and then with a concentrated power to turn against Russia. Germany initiated the Schlieffen Plan, which provided for an immediate occupation of Luxembourg.

Sources: http://waldbillig.lu/la-commune-la-regi ... es-landes/
https://www.histolux.org/get_file.php?i ... vnr=162728

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).

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Re: luxembourg in ww one

Post by tigre » 08 Jul 2019 13:40

Hello to all :D; more...............................

War surprises Luxembourg - Paralysis of a country.

Sunday, August 2 - When the diplomatic results proved to be a misunderstanding, the German war machine began to move again and (on a Sunday) the first German troops, across the bridge in Wasserbillig, invaded the territory of Luxembourg. The first to cross the border were the Infantry Regiments 29 and 69 of Trier.

Early at 03:00 o'clock sharp, the government was informed that German officers and soldiers had been crossing the Wasserbilliger Brücke by car and motorcycle. There, as elsewhere in the day when German troops crossed the border into Luxembourg, the gendarmerie told them that they were entering a neutral territory and that the Luxembourg government would protest against it. One of the gendarmes who protested against crossing the border was arrested and taken away in one of the cars.

A few hours later, the government was notified from Wasserbillig of the passage of a military train to Luxembourg. The armored locomotive was in the middle and the wagons carried hanging bags of sand. Following the government's instructions in Roodt / Syr, an obstacle was organized against the train, which was removed by force. The train arrived in Luxembourg at 06:00 hours. A captain and about 150 soldiers occupied the platform and the important points of the railway installations. Oberleutnant Frank presented the German officer with a note of protest from the government. However, he said he had orders to secure the station and the tracks against the French advance.

From Trier, two more armored trains departed, one of which was heading to the Hamm cemetery, where the troops disembarked and occupied the railway. The empty train returned to Sandweiler. The invasion took place around 03:00 in the morning, when the first troops invaded Luxembourg in cars and motorcycles. German troops also invaded the city of Luxembourg. Around 09:00 hours, five cars, occupied by German soldiers, march from Clausen towards Oberstadt.

Major van Dijk, commander of the army, is waiting, by order of Minister of State Paul Eyschen, on the 'Schlassbréck' (historical viaduct of the city of Luxembourg) to deliver an official note of protest to the first German officer who arrived there. . The Major received the same response as Oberleutnant Frank at the station.

German military vehicles continue towards Merl. An armored train brings the first troops on the Bisserbrücke. Since Luxembourg was unarmed due to the Treaty of London, the city and the country fell into the hands of the invaders without a sword stroke. About 150 soldiers occupied the platforms and all the important points of the railway installations.

The Grand Duchess protested before the Emperor, the government of Luxembourg before the Chancellor. The protests were notified to the signatory powers of the Treaty of London, but without success. Tülff von Tschepe and Weidenbach, General Commander of the Prussian Army Corps, issue a proclamation, printed in Koblenz, to the population of Luxembourg. The Minister of State Eyschen protests vigorously against its content, so that the German general refrains from spreading it throughout the country.

Sources: http://waldbillig.lu/la-commune-la-regi ... es-landes/
https://www.histolux.org/get_file.php?i ... vnr=162728

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
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Re: luxembourg in ww one

Post by tigre » 15 Jul 2019 21:52

Hello to all :D; more...............................

War surprises Luxembourg - Paralysis of a country.

Sunday, August 2 - The Luxembourg government called on people to remain calm. The march of troops lasted two weeks throughout the country. Germany, which had been arming since 1893, was using Luxembourg as a transit area for the attack on France and was also interested in its heavy industry for its equipment. At the time of the attack, Luxembourg had long been part of the German Customs Union, the German capital controlled the heavy industry and the rail network. Left-liberal and right-wing ministers continued to rule under German military supervision throughout the war, as if nothing had happened.

Approximately 500 men arrived in the morning, around 06:00 o'clock on the Remicher Brücke and marched along the Dreikantonsstraße to Bettemburg and occupied the local station there. In the center 3 officers with 30 men occupy the bridges in Eich. The officers believed that they would have to occupy all the Luxembourg bridges, believing that the intention of the French was to blow them all. However, it was not his intention to touch the population not even a hair.

Around noon, the cavalry passed through the town of Grevenmacher and arrived in Luxembourg at 16:00 o'clock sharp, where another military train arrived at the same time. In Trentingen, a detachment of Prussian cavalry arrived and destroyed Master Robert's wireless telegraphy apparatus. In Differdingen, 800 German soldiers were engaged at nightfall and at Fels (Larochette), at 11:45 hours, 100 men arrived. At 18:30 hours, the German troops occupied Diekirch, Capellen, Windhof and Niederkerschen. Posts were established on the Belgian border. Other cities, but especially around the city of Luxembourg, had also been occupied.

Major von Bärensprung, head of the occupation operations in the capital, was informed at approximately 11:30 in the Cabinet of the Minister of State about the diplomatic measures taken by the President of the Government of Luxembourg. Nevertheless von Bärensprung affirmed that he does not have the mandate to interfere with the civil administration and that he was in charge only of militarily occupation the City of luxembourg and its environs. The railway operation had to be maintained.

Eyschen realized that the post office building was also occupied. Bärensprung promised to reverse this. Another comment from the Minister of State was that the occupation's food should be carried out by the German military administration itself, since the situation in this regard was difficult. Also, the prices were high. Still had not been decided on the quartering of the soldiers, another requirement of Bärensprungs. The Luxembourg army undertook to maintain public order. Contrary to the rumors, it had not been disarmed.

All telephone and telegraphic connections with foreign countries had been suspended. The national telephone company was also reserved for some time for military and official purposes ... The soldiers who occupied Luxembourg belonged to the Regiment No. 29 of Horn in Trier.

Sources: http://waldbillig.lu/la-commune-la-regi ... es-landes/
https://www.histolux.org/get_file.php?i ... vnr=162728

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
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Re: luxembourg in ww one

Post by tigre » 22 Jul 2019 19:44

Hello to all :D; more...............................

War surprises Luxembourg - Paralysis of a country.

Sunday, August 2 - Germany issued an ultimatum to Belgium demanding free passage through its territory. If Belgium refuses, the German Reich will consider the neighboring country as an enemy. The telegraphic instruction to the German ambassadors of August 2, 1914 stated:

Should Belgium oppose the German troops, particularly by making it difficult by offering resistence in the fortifications of the Meuse or by destroying railways, roads, tunnels or other engineering structures, Germany will be forced, in spite of herself, to consider the Kingdom of Belgium as an enemy. Adding ...............

"The imperial government has reliable news of a planned deployment of French forces over the Meuse on the Givet-Namur line, leaving no doubt about France's intention to proceed through Belgium against Germany." The imperial government can not dispel the concern that, despite its goodwill, Belgium will not be able to avoid the French advance with great chances of success, so that it can find sufficient security there against the threat to Germany, it is a self-preservation requirement for Germany to avoid an attack. Therefore, it would be very unfortunate for the German Government if Belgium saw as an act of enmity against itself the fact that the measures taken by its opponents forced Germany to enter Belgian territory as a counterpart. To rule out any misinterpretation, the imperial government declares the following:

1. Germany does not intend hostilities against Belgium. If Belgium is willing to accept a benevolent neutrality towards Germany in the next war, the German government is committed to fully guarantee the Kingdom's acquis and independence in the peace agreement.
2. Germany undertakes, subject to the above requirement, to evacuate the territory of the Kingdom as soon as the peace is concluded.
3. Faced with a friendly attitude from Belgium, Germany is prepared, in agreement with the Belgian royal authorities, to buy all the needs of its troops with cash and to compensate for any damage caused by German troops.

The mines of Luxembourg and the foundries of Dudelange, Esch-Schifflingen and Dommeldingen, which belonged to the group of "Aciéries Réunies de Burbach-Eich-Dudelange" (Arbed), stop all their activities.

Sources: http://waldbillig.lu/la-commune-la-regi ... es-landes/
https://www.histolux.org/get_file.php?i ... vnr=162728

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).

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