Little notes about the SCW.

Discussions on all aspects of the Spanish Civil War including the Condor Legion, the Germans fighting for Franco in the Spanish Civil War.
durb
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Re: Little notes about the SCW.

Postby durb » 17 Dec 2014 13:28

Teruel was a battle of attrition - after it the Republicans were more exhausted than Nationalist, who were able to launch the decisive attack on Aragón front reaching the Mediterranean sea and cutting the Republican zone in two parts. After that I think that the war was clearly lost for Republicans. With the fall of North there was no more chance to win and after the Teruel they were too weak to resist Nationalist offensive which put them in lost position - it was only a matter of time of final defeat. The Ebro offensive was just the last (initially successful) gamble much like the German offensive at Ardennes in 1944 during WW2.

But as stated before, there were more than one battle which led to gradual defeat of Republicans. One should also not forget they were not able to feed, cloth and equip their troops as well as the Franco side. The supply situation deteriorated during the war at the same time as Nationalist supply situation was quite good. Soviet military aid was also a very mixed blessing - it had both economical and even more importantly political price which was too high.

However, Republicans had little choice than to lean to Soviets. No one else was selling (or could sell) them decent weaponry, with which the war was prolonged as long as it was. Without Soviet arms deliveries the Republic would have collapsed sooner.

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Re: Little notes about the SCW.

Postby tigre » 29 Dec 2014 14:36

Hello to all :D; more follows.................

The Drive to the sea.

The frontline at the beginning of the Insurgent offensive extended roughly from Teruel to Huesca and on to the French frontier. This line formed a Government saIient with three principal lines of communication:

(1) The road from Fuentes de Ebro to Alcaniz, down to the coastal plain.
(2) The road: Belchite -Caspe.
(3) The highway: Montalban -Alcaniz.

The highways mentioned above were the routes chosen for a three-fold attack upon the Government positions. For this offensive Franco massed a total of 250,000 men, organized into five army corps, including three Italian divisions of 7,500 each. These forces were assisted by about one thousand guns of various calibers, hundreds of tanks and airplanes, thousands of machine guns and a large supply of munitions. These corps were initially disposed as follows (Figure 2):

The Navarrese Corps, General Solchaga, Commanding.
The Aragon Corps, General Moscard6 (of Toledo Alcazar fame), Commanding.
The Moroccan Corps, General Yague, Commanding. *
A Mixed Corps, General Garcia Valino, Commanding, composed of the 5th Division of Navarre and two Italian Legionnaire Divisions.
The Galician Corps, General Aranda (the defender of Oviedo) Commanding, consisting of three Galician divisions.

The offensive was launched at dawn 9 March with an intensive artillery preparation preceding the infantry advance.

Source: Military News Around the World. Military Review. June 1938.

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).

Feliz Año Nuevo - Happy New Year - Feliz Ano Novo - Gluckliches Neues Jahr - Bonne Année - Felice Anno Nuovo - Szczęśliwego nowego roku!!!. :thumbsup:
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Re: Little notes about the SCW.

Postby tigre » 02 Jan 2015 14:15

Hello to all :D; more follows.................

The Drive to the sea.

OPERATIONS SOUTH OF THE EBRO.

Yague's Corps (Moroccan) seized the village of Fronton, key to Belchite. Stiff resistance was encountered at Belchite for this town, although without any strategic value, was the scene of one of the few Government victories of the war. The Abraham Lincoln Battalion withstood the brunt of the attack and suffered such heavy losses that it had to be incorporated into the Washington Battalion and the new unit was then designated the Washington-Lincoln Brigade.

The 5th Navarrese Division of Garcia Valino's Corps drove to the southeast in the Herrera sector. General Monasterio's cavalry division went through the gap opened by this drive, cutting off lines of communication and harassing the Government forces in flank and rear. Further to the south, Aranda's Corps (Galician) advanced towards Montalban, in a series of turning movements, outflanking the strongly defended Government positions.

The Insurgent advance progressed rapidly and by the 17th the towns of Caspe and Alcaniz, headquarters and supply base, respectively, of the Government's Army of the East (Levant Army), had fallen into Insurgent's hands. The 5th Navarre Division attacked Caspe simultaneously from the east and west and after a bloody hand-to-hand combat, the Government forces retreated, blowing up the bridges across the Ebro. Four days after the capture of Caspe, a general advance started north of the Ebro as far as the Pyrennees and coordinated with further advances south of the river, to prevent the massing of of the Catalonian Army in the Lerida sector.

OPERATIONS NORTH OF THE EBRO.

North of the Ebro, the city of Huesca had been besieged for a long time, the Government forces holding the cemetery and asylum in the outskirts of the city, both located on high ground, from where the highway: Zaragoza - Huesca was swept by Government crossfire.

On 22 March, Solchaga's Galician Corps enveloped the city from the north; the infantry advanced behind a rolling barrage, driving the enemy to the east. Simultaneously, Moscardo's Aragon Corps made contact with General Solchaga's Corps near Tardienta, struck to the east and, by flanking action, captured the fortified position at Sierra Alcubierre.

Source: Military News Around the World. Military Review. June 1938.

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).

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Re: Little notes about the SCW.

Postby tigre » 06 Jan 2015 17:38

Hello to all :D; more follows.................

The Drive to the sea.

CROSSING OF THE EBRO

While the Insurgent northern offensive was moving towards Barbastro, General Franco ordered the reduction of the pocket formed by Solchaga's advance and the earlier advance of the Moroccan Corps south of the river. The maneuver conceived was a double envelopment, from fronts at right angles to each other; one roughly west-east, along the highway Zaragoza - Lerida, the other involving a crossing of the Ebro and an advance north behind the remaining Government positions, south of Sierra Alcubierre. East of the village of Quinto, the left (north) bank of the Ebro was in Government's hands, while the right (south) bank was held by the Insurgents to just beyond Caspe. The Government's left (south) flank rested on the unfordable Ebro, which was in this vicinity, a swift flowing stream swollen by melting snows, at no place less than three hundred feet in width. All bridges had been destroyed.

General Franco assumed personal command of the operations. On the evening of 22 March, the divisions of Generals Barron and Sanchez (Yague's Moroccans), and army cavalry, were assembled near Quinto, carefully concealed from Government observation. On that night, under enemy fire, a force of about one thousand Insurgents crossed the Ebro in small rafts and gained a foothold in the north bank. By three o'clock in the morning, the pontoon companies had completed two bridges and the first infantry columns crossed the river. At dawn, Insurgent artillery and aviation silenced the Government's machine guns posted on the north bank of the river. Spreading out fanwise, after crossing the river, the bridgeheads were gradually widened forcing the enemy to give ground to the east. In two days the entire Moroccan Corps had crossed the Ebro and was pushing northward to cut the road: Zaragoza -Lerida at Bujaraloz. Contact was gained at that point with Moscardo's Corps and the march on Lerida was started. On the 27th, Yague seized the town of Fraga, situated on the steep banks of the Cinca River, where he met stiff resistance. The road to Lerida was now clear.

In the meantime, the Insurgent advance south of the Ebro continued without interruption. The 5th Navarre Division, with its left (north) flank on the south bank of the river, advanced against strong resistance from Caspe toward Gandesa. This town was desperately defended by the International Brigade, but fell on 2 April, by which date the Insurgent spearhead was about 22 miles from the Mediterranean.

Source: Military News Around the World. Military Review. June 1938.

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).

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Re: Little notes about the SCW.

Postby tigre » 10 Jan 2015 13:42

Hello to all :D; more follows.................

The Drive to the sea.

THE CAPTURE OF LERIDA.

After having reached the suburbs of Lerida on 31 March, General Yague proceeded immediately to envelop the city from the west and south. To the east, the lines extended along the Segre River.

The Moroccan Corps (Yague), followed the main road to Barcelona, approached the city from the southwest. The Aragon Corps (Moscardo) on its left, advancing from the northwest, made contact with the Moroccan Corps on 2 April, after cleaning up the Segre River valley. At dawn on the 3d, Moscardo attacked from the northeast, while Yague attacked from the west and southwest. Tanks smashed the Government barricades in the narrow stone streets and the city was captured by the afternoon of the same day. The advance continued along the line of the Segre and Balaguer was captured on the 5th.

Moving Swiftly, the great hydroelectric stations at Tremp, chief source of power for the Government factories in Barcelona, were captured on 7 April by the Navarrese (Solchaga) Corps, while the Aragon Corps (Moscardo), seized the plants at San Lorenzo and Camaresa, rendering a big bow to Catalonia's war industries.

South of the Ebro, Garcia Valino captured Gandesa on 2 April and reached the outskirts of Tortosa by the 3d, where the Insurgent advance has met a stonewall defense. On 15 April, Generals Aranda and Garcia Valino bIasted their way into Vinaroz and the first grand objective of Franco's eastern campaign had been realized. Government Spain had been split in two sections, and all land communication between Catalonia and the rest of Government Spain had been cut off.

Since that date, the coastal wedge has been gradually widened to the south; but Tortosa, at the head of the fertile Ebro Delta, and key city of Southern Catalonia, has proven to be a hard nut to crack and in spite of desperate efforts, is still defiantly in Government's hands. The capture of Tortosa would open the Ebro Valley, which offers ideal terrain for the employment of cavalry and mechanized and motorized forces.

Source: Military News Around the World. Military Review. June 1938.

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
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Re: Little notes about the SCW.

Postby tigre » 14 Jan 2015 14:32

Hello to all :D; more follows.................

The Drive to the sea.

The present offensive has now become a five-pronged fork (figure 4), three drives converging on Barcelona and the other two on Valencia, as follows:

(1) Southeast from the sector near the French border towards Barcelona.
(2) Due east from Lerida.
(3) Up the coastal highway from Tarragona.
(4) South along Vinaroz -Castellon -Valencia.
(5) Southeast along the highway Teruel-Sagunto.

The situation to date finds Franco in complete communication with all his forces in the field, whiIe Government Spain is split into two sections, between which he only possible communication is by sea or air. Insurgent supremacy has rendered intercommunication almost impossible an it is extremely doubtful, therefore, that enough supplies can pass from Barcelona to either Valencia or Madrid, to enable the Government forces to launch a decisive offensive or even to continue successful defensive operations for an indefinite Iength of time.

From the beginning of this war, four European nations have taken more or less active participation: to the Insurgents, both Germany and Italy have given diplomatic support as well as men and materiel. To the Loyalists aid has come from Russia and probably also from France.

The Insurgent advance has been stopped, according to neutral observers, not only by Government superiority of manpower, but also by freshly acquired arms through the French border, including fast tanks and fighting planes. To counteract this move, Franco has sent urgent appeals to Germany and Italy for more men, guns and, planes, for a resumption of his drive into Catalonia.

The Government, utilizing natural defenses, have halted the drives along the Pyrenees and along the Ebro; Franco has shifted his pressure to the southward recently, and is now driving against the key port of Valencia. Should this city fall, Madrid might be reduced without much difficulty. Franco has shown uncanny ability to hit the "soft" spot. Will the next big push be a Teruel-to-the-Sea drive, combined with an offensive down the Mediterranean Coast to Castellon and Valencia?

Source: Military News Around the World. Military Review. June 1938.

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
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Re: Little notes about the SCW.

Postby tigre » 25 Jan 2015 18:38

Hello to all :D; more follows.................

The Drive on Valencia.

The Insurgent spring drive to the sea culminated with the capture of Vinaroz on 15 April thus splitting the Government territory in two sections. The insurgent tried in vain to capture Tortosa, key city on the eastern bank of the Ebro. Franco then decided upon a swift drive with Valencia as the objective, which would not only give him control of the important city, but would, at the same time cut off Madrid lifeline and thus the old capital, isolated and starved, would be forced to surrender.

The Insurgent plan for the drive south of the Teruel – Albocácer line, was based upon the converging movement of two Army Corps to pinch out the salient. On the left the Army Corps of Galicia (General Aranda) moved down the Mediterranean coast toward Castellón and Sagunto. On the right of the Teruel – Albocácer line the Army Corps of Castilla (General Varela) moved along the axis of the Teruel – Sagunto highway. Forming the liaison between the wings the Insurgent Army were various divisions, among them the First of Navarra under García Valino.

The terrain is very mountainous, with very few roads available, a region difficult to traverse even in peace time. The Government forces prepared strong defensives positions taking advantage of the strong terrain.

The drive to Valencia was bitterly contested but the Insurgent were rewarded on June 13 with the capture of Castellón, a seaport of considerable value only 35 miles from Valencia. The Government forces are still offering resistance along the Mijares River.

In the north the Franco’s troops bombarded the Loyalist Lost Division out of its entrenched positions along the French frontier and over 5,000 officers and men fled into France.

Source: Military News Around the World. Military Literature Review. Sep 1938.
Karl Ries & Hans Ring. Legion Condor. 1936-39. Eine Illustrierte Dokumentation.

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
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durb
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Re: Little notes about the SCW.

Postby durb » 25 Jan 2015 21:04

The defence of XYZ line and effectively stopping the Nationalist advance toward Valencia is considered one of the rare Republican military successes of SCW. I do not know if the wiki (=Beevor) is right, but it states that the battles at the XYZ line caused to Nationalists casualties of 20 000 men whereas Republicans lost only 5000. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XYZ_Line

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Re: Little notes about the SCW.

Postby tigre » 28 Jan 2015 16:35

Hello to all :D; more follows.................

The offensive on Gandesa.

Resuming a drive on a front long dormant in the Southwest, the Insurgent forces captured Blasquez and the fertile region surrounding it, (Figure 3) Then suddenly the Government forces, who had been yielding the stubbornly held ground on the south salient of the Insurgent Salient, hurled an unexpected thrust into the North flank of that salient. The Government advance swept forward a dozen miles, and reached the strategic city of Gandesa (Figure 3) taken by the Insurgents last spring after some of the bloodiest fighting of the war. The Government forces, however, were shortly after thrown back from the gates of Gandesa. The Government offensive has relieved Insurgent pressure in the south, temporarily at least, and seems to indicate that the Government forces are still capable of stubborn and effective resistance, that their morale is still high, and that the Insurgents are not likely to win the war before next spring.

Source: Military News Around the World. Military Literature Review. Sep 1938.
Karl Ries & Hans Ring. Legion Condor. 1936-39. Eine Illustrierte Dokumentation.

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
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Re: Little notes about the SCW.

Postby tigre » 20 Mar 2015 15:39

Hello to all :D; more follows.................

The conquest of Catalonia.

After fighting in the Ebro salient last July, the national troops were completely reequipped and reorganized, creating the National Army of Catalonia composed of seven corps as follows:

(1) Catalonia Corps, General Badia commanding (Reserve).
(2) Urgel Corps, General Muñoz Grande commanding.
(3) Maestrago Corps, General Garcia Valino commanding.
(4) Aragon Corps, General Moscardo commanding.
(5) Legionnaire Corps, composed of Italian Littorio Division (binary) and three mixed divisions of Italians and Spaniards, General Gastone Gambara commanding.
(6) Navarra Corps, General Solchaga commanding.
(7) Moroccan Corps, General Yague commanding.

Against this expected offensive, the Republican Army had been building over the last year and a half, a fortified line running through Artesa - Borjas Blancas - Mont-Blanch - Reus the the sea. Additionally, two other positions were organized: Solsona - Igualada - Villafranca del Panadès - Villanueva - Geltru and Berga - Manresa - Llobregat river to the sea. Of these, the Artesa - Borjas Blancas line was the strongest with field fortifications, concrete bunkers, barbed wire barriers, concrete positions bomb-proof and an elaborate system of trenches with a depth of two to seven miles. Particularly strong was also the government's position north of Balaguer, defended by the spurs of Sierra Llarga and the deep banks of the Segre river. However the position Balaguer - Borjas Blancas had an unpardonable weakness, had no switch positions to avoid a flank attack.

The National Headquarter was advanced from Zaragoza to Lerida and the theater was divided into two sectors: north and south of the highway Lerida - Barcelona respectively. The long-delayed offensive was finally launched at dawn on December 23, 1938 with simultaneous attacks on a front of 100 miles from Tremp to Tortosa.

Source: Military News Around the World. Military Literature Review. March 1939.

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
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Re: Little notes about the SCW.

Postby tigre » 23 Mar 2015 06:22

Hello to all :D; more follows.................

The conquest of Catalonia.

After severe fighting, the Aragon Corps smashed through the formidable line of fortifications north of Balaguer, 16 miles Northeast of Lerida. While the Urgel Corps was attacking Artesa from the northeast the Maestrago Corps advanced from the southwest and on 31 December captured the village of Cubells, on the Lerida - Seo de Urgel road, six miles southwest of Artesa. From Cubells, Garcia Valino struck across the mountainous country and worked his way to the rear of Artesa, where he made contact with a division of the Urgel Corps which had succeeded in crossing the Upper Segre and advancing through the Monsech mountain range was enveloping Artesa from the north. By 3 January, the double envelopment of the Artesa fortifications had been completed and while the defenders offered bitter resistance, they were compelled, after a fierce struggle, to abandon the successive lines of trenches and pillboxes. Artesa-the "Key to Catalonia" - was captured the following day.

Cervera a village of 4,000 inhabitants and important road center was captured on 16 January under a concerted attack by the Aragon, and Maestrago Corps from the west and north, respectively. In the southern sector, the Government lines were pierced near Serós in the lower Segre. The Legionnaire Corps advanced against Borjas Blancas from the southeast, but was held up by the obstinate resistance offered by General Lister's Fifth Republican Corps, which delivered several sharp counterattacks. In the meantime, a column of the Navarrese Corps advanced against Borjas Blancas from the south and smashing through the Government defenses on the southern side captured the village of Castello and prepared to envelop Borjas Blancas from the southwest. This turning movement compelled a withdrawal of Lister’s Corps to the east and Borjas Blancas, the keystone of the position, was captured on 4 January. The Legionnaire Corps continued its advance to the southeast along the Lerida-Tarragona highway, enveloped Montblanch from the north, capturing this strategic point on the 11th.

The bulk of the Navarrese Corps advanced on Falset, from the northeast while Yague's Moroccans were also advancing against this town from the southwest. Falset was captured by the Moroccans Corps on the 12th. This town of 8,000 inhabitants near the lead and manganese mines, is in the heart of a road net controlling southern Catalonia. The loss of Falset, within 10 miles from the Mediterranean, threatened to bottle up the Government Army between Tarragona and Tortosa and in order to escape from this trap, the Government forces fell back toward Tarragona. On 13 January, Monasterio's Cavalry Division crossed the Ebro, occupied Tortosa and immediately pushed on to the northeast. Tortosa lies at the head of the Ebro delta, is the chief town of the coastal salient and had held since the Insurgent great drive to the sea last March.

Source: Military News Around the World. Military Literature Review. March 1939.
Italian "Black Arrow" Photo Album - CTV (Corpo Truppe Volontaire) Spanish Civil War - TOP RARE!. Historical Media.
Das Interessante Blatt. 2. Februar 1939

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
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Re: Little notes about the SCW.

Postby tigre » 31 Mar 2015 13:32

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The conquest of Catalonia.

The Navarrese Corps captured the walled town of Valls, key Government air base. The twin drive of this corps from the north and that of the Moroccan Corps from the southwest resulted in the capture of Reus, Government munitions center, situated nine miles west of Tarragona. The concerted action of these two corps resulted also in the capture of Tarragona-second most important city in Catalonia-by the Navarrese Corps 15 January. This completed what has been called the "preliminary" phase of the campaign, during which the Insurgent Army captured the enemy's strongly fortified defensive zone, using the same well tried-out tactics of threatening in front of the fortifications, then outflanking and attacking them vigorously in flank and rear. After 15 January, the Insurgent advance became much more rapid, while the Government Army withdrew from one fortified position to another without risking a decisive battle. By the 22d of January, just one month since the start of the big push, the Insurgent corps; were spread over Catalonia like a giant hand clenching into a fist around Barcelona. Its wrist was in the far north close to the French border, its knuckles at Manresa and Igualada and its fingertips along the coast.

It was expected that the Government Army would make a determined stand on the so-called "mystery line," which extends roughly from Berga to Manresa, thence along the Llobregat River. However no exceptionally strong resistance was encountered along this line and on the 24th the Maestrago Corps captured strategic Manresa, 30 mIles northwest of Barcelona, while on the same day the Navarrese troops captured Martorell, 12 miles west of Barcelona and the Moroccan Corps drove to within seven miles southwest of Barcelona, reaching Gava, the last ramparts of the Government's coastal defenses. It was evident that by this time the Government defense had collapsed.

Source: Military News Around the World. Military Literature Review. March 1939.
Das Interessante Blatt. 2. Februar 1939

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
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Re: Little notes about the SCW.

Postby tigre » 03 Apr 2015 01:34

Hello to all :D; more follows.................

The conquest of Catalonia.

The final drive against Barcelona was carried out from two directions: west and north. On the west Yague’s Moroccan troops who has been waiting on the right bank of the Llobregat river, received their orders at dawn of the 26th. Three divisions pushed across the river, captured the hill of Montjuich which dominates the harbor area. The Navarrese Corps had scales the slopes of the Tibidabo heights (1,900 feet) overlooking the city from the northwest and pressing down its suburban slopes had entered the suburb of Gracia. The Legionnaire Corps advanced from the northwest. White flags and Insurgent colors were observed all over the Capitol and shortly after two o’clock in the afternoon the Insurgent made their triumphal entry into the city without having fired a shot, gaining the greatest prize of the war.

Three picked units which had seen some of the most savage fighting of the war-the Navarrese Army Corps, the Moroccan Legionnaires and an Italian black shirt "arrow" division-were given the honor of leading the entry into Barcelona, receiving-a tumultuous welcome from the half-starved population of 1,500,000.

The Government Army, now in disorderly retreat proceeded to the north; but Franco was not satisfied to rest on his victory Accordingly, he immediately set his forces in pursuit of the enemy before It could organize new lines for the defense of northern Barcelona Province. The Navarrese and Legionnaire Corps; moved upon Granollers, key to railroads and highways leading to the French border; the Moroccan Corps pushed rapidly along the seacoast, while the Aragon and Maestrago Corps advanced upon Berga and Vich respectively. The retreat was now a complete rout and ended with the complete occupation of Catalonia by the Insurgent Army on 10 February.

Source: Military News Around the World. Military Literature Review. March 1939.
Das Interessante Blatt. 2. Februar 1939
Italian "Black Arrow" Photo Album - CTV (Corpo Truppe Volontaire) Spanish Civil War - TOP RARE!. Historical Media.

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
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Postby tigre » 06 Apr 2015 13:24

Hello to all :D; last part.................

The Capitulation of Madrid.

Madrid capitulated on 28 March 1939. Not a shot was fired, although the capital had held out most tenaciously for two years, four months and twenty one days and its defense will go down in history as one of the most heroically defended sieges of all times. The city was the symbol of Republican resistance; with its fall, hostilities were suspended and this bloody civil strife, comparable to the French Revolution and the American Civil War, came to an end. After the conquest of Catalonia, the defeat of Government Spain seemed certain. The capture of Barcelona, Spain's greatest industrial city last 26 January, was Franco's most spectacular triumph, and marked the preface of the Loyalist collapse. Cleaning up quickly the province of Catalonia and forcing some 250,000 Republican troops and thousands of civilians across the border into France in one of the greatest mass flights in history, General Franco massed his triumphal forces around Madrid and Valencia and that small area of Central Spain that was still held by the Government.

Negotiations were soon reported under way for an armistice. On 27 February, the governments of Great Britain and France formally recognized the Franco regime as the government of Spain. Most of the members of the Republican cabinet abandoned the Country, fleeing by airplane to France. Madrid, once again the capital of what was left of the Republic, was turned over to General Jose Miaja and other military chieftains who on 6 March had overthrown the tottering regime of Premier Juan Negrin. General Segismundo Casado, who had been commander of the People's Army and who headed the new government temporarily untill Miaja's selection, was made Minister of National Defense. The new Junta which took charge of Madrid had to suppress immediately a strong Communist revolt, which was finally broken after severe street fighting. Negotiations were started at once for a "peace with honors," to which Franco replied: "Unconditional surrender."

Pending peace negotiations, Generalissimo Franco held back his armies which were all poised for attacks on Madrid and Valencia, chief port of the one-fourth of Spain still under Republican rule. After considerable delay due to failure to agree on peace terms, Franco launched an offensive on 27 March in an effort to expedite the inevitable end of the war. One wing of the Nationalist Central Army under General Garcia Valino, struck northeastward from Toledo shattering Madrid's southern defenses. Another drive, on the Estremadura Front, striking out from Cordoba captured the Almaden mercury mines with hardly any resistance. The surrender of Madrid on 28 March was followed by that of the nine provincial capitals on the 29th: Valencia, Alicante, Murcia, Cuenca, Jaen, Ciudad Real, Almeria, Guadalajara and Albacete. Cartagena, Republican Naval Base, also capitulated. After the fall of Albacete, the Nationalists officially announced the war was over in these words: "The war has ended-total victory is Franco's."

In the meantime, the Republican fleet had surrendered on 19 March to the French authorities at the port of Bizerte, the great French North African Naval Base. This event recalls the last chapter of the Russian Civil War in 1920, when the armies of General Baron Peter Wrangel were forced to evacuate Crimea. Wrangel's Russian Fleet of some thirty-eight warships took refuge in Bizerte to become a bone of contention between the French and Soviet authorities.

Source: Military News Around the World. Military Literature Review. March 1939.
Italian "Black Arrow" Photo Album - CTV (Corpo Truppe Volontaire) Spanish Civil War - TOP RARE!. Historical Media.

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
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Re: Little notes about the SCW.

Postby Ironmachine » 06 Apr 2015 18:06

Not a shot was fired, although the capital had held out most tenaciously for two years, four months and twenty one days and its defense will go down in history as one of the most heroically defended sieges of all times.

Well, just to put things in perspective it should be noted that since December 1936 there were no more direct attacks against Madrid, and since March 1937 there were no more attempts to surround the city, which was never cut off from the rest of the Republican territory (so technically it was not a siege, was it?).

the Nationalists officially announced the war was over in these words: "The war has ended-total victory is Franco's."

To be presented as a quote (given the " signs used), this is a very liberal interpretation of the last National dispatch of the war, which said: "En el día de hoy, cautivo y desarmado el Ejército rojo, han alcanzado las tropas Nacionales sus últimos objetivos militares. La guerra ha terminado". Which can be translated as: "On this day, captive and disarmed the Red Army, the National troops have reached their last military objectives. The war is over".


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