The Sino-Japanese War(Campaigns in detail)

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asiaticus
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Map of battles around Nanning

Post by asiaticus » 24 May 2006 05:19

Map of battles around Nanning from Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War

Notice the note mentions a 28th Division (wasnt there) in the INA forces and IDs the Guard Brigade as a Division.
I think this might have been a mistake of 38th division that joined 21st Army 10/2/39. If this note is correct perhaps the reinforcement Brigade of 18th Division was the 23rd Infantry Brigade.
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Nanning area topo map

Post by asiaticus » 24 May 2006 05:36

Here is an Expedia topo map of the Nanning area to show the kind of elevations in the area. Looking on Google Earth these mountains even today are covered in woods.
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Re: Orbat for Southern Kuangsi Campaign

Post by Akira Takizawa » 24 May 2006 10:11

> Any idea which Brigade of the 18th division was sent there?

Both brigades

> No Marines at all?

Following is the IJN OOB of the Nanning Operation.

5th Fleet
2nd Air Sentai
11th Destroyer Group
Kamikawa Maru, Chiyoda
3rd Combined Air Unit

As you can see, there is no landing force. In the history above posted, the occupation of Pakhoi by Japanese naval force is mentioned. But, I cannot find such a fact in any Japanese source. I think that that history mistakes.


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Re: Orbat for Southern Kuangsi Campaign

Post by asiaticus » 25 May 2006 11:06

Ok, Taki, intesting. Thanks for the Naval list too.

Hmm the whole 18th division sent to Nanning or was some of it left behind?

I have been doing some reading and it seems the 21st Army had some trouble going on north and east of Canton at the same time that winter. Sending the Guards and the whole 18th Divison would have left them with only 104th and 38th Divison and perhaps some of the support units they brought when they first landed earlier.

As to that do you know if the 21st army still had any of those support units at Canton or more importantly with the force in Kwangzi at the end of 1939 or early 1940?

Forces directly under 21st army: Oct.12 - Dec.1938
- 3rd Independent machine gun battalions
- 16th Independent machine gun battalions
- 21st Independent machine gun battalions
- 1st Independent light armored car battalions
- 51st Independent light armored car battalions
- 52nd Independent light armored car battalions
- 111th mountain artillery regiment
- 10th independent mountain artillery regiment
- 2nd Mortar battalions
- 21st Mortar battalions
-11th independent heavy siege artillery battalion
- 1st, Independent heavy mortar battalions
- 2nd Independent heavy mortar battalions
- 1st independent balloon squadron
- 15th independent military engineer regiment
-1st field operation heavy artillery brigade
- 8th signal communication unit
- 6th field operation weather service
- 3rd field operation survey group
- 8 batteries Field anti-aircraft guns

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Re: Orbat for Southern Kuangsi Campaign

Post by Akira Takizawa » 25 May 2006 16:05

> Hmm the whole 18th division sent to Nanning or was some of it left behind?

Whole division was sent.

> As to that do you know if the 21st army still had any of those support units at Canton or more importantly with the force in Kwangzi at the end of 1939 or early 1940?

I don't have the detailed OOB in that period.


Taki

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Pakhoi

Post by tigre » 25 May 2006 17:11

Hello folks.

Taki, however the article mentioned Military and Naval units, but did not mentions any landing force specifically, perhaps it means that the army units landed with the support (Naval/Aerial fire or ship to shore movement) furnished by Naval units (war ships). Cheers. Tigre.

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Summary of the Southern Kuangsi Campaign, Part1

Post by asiaticus » 25 May 2006 20:48

Here is a summary of the events of Southern Kuangsi Campaign based mostly on Hsu Long-hsuen , History of The Sino-Japanese War.

Map references in [ ] refer to current locatiion names.

Expedia site, http://www.expedia.com/pub/agent.dll?qscr=mmfn allows you to get a good local map of the area. Use Nanning China and zoom in and move the map around for understandng the details of the article.

I have divided the article in two parts one covers 11/39-1/39 the second to 11/40 when Nanning was evacuated. I will also cover events in the Canton area and Indochina that effected this campaign.

Please let me know of any errors, corrections needed, conflicts with other sources or additonal info. This ia a attempt to gather info and understand events in this campaign.

Thanks asiaticus

--------------------------

Summary of the Southern Kuangsi Campaign (Mid November 1939 - Late November 1940)

Part1


Prelude
After the Japanse captured Hainan Island following landings in February 1939. They made it into a forward airbase for operations in Southern China especilally bombing the highway from French Indochina to Nanning and the railroad to Yunan in an effort to cut China's lines of communication to the outside world. It was also used as a naval base to blockade the southern coast of China. With the beginning of hostilities in Europe the Japanese believed the French and British were in no position to prevent them from cuttiing those communications and ordered an operation to capture Nanning to cut the highway from Indochina. The 5th Divison was returned to 21st Army from North China in mid October and with the Taiwan Mixed Brigade was readied for the operation at Haikou on Hainan Island. In early November the 5th Fleet with the carrier Kaga arrived to cover the landings and provide air support. A reconnaisance and bombing campaign was directed at major cities in Kwangsi in preperation for the operation.

Chinese Defense
16th Army Group and 26th Army Group were original defenders of Kwangsi under the command of the Generalissimo's HQ in Kweilin. 16th Army Group's 46th Corps was to defend the coast from Fangcheng to Chin Hsien[Yamhshien[2], Qinzhow], Ho-pu, and Lien-chiang. 31st Corps was to prepare postions on the Hsi [Xi] River and sabotage communications in hope of offering gradual resistance to the Japanese advance and fight a decisive action on the Yung River near Nanning. [1]

Japanese Landings and advance on Nanning
Initial landing and advance to Nanning by 5th Division and Taiwan Mixed Brigade was under the command of the 5th Division commander Lt. Gen. Hitoshi Imamura. A forced landing was made on the western shore[1] at Longmen[2] and across the narrow neck of the of Chin-chow Bay [Qinzhow Wan] on its eastern shore[2] and east of the port of Pakhoi[Beihai][2] near Qusha[Guchengling][5]. Naval gunfire and aircraft from 5th Fleet supported the landings.

After cleaning up local resistance, the invaders occupied the port of Pakhoi, and drove inward capturing Fangcheng on the 15th, Chin Hsien[1] [Yamhshien[2], Qinzhow] on the 17th. [2]

After taking Chin Hsien [Yamhshien[2], Qinzhow] the 5th Division moved north on the Yung-Chin highway (Yung-ning [Nanning]- Chin Hsien[Qinzhow]), while the Taiwan Brigade passed up the Hsiao-tung[Xiaodong]-Pai-chi[Baiji]- Pu-chin [Yongning]road.

After being driven back the New 19th Division and other units of 16th withdrew northeast to the mountainous areas of Pan-cheng[Ban cheng] and northwest to Shang-sze[Siyang].[1] The balance of 16th Group Army fell back to a line between Shihtzukou and Nawu. Then back to defend the line of the Yung River.


By Nov. 21st the Japanese columns reached the south bank of the Yung River. Taiwan Brigade at Pu-chin [Yongning] and Liang-ching, 5th Divison across from Nanning and Shihfu [Shibu]. They faced elements of 16th Group Army on the far bank of the Yung River.

On November 22nd the Chinese 135th Division , 170th Divison/46th Corps and elements of the 200th Divison raced to the vicinity of Nanning, Lao-tu-kao and Sze-tang[Sitang] as reinforcements.

On November 23rd the Japanese [Taiwan Brigade?] made a forced crossing of the Yung River west of Nanning and captured Sze-tang [Sitang] on the Nanning - Pinyang highway. 5th Division crossed also to the south and west of Nanning (details unknown).

On November 24th Nanning fell. Chinese forces fell back along the highway to Wuming to Kao-feng-yi (location seems to be a pass through the mountains north of the city), while the rest fell back to Pai-tang and Kun-lun-kuan [Kunlun Pass] along the Nanning - Pinyang highway.

Heavy fighting went on until December 1st when Kao-feng-yi fell. When on the 4th, Kun-lun-kuan [Kunlun Pass] was captured, the Japanese then went on the defensive.


Chinese Counter Offensive Plan
During the Japanese invasion, reinforcement units gradually arrived from Hunan, Kwangtung, and Szechuan. The Chinese began preparing a counter offensive plan, organizing four operational forces with the following missions.

West Route Force
-1st Column
-- 170th Division
-- 135th Division
Attack enemy at Kao-feng-yi. Operate in Sze-tang[Sitang] and Wu-tang and assist the North Route Force in enveloping and destroying the enemy at Kun-lun-kuan. Later it will launch the attack northwest of Nanning.

- 2nd Column
-- 31st Corps - Wei Yun-sun
--- 131st Divison
--- 188th Divison
Mass in the vicinity of Suhsu [Suxu] and attack the enemy at Ta-tang [Datang], Wu-tsun [Wuxu] and Nanning. Ensure the occupation of Wu-tsun [Wuxu] and Ting-tsu-hsu [Tingzi]. Advance north on the Yung-Chin highway would be blocked at Wuxu as would escape south from Nanning be blocked by the capture of Tingzi the town on the south side of the Yung River from Nanning.


Northern Route Force
- 5th Corps / 38th Army Group
-- 200th Division (mechanized)
-- New 22nd Divsion
-- 1st Honor Divison ?
Move from Pin-yang to attack the enemy at Kun-lun-kuan. Later it will operate near Nanning and assist the East and West Route force in an enveloping attack against Nanning.

- 99th Division (from 99th Corps)
Move to Ling-li-hsu [Lingli] to attack Chi-tang [Qitang]. Coordinate with 5th Corps in enveloping and destroying enemy forces in the vicinity of the Kun-lun-kuan [Kunlun Pass]. Later move along the Yung-Pin (Nanning-Pinyang) highway to the high ground south of Wu-tang* and attack the enemy at Pu-chin [Pu-miao,Yongning], Chien-tze-su [Changtang], and Liang-ching[Liangqing] to prevent the enemy from moving north (across the Yung River).
* A line of low wooded hills runs south of the the Yung-Pin highway and north of the Yung river between the pass and Wutang. A road runs NE through it from Lingli to Qitang.

East Route Force
- 46th Corps /16th Army Group - Ho Hsuan
-- 175th Divison
-- New 19th Divison
- 3rd Advance Column
Operating from Lingshan - Luwu base area, join with local forces to destroy traffic and signal communications to the west along the Yung Chin highway so as to prevent the enemy sending reinforcements.

- 66th Corps/37th Army Group - Yeh Chao
-- 159th Divison
-- 160th Division
Operate toward Kantang crossing the river between Yung-chun and Nan-hsiang to attack the enemy east of the Yung-Chin highway to cut off traffic and commuications to prevent enemy from moving reinforcements north.

99th Corps - Fu Chung-fang
- 92nd Divison
- 118th Divsion
Held as a general resevere at Pinyang.

Additionally to support the Kwangsi-offensive and direct the air-units of the more experienced 1st ARC (Colonel Chang Ting-Meng) temporarily replaced the 2nd ARC (Colonel Hsing Chan-Fei) at Liuchou, with the 2nd ARC moving to rear positions at Kwei-Lin. Taking part in the offensive were 115 aircraft of the 3rd, 4th and 5th Pursuit Groups, 6th Bomber Group, 18th Pursuit Squadron and the Soviet Suprun Group. These squadrons were equipped with Soviet Polikarpov I-15bis and I-16 fighters and Tupolev SB bombers. [4]

Chinese Counteroffensive, Battle Of Kunlunguan Pass
On December 18 the Chinese launched their counter-offensive against the Japanese with their air force in direct support. Kun-lun-kuan and Chiu-tang [Jiutang] fell the same day and Kao-feng-yi the following day. On the 20th the Japanese reinforced and counterattacked, recovering all that had been lost.

New 22nd Division and 92nd Division continued to intercept enemy reinforcements between Wu-tang and Patang[?] on the Yang-Pin highway. Disregarding heavy losses the Japanese poured reinforcements into Kun-lun-kuan by airlifting replacements, rations and ammunition in an attempt to hold it.

After December 25th, the 159th Division was brought north from 66th Corps and committed to an attack on the high ground northeast of Kun-lun-kuan. Close coordination of combined arms permitted the capture of this dominating high ground. Chinese aircraft bombed and strafed Japanese troops at Chitang [Qitang] and Pa-tang[?]. They also provided close air support to ground combat units and inflicted heavy casualties on the enemy. Infantry, mountain guns and 15 tanks from 200th Division were said to have been involved in this battle.[6]

Heavy fighting lasted until December 31st when elements of 22nd New Divison and 159th Division of East Route Force finally captured Kun-lun-kuan and Tien-yin wiping out 8000 Japanese troops including the comander of the 12th Brigade/5th Division,[Gen. Nakamura?].[1]

Meanwhile 1st Column of West Route Force attacked the enemy at Kao-feng-yi making some gains. After routing an enemy force fleeing to Lu-wu , 46th Corps of the East Route Force relentlessly attacked along the Yung - Chin highway, exhausting the enemy and causing heavy attrition.

Immediately before the Chinese offensive was launched the Japanese 5th Division send a portion of its force[ units?] to seize Lung-chow to the west. Ariving on the 17th of December the city was captured on the 21st after driving the defending militia out of the city. The returning force was intercepted by the 2nd Column of the West Route force. Over 1000 enemy soldiers were killed and the rest fled to Nanning.

On January 4th, 1940 when Chitang [Qitang] had been recovered the enemy retreated to Pa-tang[?] to defend key terrain. Due to heavy casualties the Chinese forces underwent replentishment prior to renewing the offensive.

Sources:
[1] Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) 2nd Ed. ,1971. Translated by Wen Ha-hsiung , Chung Wu Publishing; 33, 140th Lane, Tung-hwa Street, Taipei, Taiwan Republic of China.

Pg. 311-318
Map 18

[3] IJA in China orbat, 1937 to 1945
http://www.china-defense.com/forum/show ... php?t=1168

21st Army (formed Sept. 19 1938)
- 5th Division to N. China 11/38, returned 10/16/39
- 18th Division
- 104th Division
- 38th division, Assigned 10/2/39
- Taiwan mixed brigade, Assigned 1/39
- Hainan Island dispatch army, Assigned 7/39
- 近卫 [Imperial Guard] Mixed brigade, Assigned 11/15/39

[4] Sino-Japanese Air War 1937-45, http://surfcity.kund.dalnet.se/sino-japanese.htm

[5] Campaign Of Gui-nan & Battle Of Kunlunguan Pass, http://www.uglychinese.org/war.htm#kunlunguan

[6] Chinese Tank Forces and Battles before 1945
http://mailer.fsu.edu/~akirk/tanks/Stor ... 945_ed.htm


---------------

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Re: Summary of the Southern Kuangsi Campaign, Part1

Post by Akira Takizawa » 26 May 2006 06:39

asiaticus wrote:Heavy fighting lasted until December 31st when elements of 22nd New Divison and 159th Division of East Route Force finally captured Kun-lun-kuan and Tien-yin wiping out 8000 Japanese troops including the comander of the 12th Brigade/5th Division,[Gen. Nakamura?].


Not 12th Brigade, but 21st Brigade. The commander was Major Gen. Masao Nakamura. During this fight, he was killed on Dec. 25th.


Taki

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Whoops.

Post by asiaticus » 26 May 2006 06:58

12th Brigade/5th Division


Whoops. Typo.

Thanks for the ID on the General.

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Southern Kuangsi Campaign Part 2

Post by asiaticus » 27 May 2006 09:25

Here is a second part of the summary. It will take another to finish the subject.
Please feel free to comment or correct things here.

asiaticus

----------------------------------------------------------------
Summary of the Southern Kuangsi Campaign (Mid November 1939 - Late November 1940)

Part 2 Winter Offensive in Kwangtung and 2nd Battle for the Kunlun Pass


Kwangtung Winter Campaign
With the defeat of the 5th Division the situation of Nanning in early January was critical. Losses in the campaign would force retirement from Nanning or result in the encirclement and destruction of the Kuangsi force, unless it was reinforced by 21st Army. However 21st Army was at this time in the midst of an operation advancing into the uplands to the north of Canton and along the Canton - Henyang Railway.

It had begun on December 8th, a few days after the Japanese success in securing Nanning. Elements of 104th Division advancing in several columns under air cover, from Ying-chan-ao [Yinzhan'ao] to, penetrated the Chinese line at Chang-kang and occupied Ta-mao-shan. By December 17th about half the force broke through to a position just east of Yuan-tan [Yuantan].

While the Japanese force was so dispersed the Chinese 4th War Area ordered two divisions of its troops to attack them. 158th Division attacked the Japanese at Ying-chan-ao [Yinzhan'ao] and took it after heavy fighting. Having suffered heavy casualties, the Japanese sent 2000 reinforcements from Chun-tien [Juntien] to launch counterattacks against the Chinese. Despite fierce fighting that lasted until 19th of December the front remained along a line southwest of Ying-chan-ao [Yinzhan'ao].

On December 20th, 21st Army responded with an offensive by three forces, composed of elements of the 18th, 38th, and 104th Divisions and the Guards Mixed Brigade.

The Left Force composed of elements of 104th Division moved north on the Canton Hankow Railway via Yuan-tan [Yuantan]. After heavy fighting it took Yin-chan-ao [Yinzhan'ao] and Pa-chiang-kou [Pajiangkou] on December 24th. It then made a forced crossing of the North River and took Ying-teh [Yingde] on December 27th.

Center Force composed of the Guards Mixed Brigade and part of 38th Division moved north from Tai-ping-hsu to Tsung-hua. After it captured Liang-kou on the 25th of December it was attacked by Chinese forces at Lu-tien and Niu-pei-chi and made no further progress.

Right Force, with most of 18th Division moved north from Teng-chung along a tributary of the East River. It took Lung-men [Lungmen] and Tso-tan-hsu [Zuotan] to the west on December 23rd. On December 25th, one detachment fought against the Chinese in the vicinity of Mei-kang [Meikang] while another moved north to Wong-yuan [Longxian] taking it on December 30th.

Chinese Winter Offensive in Kwangtung
It was now when the debacle at Nanning became evident that the Chinese launched a major counterattack, part of a countrywide winter general offensive, making the transfer of reinforcements difficult from Kwangtung difficult. The goal was the capture of Chao-chow and Swatow and the main force was to clear the Japanese from the Canton-Kowloon Railway. In response the Japanese command halted the planned repatriation to Japan of the 106th Division in Central China and reassigned it to the 21st Army on December 29th.[3]

Upon being reinforced with the 54th Corps and 2nd Provincial Corps the forces of 4th War Area began its part of a general offensive in every War Area in China. [1]. 12th Army Group attacked Pa-ching-kou [Pajiangkou], Liang-kou-hsu [Liangkou], Lutien, and Mei-kang [Meikang], its 64th Corps against the Japanese forces that had reached Wong-yuan [Longxian]. And the 54th Corps and 2nd Provincial Corps against advanced position on the railroad at Ying-teh [Yingde]. A portion of 35th Army Group attacked south toward Tseng-cheng [Zhencheng] and Tsung-hua [Conghua]. Additionally Gen. Hsiang Han-ping's forces attacked Lung-men [Longmen] in the west. {I think this last may be in error and Gen. Hsiang Han-ping's forces were to attack the Swatow area.}

After routing the Japanese force coming from Wong-yuan [Longxian] on Jan. 1st, the 54th Corps recaptured that town on the 2nd. Kuan-tu [Guandu] fell on the 4th and Chin-tang [Qingtang] on January 5th. The Japanese retreated to Shatien while 54th Corps advanced southwest to Fu-kang [Shijiao]. On January 3rd the 2nd Provisional Corps laid siege to Ying-teh and took it on the 5th. It then continued to advance to Lien-chiang-kou [Lianjiangkou] while Japanese remnants fled southwest and took Ching-yuan [Qingcheng] on the north bank of the Lien River, linking up with Japanese forces across the river to the south. Subsequently portions of 64th Corps and 2nd Provisional Corps recovered Ching-yuan [Qingcheng] on the 10th of January. Across the river the next day 14th Division of 54th Corps recovered Pa-ching-kou [Pajiangkou] and to the east Tsung-hua [Conghua] fell to the detachment of 35th Army Group. Yuan-tan [Yuantan] along the Canton Hankow Railway fell the following day. Ying-chan-ao [Yinzhan'ao] fell on the 16th of January.

The Main force of 35th Army Group moved along the west bank of the North River near Chiang-hsin [Zhaoqing?], and 54th Corps and a portion of 12th Army Group moved to take up positions at Heng-shih, Liang-kou-hsu, Lutien and Mei-keng. 4th War Area reported more than 10,300 enemy killed, 100 rifles and large amount of supplies captured.

Japanese 2nd Offensive in Kwangzi
With the Chinese counteroffensive stalling in mid January the 21st Army was able to detach the Guards Mixed Brigade and the 18th Division to send as reinforcements from the Canton area and were in Nanning by January 25th 1940[1]. On that date a brigade of the 18th Division and a portion of the 5th Division moved up the Yung-Pin Highway to attack the Chinese defenses along the highway while the Guards Mixed Brigade moved along the Yung-Chun highway along the Yung River. The intention was to make a turning movement against the Chinese forces in the rugged Kunlun Pass area to strike at Pin-yang [Binzhou] in its rear. Chinese resistance was unable to halt the advance and the 38th Army Group Headquarters in Pin-yang [Binzhou] was bombed. On February 2nd Pin-yang [Binzhou] and Sze-lung [Silong] were captured.

However cut off Chinese forces fought on independently. The forces on the Kunlunkuan front (2nd and 36th Corps) and in the west (6th and 99th Corps) did not retreat and fought bitterly for 6 days inflicting heavy casualties. Later as supplies were disrupted they fell back to Lung-shan [Baishan], Tu-an [Anyang], and Hsin-cheng [Xincheng].

On February 3rd, the Japanese force at Pin-yang [Binzhou] advanced north to Tsou-hsu [Zouxu], confronting the New 33rd Division across the Ching-shui River. Next day a portion of the force moved from Pin-yang [Binzhou] and took Shang-lin [Dafeng].

Following reinforcement the Chinese began counter attacks on the more dispersed enemy. 64th Corps made a flank attack on Pin-yang [Binzhou] from Kuei Hsien [Guicheng]. After three days of heavy fighting they drove back the Japanese defenders, Kan-tang [Gantang] and Ku-la [Gula] were recovered on February 3rd and Yungshun [Luancheng] on the 4th, threatening the Japanese line of communication.

On February 9th the Japanese began to retreat toward Kunlunkuan and Nanning. A Japanese force that had taken Wu-ning on February 8th, retreated toward Kao-feng-ai and Nanning on February 11th. Pursuing Chinese units for a brief time captured Kao-feng-ai on February 18th. Chinese units then halted and refitted for later offensive action.


Sources:

[1] Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) 2nd Ed. ,1971. Translated by Wen Ha-hsiung , Chung Wu Publishing; 33, 140th Lane, Tung-hwa Street, Taipei, Taiwan Republic of China.

Pg. 311-318
Map 18
Pg. 325-327
Map 19

[3] IJA in China orbat, 1937 to 1945
http://www.china-defense.com/forum/show ... php?t=1168

21st Army (formed Sept. 19 1938)
- 5th Division to N. China 11/38, returned 10/16/39
- 18th Division
- 104th Division
- 38th division. Assigned 10/2/39
- Taiwan mixed brigade Assigned 1/39
- Hainan Island dispatch army Assigned 7/39
- 近卫 mixed brigade Assigned 11/15/39


Part 3 to follow.

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South China Front Army Feb. 9 1940 organization

Post by asiaticus » 28 May 2006 08:34

My sources are a little incomplete but I think the following is correct:

After the Japanese second offensive in Kwangzi ended, the 18th Division was returned to Canton. The Japanese had also reordered their forces in the South of China. 21st Army was abolished on the 9th of February,1940. In its place a new 22nd Army was created that I beleive commanded the forces in Kwangzi: 5th Division, Guards Mixed Brigade and Taiwan Mixed Brigade. 22nd Army was under the command of a new South China Front Army which also directly commanded the 18th, 38th, 104th Divisions and 21st Independent Aviation Corps.


So it should be thus:

South China Front Army - ?
- 22nd Army - General ?
-- 5th Division - General ?
-- Guards Mixed Brigade
-- Taiwan Mixed Brigade
-- 106th Division ? March 9, recalled to Japan
- 18th Division
- 38th Division
- 104th Division
- 21st Independent Aviation Corps.

Was 106th Division, formerly under 21st Army, assigned to 22nd Army or the Front Army in this change?.
Did it ever arrive in South China?

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Post by John W » 29 May 2006 09:11

This has been a most informative thread.

My heartfelt thanks to all contributors!


cheers,

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Re: South China Front Army Feb. 9 1940 organization

Post by Akira Takizawa » 29 May 2006 12:54

South China Front Army - General Rikichi Ando
- 22nd Army - General Seiichi Kuno
-- 5th Division - General Hitoshi Imamura

> Was 106th Division, formerly under 21st Army, assigned to 22nd Army or the Front Army in this change?

It was assigned to South China Area Army.

> Did it ever arrive in South China?

No. It was disbanded in Central China in April 1940.

Taki

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Thanks.

Post by asiaticus » 30 May 2006 16:43

Taki
Thanks for the clarification.

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Summary of the Southern Kuangsi Campaign Part 3

Post by asiaticus » 30 May 2006 16:53

Here is the last part. Mostly based on the Chinese history and what I could gleen from the IJA orbat in China.
As always comments or corrections welcome.

asiaticus
--------------------------

Summary of the Southern Kuangsi Campaign (Mid November 1939 - Late November 1940)

Part 3

Japanese Reoganization in South China
After the Japanese second offensive in Kwangzi ended, the 18th Division was returned to Canton. The Japanese had also reordered their forces in the South of China. 21st Army was abolished on the 9th of February,1940. In its place a new 22nd Army was created that commanded the forces in Kwangzi: 5th Division, Guards Mixed Brigade and Taiwan Mixed Brigade. The forces of 22nd Army held the cities of Nanning, Fangcheng, Chin Hsien[1][Yamhshien[2], Qinzhow] and strong points around them. 22nd Army was under the command of a new South China Front Army which also directly commanded the 18th, 38th, 104th, 106th Divisions and 21st Independent Aviation Corps in the Canton area.[3]

After 9th of February,1940:

South China Front Army (Canton) - Gen. Rikichi Ando1940[6]
- 18th Division - Lt. Gen. Seiichi Kuno[6]
- 38th Division - Lieutenant-General Yoji Fujii [1939-1941] [6]
- 104th Division - Gen. ?
- 106th Division - Gen. ? *
- 22nd Army (Nanning) - Lt. Gen Seiichi Kunou [6]
-- 5th Division - Lieutenant-General Akita Nakamura [6]
-- Guards Mixed Brigade , - Major Gen. Takeshi Sakurada [4]
becomes Guards Division June 3rd
-- Taiwan Mixed Brigade - Major Gen. Sadaichi Shioda [4]
- 21st Independent Aviation Corps.
* On March 9, the 106th division was recalled to Japan for demobilization[3]. It was disbanded in Central China in April 1940 never having reached South China[4].

Chinese Offensive March 12 - 25th
The Chinese for their part were organizing a new offensive to recover Nanning. The 64th Corps from the 35th Army Group was brought west from the now quiet Canton area. Their plan was to employ their main force east of the Yung-Chin highway (Yung-ning [Nanning]- Chin Hsien[Qinzhow]) and another force to the west to cut off the Japanese communications to the coast at Fangcheng, Chin Hsien [Qinzhow] assisting the direct attacks on Nanning from the Chinese forces north of the Yung River. On March 12th the 46th Corps began attacks on the Yung-Chin highway as the Chinese forces north of the Yung River began attacks on the outskirts of Nanning.[1]

Chinese Forces East of the Yung-Chin Highway[1]
- East Route Force
-- 46th Corps /16th Army Group - Ho Hsuan
--- 175th Divison
--- New 19th Divison
-- 3rd Advance Column [Guerrillas]
- 26th Army Group - Tsai Ting-kai
-- 1st Sep. Inf. Regt.
-- 2nd Sep. Inf. Regt.
-- 3rd Sep. Inf. Regt.
-- 4th Sep. Inf. Regt.
- 64th Corps/35th Army Group - Chen Kung-hsia
-- 155th Divison
-- 156th Divsion

To counter the attack on its communications the Japanese formed a force built around an infantry regiment with attached cavalry and artillery, that moved from Niu-kang[?] to Ping-chi[Pingji] to launch an attack on March 14th eastward up the valley toward Ling-shan [Lingshan]. At the same time 5th Division at Nanning sent a force east from Liang-ching [Liangqingn to Pu-chin [Yongning]. One group of about 2000 troops took Tai-ping [Taiping] while a regiment took Yung-shun [Luancheng]. On March 16th Chiu-chow [Juizhow] and Lu-wu [Luwu] fell in succession, while the Japanese force from Yung-shun [Luancheng] also reached the area southeast of Sha-ping [Shaping] engaging the 64th Corps. The southern force from Luwu [Luwu] took Ling-shan [Lingshan] on March 17th and reached a line from Fu-tze-ling [Fozi] to Feng-tang [Fengtang] where they engaged the East Route Force in heavy fighting in mountainous terrain. By the 20th the Chinese had fallen back to a line from Lo-feng [Dafeng?] to Shih-tang[Shitang].[1]

On March 21st, the Chinese 93rd Division crossed the Yung River near Heng-shan [Hengzhou] and advanced toward Ta-tang [Datang]. Subsequently the enemy fell back to the vicinity of Ling-shan [Lingshan], closely followed by the Chinese who burst into the town for a short time on the 22nd. On March 24-25th an enveloping attack by 156th Divison and 4th Corps recovered Ling-shan [Lingshan], and the 93rd Divison pursued enemy forces from Sha-ping [Shaping to Yen-tun [Yandun]. With their rear threatened Japanese forces then fell back toward the Yeng-chin highway.[1]


Lung-ching [Longzhou] Operation June 17 - July 2
On the 17th of June Japanese forces south of the Yung River moved west along the Yung-Lung [Nanning- Longzhou] highway and captured Sui-lou [Dongmen]at night. The Chinese 135th Division fell back to Pan-li [Banli] and Lo-pai [Luobai]. On June 23rd, the Japanese took Pan-li [Banli] and Lei-shih-hsu [?], as the Chinese 135th Division again fell back to Ming-chiang [Mingjiang] and west of Chiang-chou [Jiangzhou]. On June 24th Pei-chiang-hsu [Beijiang] was captured, on the 26th Ming-chiang [Mingjiang]. 135th Division withdrew to Ting-liang [Tingliang]. By June 29th 3,000 Japanese troops with over 100 vehilces massed in Ming-chiang began moving north while their planes bombed Lung-ching [Longzhou]. The main forc of 131st Division withdrew to the north bank of the Lung River after heavy fighting and casualties, to assist elements of the 181st Division in holding the areas north of Lung Chin while another force was left to prevent the Japanese from crossing the river. At dusk on July 2nd the Japanese crossed the Lung River on rafts and despite a Chinese ambush captured the city.[1]

Shortly afterward the Japanese reinforced 22nd Army with the Second Imperial Guard Brigade. It landed at Qinzhou on July 20th and was stationed on the Leichou Penninsula just north of Hainan Island.
As of July 25th the South China Front Army was separated from the Chinese Expeditionary Force order of battle and placed directly under Supreme Headquarters.[3]

Indochina Expedition
While the operation to seize Lanzhow was going on France had signed an armistice with Germany on June 22, 1940, leading to the establishment of the French Vichy puppet government in the unoccupied part of France.
It also controled most of French overseas possesions including Indochina, one of the last access points for China to the outside world. With the capture of Lanzhow the highway was now closed but a railline still permitted shipment of material from Haiphong to Yunnan.
Dispite bombing by the Japanese the Yunnan railway remained open.

Japan began preasuring the Vichy government to close the railway and on September 5th South China Front Army organized a West Indochina Expeditionary Force[3] or Indochina Expeditionary Army [8] under its command to be the Japanese garrison in Indochina. This unit was organized thus:
Indochina Expeditionary Army - Major Gen. Takuma Nishimura[3,8]
-Indochina Expeditionary Infantry Group - Major Gen. Takeshi Sakurada [8]
-2nd Imperial Guards Infantry Regiment [3,8]- Col. Kunio Osonoe [8]
-Indochina Expeditionary Tank Unit [3,8] (14th Tank Regiment) [8]
-Indochina Expeditionary AA Gun Unit[3,8], Signal Unit and others[8]

On September 22nd Japan and Vichy Indo-China signed an accord which granted basing and transit rights, limited to 6000 the number of Japanese troops which could be stationed in Indo-China, and set an overall cap of 25,000 on the total number of troops that could be in the colony at any given time. In addition, the final article of the agreement barred all Japanese land, air, and naval forces from Indo-Chinese territory except as authorized in the accord. [2]

Within a few hours columns from the 5th Division under General Nakamura moved over the border at three places and closed in on the railhead at Lang Son. This conravened the new agreement and fighting ensued with a brigade of French Colonial troops and Foreign Legionaries that lasted until the 25th when Lang Son was captured. This opened the way to Hanoi. Still Vichy had defenders in the north, south, and fresh battalions barring the route from Lang Son to Hanoi were in position. [2]

Japanese aircraft began flights for reconnaissance and intimidation from the Japanese task force offshore from Haiphong the in the morning of Sept. 24th. A Vichy envoy came to negotiate, but meantime shore defenses remained under orders to open fire against any attempt to force a landing. [2]

On September 26th Japanese forces came ashore at Dong Tac, south of Haiphong, and began moving on the port. A second landing put tanks ashore and Haiphong was bombed, causing some casualties. By early afternoon the Japanese force of some 4500 troops and a dozen tanks was outside Haiphong. [2]

Meanwhile on September 23rd Vichy had approached the government in Tokyo to protest breach of the agreements by the South China Front Army forces. On September 25th Emperor Hirohito ordered an end to hostilities, and by the evening of September 26th fighting had died down. Japan took possession of airfields at Gia Lam, Lao Kay, and Phu Lang Thuong and stationed 900 troops in the port of Haiphong and a further 600 in Hanoi. [2]

Evacuation of Kwangzi
With Indochina occupied only the Guard Mixed Brigade and Taiwan Mixed Brigade remained to hold the Qinzhow - Nanning sector. In late September Chinese forces started to exploit this weakness by repeatedly attacking the over extended Japanese lines of communications causing heavy casualties.[1]

On October 1st, 5th Division was ordered to move from Nanning to Shanghai coming under under Supreme Headquarters command on the 12th.October 1940, Guards Mixed Brigade joined other Japanese units occupying French Indo-China.[3]

On October 13th elements of the 188th Division, 31st Corps crossed the Lung River while the main body moved southeast from Wu-teh [Wude] and attacked the west gate of Lung-chin [Longzhou] at dawn the garrison fought back from positions within the city until releived by counterattacking reinforcements at 0900 which inflicted heavy casualities on the attackers. The Chinese fell back to to a line outside the city. Meanwhile the 46th Corps on the north bank of the Tso River crossed it and cleared the Japanese forces north of the Ming River. 2000 Japanese troops at Lung-chin[Longzhou] and Ping-hsiang [Pingxiang] along the Yung-Lung highway began the southward withdrawal into Indochina on October 26th. The Chinese 31st Corps immediately ordered its units to storm Lung-chin [Longzhou] recovering it on October 28th.[1]

4th War area now aimed at retaking Nanning directing 16th Army Group to clear Japanese troops from the Yung-Lung Highway and assist 35th Army Group in capturing Nanning. The main force of 35th Army Group was directed to move along the Yung-Wu Highway and Yung-Pin Highway, to attack and capture Nanning. Another force crossed the Yung River to cut off the Japanese line of retreat along the northern sector of the Yung-Chin Highway and assist the 16th Army Group in a converging attack on the this northern sector of the Highway.[1]

64th Corps captured Kao-feng-ai and San-tang and Chien-tao-hsu on October 29th. 155th Division crossed the Yung River at Yung-shun. Meanwhile the Japanese began to retreat toward the Yung-Chin Highway.
On October 30th, 35th Army Group recaptured Nanning then followed the retreating Japanese southward. Japanese forces evacuated Kwangzi by November 17th.[1]

With Indochina occupied the reason for holding the blockade at Nanning and the port of Qinzhou became strategicly unneccessary. Mid-November, the 22nd army headquarters and the Taiwan Mixed Brigade transfered to Taiwan. On November 19th, the 22nd armed force order of battle was abolished, its headquarters demobilized; the Imperial Guard Division was turned over to South China Front Army control.[3]

[1] Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) 2nd Ed. ,1971. Translated by Wen Ha-hsiung , Chung Wu Publishing; 33, 140th Lane, Tung-hwa Street, Taipei, Taiwan Republic of China.

Pg. 311-318
Map 18

[2] Vichy Indo-China vs Japan, 1940
http://stonebooks.com/history/vichyvsjapan.shtml

[3] IJA in China orbat, 1937 to 1945
http://www.china-defense.com/forum/show ... php?t=1168


[4]http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic.php?t=94112&postdays=0&postorder=asc&start=120
Posted: Mon May 22, 2006 8:06 am

[5]http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic.php?t=94112&start=135
Posted: Mon May 29, 2006 1:54 pm


[6] Generals from Japan (WWII)

http://www.generals.dk/nation/Japan/S.html

[8] viewtopic.php?t=102115
Posted: Tue May 30, 2006 6:43

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