The Sino-Japanese War(Campaigns in detail)

Discussions on all aspects of China, from the beginning of the First Sino-Japanese War till the end of the Chinese Civil War. Hosted by YC Chen.
User avatar
tigre
Member
Posts: 7549
Joined: 20 Mar 2005 11:48
Location: Argentina

Pakhoi and Nanning

Post by tigre » 21 May 2006 06:10

Hello asiaticus, here goes what I've next.

OCCUPATION OF PAKHOI AND NANNING.

Early in the morning of 15 November 1939, picked Japanese military and naval units effected a successful surprise landing near Pakhoi, at Lungmen Island, and on the eastern shore of chinghow Bay, under the protection of the guns of the Japanese Naval Squadron in South China.

After cleaning up local resistance, the invaders occupied the port of Pakhoi, and drove inward capturing Fangcheng on the 15th, Yamhshien on the 17th and Nanning On the 24th.
The Chinese claim that their plan never contemplated stiff resistanee along the coast where the Japanese enjoyed the meat advantage of protection afforded by their naval armament, and that accordingly they withdrew to the north where the mountainous country between Kwantung and Kwansi Provinces offers excellent defensive lines. The ease with which the Japanese occupied Nanning was disappointing tn the sympathizers of the Chinese cause; however, the Invasion of Kwangsi Province is viewed by the Chinese General Staff as another chance to tie up a considerable enemy force.

Pakhoi was opened to foreign trade in 1876 under the Anglo-Chinese Chefoo Treaty. At that time, its trade prospered, but declined as the local center of commerce was gradually shifted to Haiphong. The city has a population of about 65,000 and the foreign residents number but a mere dozen. Since June 1939, when Swatoiv and other ports were occupied by the Japanese, Pakhoi’s import and export trade suddenly increased as it was practically the only seaport through which Free China received arms, munitions and oil. With the capture of Pakhoi all the important sea-ports of South China have been either occupied or cut off by the Japanese and the minor ports may be considered either lost or useless, Thus the Latest Japanese operation will tighten the bkockade and for the remainder of the war China will have to rely chiefly upon overland communications for provisions of supplies and war materials.

Since the occupation of Nanning, the Japanese forces have engaged in two strong offensives thrusts ill South China, both of them designed against the Chinese lines of communication.

The occupation of Nanning cut a Chinese line of supply along the highways from French Indo-China into Kwansi Province. The railway from Indo-China into Yunnan Province, however, lies much further inland. From Nanning Japanese planes are able to bomb this railroad with greater facility, despite obstacles imposed by distance and high mountains. In fact, this railroad was damaged by raids early in January, leading to a French protest which was rejected by the Japanese authorities. It is doubtful whether bombing raids can entirely cripple this railwal, although it may be closed through Japanese pressure on French authorities. The new Burma-Yunnan highway is so far inland as to be virtually impregnable it can be closed only if Britain succumbs to Japanese pressure.

The second Japanese offensive-northward of Canton has resulted in a Chinese military victory, as crushing as that registered last fall at Chansha. These two campaigns bear strikins similarities. In both cases, the Japanese forces’ were seeking to extend their control over the Canton-Hankow Railway. Except for limited areas around Hankow and, Canton, Chinese armies hold the intervening 400-mile stretch of this important railway. In September, the Japanese command struck at Changsha and failed; in December the attack was shifted to the southern end of the line. By late December the Japanese forces had advanced 80 to 100 miles from Canton into Kwantung Province. Chinese counterattacks not only halted the advancing Japanese columns, but forced them to retreat and by the middle of January the Chinese forces had fought back to within twenty-five miles of Canton where they are pressing hard on the retreating, Japanese troops.

GUERRILLA ACTIVITIES.

Chinese guerrillas continue their activities and are proving to be a thorn in the side of the Japanese military machine.
In the Shanghai-Nanking-Hanchow triangle, the operations of China’s mobile forces continue to make life miserable for the invaders, while fighting is prevalent in every province of occupied China. The Japanese troops are scattered over such a large area and their lines of communication and supply are so extended that, even if the guerrillas may never actually Win the war, their hit-and-run tactics are keeping a large number of Japanese troops back from the front lines to guard the supply routes.

Source: The Sino-Japanese War. Lt Col E, M. BENITEZ Coast Artillery Corps. C.& G.S.S. Military Review Vol XX Nº 76.

I hope you can complement this article as usual. Cheers. Tigre.
You do not have the required permissions to view the files attached to this post.

User avatar
asiaticus
Member
Posts: 923
Joined: 03 Mar 2004 04:53
Location: Lake Elsinore CA USA

Orbat for Southern Kuangsi Campaign

Post by asiaticus » 21 May 2006 22:51

Here is what I have for the orbat for both sides of the Southern Kuangsi Campaign (Mid November 1939 - Late Feb. 1940)
Need to find some comanders names and


Japan

21st Army - Gen. Seiichi Kuno [1, 2]
- 5th Division - Lt. Gen. Kinichi Imamura [1]
--9th Infantry Brigade
---11th Infantry Regiment
---41st Infantry Regiment
--21st Infantry Brigade
---21st Infantry Regiment
---42nd Infantry Regiment
-- 5th Mountain Artillery Regiment
-- 5th Cavalry Regiment
-- 5th Engineer Regiment
-- 5th Transport Regiment

- 23rd or 35th? Brigade / 18th Division - Gen. ? [1]
-- Composition with elements of support units?
---18th Mountain Artillery Regiment
---22nd Cavalry Battalion
---12th Engineer Regiment
---12th Transport Regiment

- Taiwan Composite Brigade -?[1]
Should be:
- Taiwan Mixed Brigade[2]
-- 1st Taiwan infantry regiments,
-- 2nd Taiwan infantry regiments,
-- Taiwan artillery regiment
-- Taiwan military engineer regiment

- Konoye Divison ?- [1](Should be the detached Guards Mixed Brigade)
- Guards Mixed Brigade - ? [4]
-- 1st Guards Infantry Regiment
-- 2nd Guards Infantry Regiment
-- Guards Cavalry Regiment
And elements of(half of each?):
-- Guards Field Artillery Regiment
-- Guards Engineer Regiment
-- Guards Transport Regiment

- Marine Brigade -? [1]
-- Composition?

Army Airforce:
- 21st Independent Aviation Corps, IJA [2,3]
--Independent 82nd Dokuritsu Hiko Chutai [S. China] - ?
--- ? Light bomber squadron.(reconnaissance aircraft)
--Independent 84th Dokuritsu Hiko Chutai [Canton] - Captain Magoji Hara
--- ? Nakajima Ki-27(fighter aircraft)


Navy Airforce:
- 5th Fleet - Adm. ? [1,3]
-- Akagi [southern China] (end/04/39 – middle/02/40)
--- Fighter Daitai - Mitsubishi A5M
--- Bomber Daitai - Aichi D1A2
--- Attack Daitai - Yokosuka B4Y1

-- 14th Kokutai, IJN [ based in Nanning from late 12/39] - ?
--- Fighter Daitai -13 Mitsubishi A5M

- total 100 planes [1]

Notes:
Initial landing and advance to Nanning by 5th Division and Taiwan Mixed Brigade. Guards Mixed Brigade and a Brigade of the 18th Divison were sent as reinforcments in January 1940. [1]


China
Generalissimo's HQ in Kweilin - Pai Chung-hsi [1]
- 16th Army Group - Wei Yun-sun *
-- 31st Corps - Wei Yun-sun
--- 131st Divison
--- 135th Divison
--- 188th Divison
-- 46th Corps - Ho Hsuan
--- 170th Divison
--- 175th Divison
--- New 19th Divison
- 26th Army Group - Tsai Ting-kai *
-- 1st Sep. Inf. Regts.
-- 2nd Sep. Inf. Regts.
-- 3rd Sep. Inf. Regts.
-- 4th Sep. Inf. Regts.
-35th Army Group - Teng Lung-kuang
-- 64th corps - Chen Kung-hsia
--- 155th Divison
--- 156th Divsion
- 37th Army Group - Yeh Chao
-- 66th corps - Yeh Chao
--- 159th Divison
--- 160th Divsion
- 38th Army Group - Hsu Ting-yao
-- 2nd Corps - Li Yen-nien
--- 9th Divison
--- 76th Divsion
-- 5th Corps - Tu Yu-ming
--- 200th Divison (Mechanized Division) - ***
----Armored vehicle regiment (50 BA type armored cars)
----Armored regiment (70 T-26, 4 BT-5, 18-20 CV-33 tanks)
----Motorized Infantry regiment(with Soviet trucks and machineguns)
----Motorized Artillery regiment(122mm howitzers, 75mm field guns and 45mm ATguns)
--- New 22nd Divsion
--- 1st Honor Divison
-- 9th Corps - Kan Li-chu
--- 49th Divison
--- 93rd Divison
--- 2nd Reserve Divsion
-- 99th Corps - Fu Chung-fang
--- 92nd Divison
--- 99th Divison
--- 118th Divsion
-- 36th Corps - Yao Chuen
--- 5th Divison
--- 96th Divison
- 43rd Division
- New 3rd Division
- Kwangsi Pacification HQ
- Artillery Detachment

Air Forces: **
- C A F 2nd Route Force [3] - Colonel Chang Ting-Meng
-- 100 planes [1]
-- 115 planes [3]
--3rd Pursuit Group - Huang Pantang
--- 7th Pursuit Squadron - Lu Tian-Long
---- Polikarpov I-
--- 8th Pursuit Squadron -
---- Polikarpov I-
--- 27th Pursuit Squadron -
---- Gloster Gladiator Mk.I, Polikarpov I-
--- 29th Pursuit Squadron -
---- Gloster Gladiator Mk.I, Polikarpov I-
--- 32nd Pursuit Squadron - Wei Yi-Ging
---- Gloster Gladiator Mk.I, Polikarpov I-15bis

--4th Pursuit Group - Liu Chi-Han
--- 21st Pursuit Squadron - Lo Ying-Teh
---- Polikarpov I-15bis -
--- 22nd Pursuit Squadron - Cheng Hsiao-Yu
---- Polikarpov I-15bis -
--- 23rd Pursuit Squadron - ?
---- Polikarpov I-15bis -
--- 24th Pursuit Squadron - Su Xian-Ren
---- Polikarpov I-16

-- 5th Pursuit Group ?
--- 17th Pursuit Squadron - Captain Shen Tse-Liu
---- Polikarpov I-15bis, Dewoitine D.510
--- 26th Pursuit Squadron - ?
---- Polikarpov I-16
--- 28th Pursuit Squadron - Major Louie Yim-Qun
---- Polikarpov I-15bis
--- 29th Pursuit Squadron - Captain Ma Kwok-Lim
---- Polikarpov I-15bis

-- 6th Bomber Group - ?
---19th Bomber Squadron - ?
---- Tupolev SB

--18th Pursuit Squadron - Tang Boshen
--- Curtiss Hawk III, Curtiss Hawk 75

-- Soviet Suprun Group - K. K. Kokkinaki
--- Polikarpov I-16

Notes:
* 16th Army Group and 26th Army Group were original defenders of Kwangsi. Other units were reinforcements which gradually arrived from Hunan, Kwangtung, and Szechuan. [1]

**On 18 December the Chinese launched a successful counter-offensive against the Japanese in the Kwangsi Province. To support the Chinese Kwangsi-offensive and direct the air-units the more experienced 1st ARC (Colonel Chang Ting-Meng) temporarily replaced the 2nd ARC (Colonel Hsing Chan-Fei) at Liuchou, with the 2nd ARC moving to rear positions at Kwei-Lin.

Taking part in the offensive were 115 aircraft of the 3rd, 4th and 5th PGs, 6th BG, 18th PS and one of the Soviet groups. [3]

*** Organization from post on China Defense forum Posted: Sep 3 2005, 12:56 PM . Based on the recollections of 200th Division commander Du Yuming/Tu Yu-ming:

1938年1月15日,装甲兵团正式扩编为第200师,师长杜聿明,副师长邱清泉。从番号上看,200师本身就与众不同,因战前国民革命军的番号只编到102师。200师是国民革命军中唯一的机械化部队,下辖一个战车团,一个装甲团,一个摩托化步兵团,一个炮兵团。据杜聿明回忆,200师共接收70辆T-26、4辆BT-5、18辆菲亚特CV-33(有资料称是20辆,是1934年孔祥熙到意大利考察航空时采购,一直封存在南昌,这时匆匆编入了200师)。装甲团有苏联的BAE系列装甲车50余辆。摩托化步兵团装备的也是苏联卡车。炮兵团有12门122榴弹炮,还有45毫米战防炮,75毫米野战炮。步兵使用的是苏联步机枪。看来国军在美械化之前还进行过苏械化。

Sources:
[1] Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) 2nd Ed. ,1971. Translated by Wen Ha-hsiung , Chung Wu Publishing; 33, 140th Lane, Tung-hwa Street, Taipei, Taiwan Republic of China.

[2] IJA in China orbat, 1937 to 1945, http://www.china-defense.com/forum/show ... php?t=1168

[3] Sino-Japanese Air War 1937-45 http://surfcity.kund.dalnet.se/sino-japanese.htm

[4] Japanese Imperial Guards, wikipedia page, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_Imperial_Guards

User avatar
Akira Takizawa
Member
Posts: 2779
Joined: 26 Feb 2006 17:37
Location: Japan

Re: Orbat for Southern Kuangsi Campaign

Post by Akira Takizawa » 22 May 2006 07:06

21st Army - Lt. Gen. Rikichi Ando
- 5th Division - Lt. Gen. Hitoshi Imamura [1]
--9th Infantry Brigade
---11th Infantry Regiment
---41st Infantry Regiment
--21st Infantry Brigade
---21st Infantry Regiment
---42nd Infantry Regiment
-- 5th Mountain Artillery Regiment
-- 5th Cavalry Regiment
-- 5th Engineer Regiment
-- 5th Transport Regiment

- 23rd or 35th? Brigade / 18th Division - Lt. Gen. Seiichi Kuno
-- Composition with elements of support units?
---18th Mountain Artillery Regiment
---22nd Cavalry Battalion
---12th Engineer Regiment
---12th Transport Regiment

- Taiwan Composite Brigade -?[1]
Should be:
- Taiwan Mixed Brigade - Major Gen. Sadaichi Shioda
-- 1st Taiwan infantry regiments,
-- 2nd Taiwan infantry regiments,
-- Taiwan artillery regiment
-- Taiwan military engineer regiment

- Konoye Divison ?- [1](Should be the detached Guards Mixed Brigade)
- Guards Mixed Brigade - Major Gen. Takeshi Sakurada
-- 1st Guards Infantry Regiment
-- 2nd Guards Infantry Regiment
-- Guards Cavalry Regiment
And elements of(half of each?):
-- Guards Field Artillery Regiment
-- Guards Engineer Regiment
-- Guards Transport Regiment


- Marine Brigade -? [1]
-- Composition?
No Navy landing force

Army Airforce:
- 21st Independent Aviation Corps, IJA [2,3]
--Independent 82nd Dokuritsu Hiko Chutai [S. China] - ?
--- ? Light bomber squadron.(reconnaissance aircraft)
--Independent 84th Dokuritsu Hiko Chutai [Canton] - Captain Magoji Hara
--- ? Nakajima Ki-27(fighter aircraft)


Navy Airforce:
- 5th Fleet - Adm. Nobutake Kondo


Taki

User avatar
asiaticus
Member
Posts: 923
Joined: 03 Mar 2004 04:53
Location: Lake Elsinore CA USA

Re: Orbat for Southern Kuangsi Campaign

Post by asiaticus » 23 May 2006 09:43

Taki

Thanks for the corrections.

Any idea which Brigade of the 18th division was sent there?

No Marines at all? I wonder if they mistook the Taiwan unit for marines. They were pretty practiced at landings by this time since their first near Shanghai in 1937 and the later ones up the Yangtze in 1938, and Hinan Island earlier in 1939.

User avatar
asiaticus
Member
Posts: 923
Joined: 03 Mar 2004 04:53
Location: Lake Elsinore CA USA

Map of battles around Nanning

Post by asiaticus » 24 May 2006 05:19

Map of battles around Nanning from Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War

Notice the note mentions a 28th Division (wasnt there) in the INA forces and IDs the Guard Brigade as a Division.
I think this might have been a mistake of 38th division that joined 21st Army 10/2/39. If this note is correct perhaps the reinforcement Brigade of 18th Division was the 23rd Infantry Brigade.
You do not have the required permissions to view the files attached to this post.

User avatar
asiaticus
Member
Posts: 923
Joined: 03 Mar 2004 04:53
Location: Lake Elsinore CA USA

Nanning area topo map

Post by asiaticus » 24 May 2006 05:36

Here is an Expedia topo map of the Nanning area to show the kind of elevations in the area. Looking on Google Earth these mountains even today are covered in woods.
You do not have the required permissions to view the files attached to this post.

User avatar
Akira Takizawa
Member
Posts: 2779
Joined: 26 Feb 2006 17:37
Location: Japan

Re: Orbat for Southern Kuangsi Campaign

Post by Akira Takizawa » 24 May 2006 10:11

> Any idea which Brigade of the 18th division was sent there?

Both brigades

> No Marines at all?

Following is the IJN OOB of the Nanning Operation.

5th Fleet
2nd Air Sentai
11th Destroyer Group
Kamikawa Maru, Chiyoda
3rd Combined Air Unit

As you can see, there is no landing force. In the history above posted, the occupation of Pakhoi by Japanese naval force is mentioned. But, I cannot find such a fact in any Japanese source. I think that that history mistakes.


Taki

User avatar
asiaticus
Member
Posts: 923
Joined: 03 Mar 2004 04:53
Location: Lake Elsinore CA USA

Re: Orbat for Southern Kuangsi Campaign

Post by asiaticus » 25 May 2006 11:06

Ok, Taki, intesting. Thanks for the Naval list too.

Hmm the whole 18th division sent to Nanning or was some of it left behind?

I have been doing some reading and it seems the 21st Army had some trouble going on north and east of Canton at the same time that winter. Sending the Guards and the whole 18th Divison would have left them with only 104th and 38th Divison and perhaps some of the support units they brought when they first landed earlier.

As to that do you know if the 21st army still had any of those support units at Canton or more importantly with the force in Kwangzi at the end of 1939 or early 1940?

Forces directly under 21st army: Oct.12 - Dec.1938
- 3rd Independent machine gun battalions
- 16th Independent machine gun battalions
- 21st Independent machine gun battalions
- 1st Independent light armored car battalions
- 51st Independent light armored car battalions
- 52nd Independent light armored car battalions
- 111th mountain artillery regiment
- 10th independent mountain artillery regiment
- 2nd Mortar battalions
- 21st Mortar battalions
-11th independent heavy siege artillery battalion
- 1st, Independent heavy mortar battalions
- 2nd Independent heavy mortar battalions
- 1st independent balloon squadron
- 15th independent military engineer regiment
-1st field operation heavy artillery brigade
- 8th signal communication unit
- 6th field operation weather service
- 3rd field operation survey group
- 8 batteries Field anti-aircraft guns

User avatar
Akira Takizawa
Member
Posts: 2779
Joined: 26 Feb 2006 17:37
Location: Japan

Re: Orbat for Southern Kuangsi Campaign

Post by Akira Takizawa » 25 May 2006 16:05

> Hmm the whole 18th division sent to Nanning or was some of it left behind?

Whole division was sent.

> As to that do you know if the 21st army still had any of those support units at Canton or more importantly with the force in Kwangzi at the end of 1939 or early 1940?

I don't have the detailed OOB in that period.


Taki

User avatar
tigre
Member
Posts: 7549
Joined: 20 Mar 2005 11:48
Location: Argentina

Pakhoi

Post by tigre » 25 May 2006 17:11

Hello folks.

Taki, however the article mentioned Military and Naval units, but did not mentions any landing force specifically, perhaps it means that the army units landed with the support (Naval/Aerial fire or ship to shore movement) furnished by Naval units (war ships). Cheers. Tigre.

User avatar
asiaticus
Member
Posts: 923
Joined: 03 Mar 2004 04:53
Location: Lake Elsinore CA USA

Summary of the Southern Kuangsi Campaign, Part1

Post by asiaticus » 25 May 2006 20:48

Here is a summary of the events of Southern Kuangsi Campaign based mostly on Hsu Long-hsuen , History of The Sino-Japanese War.

Map references in [ ] refer to current locatiion names.

Expedia site, http://www.expedia.com/pub/agent.dll?qscr=mmfn allows you to get a good local map of the area. Use Nanning China and zoom in and move the map around for understandng the details of the article.

I have divided the article in two parts one covers 11/39-1/39 the second to 11/40 when Nanning was evacuated. I will also cover events in the Canton area and Indochina that effected this campaign.

Please let me know of any errors, corrections needed, conflicts with other sources or additonal info. This ia a attempt to gather info and understand events in this campaign.

Thanks asiaticus

--------------------------

Summary of the Southern Kuangsi Campaign (Mid November 1939 - Late November 1940)

Part1


Prelude
After the Japanse captured Hainan Island following landings in February 1939. They made it into a forward airbase for operations in Southern China especilally bombing the highway from French Indochina to Nanning and the railroad to Yunan in an effort to cut China's lines of communication to the outside world. It was also used as a naval base to blockade the southern coast of China. With the beginning of hostilities in Europe the Japanese believed the French and British were in no position to prevent them from cuttiing those communications and ordered an operation to capture Nanning to cut the highway from Indochina. The 5th Divison was returned to 21st Army from North China in mid October and with the Taiwan Mixed Brigade was readied for the operation at Haikou on Hainan Island. In early November the 5th Fleet with the carrier Kaga arrived to cover the landings and provide air support. A reconnaisance and bombing campaign was directed at major cities in Kwangsi in preperation for the operation.

Chinese Defense
16th Army Group and 26th Army Group were original defenders of Kwangsi under the command of the Generalissimo's HQ in Kweilin. 16th Army Group's 46th Corps was to defend the coast from Fangcheng to Chin Hsien[Yamhshien[2], Qinzhow], Ho-pu, and Lien-chiang. 31st Corps was to prepare postions on the Hsi [Xi] River and sabotage communications in hope of offering gradual resistance to the Japanese advance and fight a decisive action on the Yung River near Nanning. [1]

Japanese Landings and advance on Nanning
Initial landing and advance to Nanning by 5th Division and Taiwan Mixed Brigade was under the command of the 5th Division commander Lt. Gen. Hitoshi Imamura. A forced landing was made on the western shore[1] at Longmen[2] and across the narrow neck of the of Chin-chow Bay [Qinzhow Wan] on its eastern shore[2] and east of the port of Pakhoi[Beihai][2] near Qusha[Guchengling][5]. Naval gunfire and aircraft from 5th Fleet supported the landings.

After cleaning up local resistance, the invaders occupied the port of Pakhoi, and drove inward capturing Fangcheng on the 15th, Chin Hsien[1] [Yamhshien[2], Qinzhow] on the 17th. [2]

After taking Chin Hsien [Yamhshien[2], Qinzhow] the 5th Division moved north on the Yung-Chin highway (Yung-ning [Nanning]- Chin Hsien[Qinzhow]), while the Taiwan Brigade passed up the Hsiao-tung[Xiaodong]-Pai-chi[Baiji]- Pu-chin [Yongning]road.

After being driven back the New 19th Division and other units of 16th withdrew northeast to the mountainous areas of Pan-cheng[Ban cheng] and northwest to Shang-sze[Siyang].[1] The balance of 16th Group Army fell back to a line between Shihtzukou and Nawu. Then back to defend the line of the Yung River.


By Nov. 21st the Japanese columns reached the south bank of the Yung River. Taiwan Brigade at Pu-chin [Yongning] and Liang-ching, 5th Divison across from Nanning and Shihfu [Shibu]. They faced elements of 16th Group Army on the far bank of the Yung River.

On November 22nd the Chinese 135th Division , 170th Divison/46th Corps and elements of the 200th Divison raced to the vicinity of Nanning, Lao-tu-kao and Sze-tang[Sitang] as reinforcements.

On November 23rd the Japanese [Taiwan Brigade?] made a forced crossing of the Yung River west of Nanning and captured Sze-tang [Sitang] on the Nanning - Pinyang highway. 5th Division crossed also to the south and west of Nanning (details unknown).

On November 24th Nanning fell. Chinese forces fell back along the highway to Wuming to Kao-feng-yi (location seems to be a pass through the mountains north of the city), while the rest fell back to Pai-tang and Kun-lun-kuan [Kunlun Pass] along the Nanning - Pinyang highway.

Heavy fighting went on until December 1st when Kao-feng-yi fell. When on the 4th, Kun-lun-kuan [Kunlun Pass] was captured, the Japanese then went on the defensive.


Chinese Counter Offensive Plan
During the Japanese invasion, reinforcement units gradually arrived from Hunan, Kwangtung, and Szechuan. The Chinese began preparing a counter offensive plan, organizing four operational forces with the following missions.

West Route Force
-1st Column
-- 170th Division
-- 135th Division
Attack enemy at Kao-feng-yi. Operate in Sze-tang[Sitang] and Wu-tang and assist the North Route Force in enveloping and destroying the enemy at Kun-lun-kuan. Later it will launch the attack northwest of Nanning.

- 2nd Column
-- 31st Corps - Wei Yun-sun
--- 131st Divison
--- 188th Divison
Mass in the vicinity of Suhsu [Suxu] and attack the enemy at Ta-tang [Datang], Wu-tsun [Wuxu] and Nanning. Ensure the occupation of Wu-tsun [Wuxu] and Ting-tsu-hsu [Tingzi]. Advance north on the Yung-Chin highway would be blocked at Wuxu as would escape south from Nanning be blocked by the capture of Tingzi the town on the south side of the Yung River from Nanning.


Northern Route Force
- 5th Corps / 38th Army Group
-- 200th Division (mechanized)
-- New 22nd Divsion
-- 1st Honor Divison ?
Move from Pin-yang to attack the enemy at Kun-lun-kuan. Later it will operate near Nanning and assist the East and West Route force in an enveloping attack against Nanning.

- 99th Division (from 99th Corps)
Move to Ling-li-hsu [Lingli] to attack Chi-tang [Qitang]. Coordinate with 5th Corps in enveloping and destroying enemy forces in the vicinity of the Kun-lun-kuan [Kunlun Pass]. Later move along the Yung-Pin (Nanning-Pinyang) highway to the high ground south of Wu-tang* and attack the enemy at Pu-chin [Pu-miao,Yongning], Chien-tze-su [Changtang], and Liang-ching[Liangqing] to prevent the enemy from moving north (across the Yung River).
* A line of low wooded hills runs south of the the Yung-Pin highway and north of the Yung river between the pass and Wutang. A road runs NE through it from Lingli to Qitang.

East Route Force
- 46th Corps /16th Army Group - Ho Hsuan
-- 175th Divison
-- New 19th Divison
- 3rd Advance Column
Operating from Lingshan - Luwu base area, join with local forces to destroy traffic and signal communications to the west along the Yung Chin highway so as to prevent the enemy sending reinforcements.

- 66th Corps/37th Army Group - Yeh Chao
-- 159th Divison
-- 160th Division
Operate toward Kantang crossing the river between Yung-chun and Nan-hsiang to attack the enemy east of the Yung-Chin highway to cut off traffic and commuications to prevent enemy from moving reinforcements north.

99th Corps - Fu Chung-fang
- 92nd Divison
- 118th Divsion
Held as a general resevere at Pinyang.

Additionally to support the Kwangsi-offensive and direct the air-units of the more experienced 1st ARC (Colonel Chang Ting-Meng) temporarily replaced the 2nd ARC (Colonel Hsing Chan-Fei) at Liuchou, with the 2nd ARC moving to rear positions at Kwei-Lin. Taking part in the offensive were 115 aircraft of the 3rd, 4th and 5th Pursuit Groups, 6th Bomber Group, 18th Pursuit Squadron and the Soviet Suprun Group. These squadrons were equipped with Soviet Polikarpov I-15bis and I-16 fighters and Tupolev SB bombers. [4]

Chinese Counteroffensive, Battle Of Kunlunguan Pass
On December 18 the Chinese launched their counter-offensive against the Japanese with their air force in direct support. Kun-lun-kuan and Chiu-tang [Jiutang] fell the same day and Kao-feng-yi the following day. On the 20th the Japanese reinforced and counterattacked, recovering all that had been lost.

New 22nd Division and 92nd Division continued to intercept enemy reinforcements between Wu-tang and Patang[?] on the Yang-Pin highway. Disregarding heavy losses the Japanese poured reinforcements into Kun-lun-kuan by airlifting replacements, rations and ammunition in an attempt to hold it.

After December 25th, the 159th Division was brought north from 66th Corps and committed to an attack on the high ground northeast of Kun-lun-kuan. Close coordination of combined arms permitted the capture of this dominating high ground. Chinese aircraft bombed and strafed Japanese troops at Chitang [Qitang] and Pa-tang[?]. They also provided close air support to ground combat units and inflicted heavy casualties on the enemy. Infantry, mountain guns and 15 tanks from 200th Division were said to have been involved in this battle.[6]

Heavy fighting lasted until December 31st when elements of 22nd New Divison and 159th Division of East Route Force finally captured Kun-lun-kuan and Tien-yin wiping out 8000 Japanese troops including the comander of the 12th Brigade/5th Division,[Gen. Nakamura?].[1]

Meanwhile 1st Column of West Route Force attacked the enemy at Kao-feng-yi making some gains. After routing an enemy force fleeing to Lu-wu , 46th Corps of the East Route Force relentlessly attacked along the Yung - Chin highway, exhausting the enemy and causing heavy attrition.

Immediately before the Chinese offensive was launched the Japanese 5th Division send a portion of its force[ units?] to seize Lung-chow to the west. Ariving on the 17th of December the city was captured on the 21st after driving the defending militia out of the city. The returning force was intercepted by the 2nd Column of the West Route force. Over 1000 enemy soldiers were killed and the rest fled to Nanning.

On January 4th, 1940 when Chitang [Qitang] had been recovered the enemy retreated to Pa-tang[?] to defend key terrain. Due to heavy casualties the Chinese forces underwent replentishment prior to renewing the offensive.

Sources:
[1] Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) 2nd Ed. ,1971. Translated by Wen Ha-hsiung , Chung Wu Publishing; 33, 140th Lane, Tung-hwa Street, Taipei, Taiwan Republic of China.

Pg. 311-318
Map 18

[3] IJA in China orbat, 1937 to 1945
http://www.china-defense.com/forum/show ... php?t=1168

21st Army (formed Sept. 19 1938)
- 5th Division to N. China 11/38, returned 10/16/39
- 18th Division
- 104th Division
- 38th division, Assigned 10/2/39
- Taiwan mixed brigade, Assigned 1/39
- Hainan Island dispatch army, Assigned 7/39
- 近卫 [Imperial Guard] Mixed brigade, Assigned 11/15/39

[4] Sino-Japanese Air War 1937-45, http://surfcity.kund.dalnet.se/sino-japanese.htm

[5] Campaign Of Gui-nan & Battle Of Kunlunguan Pass, http://www.uglychinese.org/war.htm#kunlunguan

[6] Chinese Tank Forces and Battles before 1945
http://mailer.fsu.edu/~akirk/tanks/Stor ... 945_ed.htm


---------------

User avatar
Akira Takizawa
Member
Posts: 2779
Joined: 26 Feb 2006 17:37
Location: Japan

Re: Summary of the Southern Kuangsi Campaign, Part1

Post by Akira Takizawa » 26 May 2006 06:39

asiaticus wrote:Heavy fighting lasted until December 31st when elements of 22nd New Divison and 159th Division of East Route Force finally captured Kun-lun-kuan and Tien-yin wiping out 8000 Japanese troops including the comander of the 12th Brigade/5th Division,[Gen. Nakamura?].


Not 12th Brigade, but 21st Brigade. The commander was Major Gen. Masao Nakamura. During this fight, he was killed on Dec. 25th.


Taki

User avatar
asiaticus
Member
Posts: 923
Joined: 03 Mar 2004 04:53
Location: Lake Elsinore CA USA

Whoops.

Post by asiaticus » 26 May 2006 06:58

12th Brigade/5th Division


Whoops. Typo.

Thanks for the ID on the General.

User avatar
asiaticus
Member
Posts: 923
Joined: 03 Mar 2004 04:53
Location: Lake Elsinore CA USA

Southern Kuangsi Campaign Part 2

Post by asiaticus » 27 May 2006 09:25

Here is a second part of the summary. It will take another to finish the subject.
Please feel free to comment or correct things here.

asiaticus

----------------------------------------------------------------
Summary of the Southern Kuangsi Campaign (Mid November 1939 - Late November 1940)

Part 2 Winter Offensive in Kwangtung and 2nd Battle for the Kunlun Pass


Kwangtung Winter Campaign
With the defeat of the 5th Division the situation of Nanning in early January was critical. Losses in the campaign would force retirement from Nanning or result in the encirclement and destruction of the Kuangsi force, unless it was reinforced by 21st Army. However 21st Army was at this time in the midst of an operation advancing into the uplands to the north of Canton and along the Canton - Henyang Railway.

It had begun on December 8th, a few days after the Japanese success in securing Nanning. Elements of 104th Division advancing in several columns under air cover, from Ying-chan-ao [Yinzhan'ao] to, penetrated the Chinese line at Chang-kang and occupied Ta-mao-shan. By December 17th about half the force broke through to a position just east of Yuan-tan [Yuantan].

While the Japanese force was so dispersed the Chinese 4th War Area ordered two divisions of its troops to attack them. 158th Division attacked the Japanese at Ying-chan-ao [Yinzhan'ao] and took it after heavy fighting. Having suffered heavy casualties, the Japanese sent 2000 reinforcements from Chun-tien [Juntien] to launch counterattacks against the Chinese. Despite fierce fighting that lasted until 19th of December the front remained along a line southwest of Ying-chan-ao [Yinzhan'ao].

On December 20th, 21st Army responded with an offensive by three forces, composed of elements of the 18th, 38th, and 104th Divisions and the Guards Mixed Brigade.

The Left Force composed of elements of 104th Division moved north on the Canton Hankow Railway via Yuan-tan [Yuantan]. After heavy fighting it took Yin-chan-ao [Yinzhan'ao] and Pa-chiang-kou [Pajiangkou] on December 24th. It then made a forced crossing of the North River and took Ying-teh [Yingde] on December 27th.

Center Force composed of the Guards Mixed Brigade and part of 38th Division moved north from Tai-ping-hsu to Tsung-hua. After it captured Liang-kou on the 25th of December it was attacked by Chinese forces at Lu-tien and Niu-pei-chi and made no further progress.

Right Force, with most of 18th Division moved north from Teng-chung along a tributary of the East River. It took Lung-men [Lungmen] and Tso-tan-hsu [Zuotan] to the west on December 23rd. On December 25th, one detachment fought against the Chinese in the vicinity of Mei-kang [Meikang] while another moved north to Wong-yuan [Longxian] taking it on December 30th.

Chinese Winter Offensive in Kwangtung
It was now when the debacle at Nanning became evident that the Chinese launched a major counterattack, part of a countrywide winter general offensive, making the transfer of reinforcements difficult from Kwangtung difficult. The goal was the capture of Chao-chow and Swatow and the main force was to clear the Japanese from the Canton-Kowloon Railway. In response the Japanese command halted the planned repatriation to Japan of the 106th Division in Central China and reassigned it to the 21st Army on December 29th.[3]

Upon being reinforced with the 54th Corps and 2nd Provincial Corps the forces of 4th War Area began its part of a general offensive in every War Area in China. [1]. 12th Army Group attacked Pa-ching-kou [Pajiangkou], Liang-kou-hsu [Liangkou], Lutien, and Mei-kang [Meikang], its 64th Corps against the Japanese forces that had reached Wong-yuan [Longxian]. And the 54th Corps and 2nd Provincial Corps against advanced position on the railroad at Ying-teh [Yingde]. A portion of 35th Army Group attacked south toward Tseng-cheng [Zhencheng] and Tsung-hua [Conghua]. Additionally Gen. Hsiang Han-ping's forces attacked Lung-men [Longmen] in the west. {I think this last may be in error and Gen. Hsiang Han-ping's forces were to attack the Swatow area.}

After routing the Japanese force coming from Wong-yuan [Longxian] on Jan. 1st, the 54th Corps recaptured that town on the 2nd. Kuan-tu [Guandu] fell on the 4th and Chin-tang [Qingtang] on January 5th. The Japanese retreated to Shatien while 54th Corps advanced southwest to Fu-kang [Shijiao]. On January 3rd the 2nd Provisional Corps laid siege to Ying-teh and took it on the 5th. It then continued to advance to Lien-chiang-kou [Lianjiangkou] while Japanese remnants fled southwest and took Ching-yuan [Qingcheng] on the north bank of the Lien River, linking up with Japanese forces across the river to the south. Subsequently portions of 64th Corps and 2nd Provisional Corps recovered Ching-yuan [Qingcheng] on the 10th of January. Across the river the next day 14th Division of 54th Corps recovered Pa-ching-kou [Pajiangkou] and to the east Tsung-hua [Conghua] fell to the detachment of 35th Army Group. Yuan-tan [Yuantan] along the Canton Hankow Railway fell the following day. Ying-chan-ao [Yinzhan'ao] fell on the 16th of January.

The Main force of 35th Army Group moved along the west bank of the North River near Chiang-hsin [Zhaoqing?], and 54th Corps and a portion of 12th Army Group moved to take up positions at Heng-shih, Liang-kou-hsu, Lutien and Mei-keng. 4th War Area reported more than 10,300 enemy killed, 100 rifles and large amount of supplies captured.

Japanese 2nd Offensive in Kwangzi
With the Chinese counteroffensive stalling in mid January the 21st Army was able to detach the Guards Mixed Brigade and the 18th Division to send as reinforcements from the Canton area and were in Nanning by January 25th 1940[1]. On that date a brigade of the 18th Division and a portion of the 5th Division moved up the Yung-Pin Highway to attack the Chinese defenses along the highway while the Guards Mixed Brigade moved along the Yung-Chun highway along the Yung River. The intention was to make a turning movement against the Chinese forces in the rugged Kunlun Pass area to strike at Pin-yang [Binzhou] in its rear. Chinese resistance was unable to halt the advance and the 38th Army Group Headquarters in Pin-yang [Binzhou] was bombed. On February 2nd Pin-yang [Binzhou] and Sze-lung [Silong] were captured.

However cut off Chinese forces fought on independently. The forces on the Kunlunkuan front (2nd and 36th Corps) and in the west (6th and 99th Corps) did not retreat and fought bitterly for 6 days inflicting heavy casualties. Later as supplies were disrupted they fell back to Lung-shan [Baishan], Tu-an [Anyang], and Hsin-cheng [Xincheng].

On February 3rd, the Japanese force at Pin-yang [Binzhou] advanced north to Tsou-hsu [Zouxu], confronting the New 33rd Division across the Ching-shui River. Next day a portion of the force moved from Pin-yang [Binzhou] and took Shang-lin [Dafeng].

Following reinforcement the Chinese began counter attacks on the more dispersed enemy. 64th Corps made a flank attack on Pin-yang [Binzhou] from Kuei Hsien [Guicheng]. After three days of heavy fighting they drove back the Japanese defenders, Kan-tang [Gantang] and Ku-la [Gula] were recovered on February 3rd and Yungshun [Luancheng] on the 4th, threatening the Japanese line of communication.

On February 9th the Japanese began to retreat toward Kunlunkuan and Nanning. A Japanese force that had taken Wu-ning on February 8th, retreated toward Kao-feng-ai and Nanning on February 11th. Pursuing Chinese units for a brief time captured Kao-feng-ai on February 18th. Chinese units then halted and refitted for later offensive action.


Sources:

[1] Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) 2nd Ed. ,1971. Translated by Wen Ha-hsiung , Chung Wu Publishing; 33, 140th Lane, Tung-hwa Street, Taipei, Taiwan Republic of China.

Pg. 311-318
Map 18
Pg. 325-327
Map 19

[3] IJA in China orbat, 1937 to 1945
http://www.china-defense.com/forum/show ... php?t=1168

21st Army (formed Sept. 19 1938)
- 5th Division to N. China 11/38, returned 10/16/39
- 18th Division
- 104th Division
- 38th division. Assigned 10/2/39
- Taiwan mixed brigade Assigned 1/39
- Hainan Island dispatch army Assigned 7/39
- 近卫 mixed brigade Assigned 11/15/39


Part 3 to follow.

User avatar
asiaticus
Member
Posts: 923
Joined: 03 Mar 2004 04:53
Location: Lake Elsinore CA USA

South China Front Army Feb. 9 1940 organization

Post by asiaticus » 28 May 2006 08:34

My sources are a little incomplete but I think the following is correct:

After the Japanese second offensive in Kwangzi ended, the 18th Division was returned to Canton. The Japanese had also reordered their forces in the South of China. 21st Army was abolished on the 9th of February,1940. In its place a new 22nd Army was created that I beleive commanded the forces in Kwangzi: 5th Division, Guards Mixed Brigade and Taiwan Mixed Brigade. 22nd Army was under the command of a new South China Front Army which also directly commanded the 18th, 38th, 104th Divisions and 21st Independent Aviation Corps.


So it should be thus:

South China Front Army - ?
- 22nd Army - General ?
-- 5th Division - General ?
-- Guards Mixed Brigade
-- Taiwan Mixed Brigade
-- 106th Division ? March 9, recalled to Japan
- 18th Division
- 38th Division
- 104th Division
- 21st Independent Aviation Corps.

Was 106th Division, formerly under 21st Army, assigned to 22nd Army or the Front Army in this change?.
Did it ever arrive in South China?

Return to “China at War 1895-1949”