- In memoriam
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I was searching photos of Gebhardt this forum is very helpfull
I wonder if anybody knows his decorations
WWI iron cross second class
WWI iron cross first class
WWII iron cross first and second class
8 piece ribbon bar (i wonder what are they ?)
a black Wound badge wwi or wwii ?
a medal which i dont know
Reichsführung SS cuff title
Medical Diamond (why he wears EM versiyon there is officer version of that diamond )
He dont have medical shoulder rank attachment ?
also do think Gebhardt ever wear a M39 Weisserrock
Can anyone explain those ?
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Prof. Dr. med.
Karl Franz Gebhardt
SS-Gruppenführer und Generalleutnant der Waffen-SS
Born: 23.11.1897 in Haag bei Wasserburg / Regierungsbezirk Niederbayern und Oberpfalz / Bayern.
Executed: 02.06.1948 at U.S. War Criminals Prison No. 1, Landsberg am Lech / Bayern ( hanging).
NSDAP-Nr.: 1 723 317 (Joined 01.05.1933)
SS-Nr.: 265 894 (Joined 01.05.1933)
00.00.1920 Leutnant a. D.
15.04.1940 SS-Oberführer d. R. der Waffen-SS
15.05.1940 SS-Oberführer der Waffen-SS
01.10.1941 SS-Brigadeführer und Generalmajor der Waffen-SS
30.01.1943 SS-Gruppenführer und Generalleutnant der Waffen-SS
ca. 1903 – ca. 1907 Attended Grundschule (primary school) in Haag and München.
ca. 1907 – 00.00.1916 Attended Gymnasien in Rosenheim, München, and Landshut / Bayern (at the
school run by Heinrich Himmler’s father, Prof. Gebhard Himmler; graduated Oberprima and passed his Abitur).
01.03.1916 – 00.03.1920 Joined the Royal Bavarian Army as a Kriegsfreiwilliger, assigned to
00.00.1918 – 00.03.1919 In British captivity.
00.00.1919 – 00.00.1920 Served with 15.Freiwilligen-Kompanie / Freikorps “von Epp” in
fighting against the communist "Rote Armee" in the Ruhrgebiet.
00.00.1919 – 00.00.1922 Medical studies at the University of München (passed state medical
00.04.1920 – 05.1933 Member of Freikorps/Bund Oberland (participated in München Putsch
Autumn 1922 – 00.00.1935 Unpaid voluntary Assistenzarzt (Assistant Physician) of the Städtischen
Krankenhaus (City Hospital) in Landshut, then at the “Pathologisch-Anatomischen Institut” (Pathological Anatomical Institute) of the University of München (as assistant to Prof. Dr. med. Ferdinand Sauerbruch until 04.1928, then as Oberarzt [Senior Physician] and Department Head under Erich Lexer. He specialized as a knee surgeon to the European sports world during this period.
00.00.1922 Received Approbation (licensed to practice medicine).
31.03.1924 Awarded his doctorate (Dr. med.) at the University of München.
00.00.1926 Established a physicians’ training camp at Hohenaschau / Bayern.
00.00.1932 Received certification in the field of surgery.
00.00.193_-00.00.19__ Sports physician of the “Deutschen Ärzteverbandes für Leibesübungen”
(German Medical Association for Physical Training).
01.05.1933 Joined the NSDAP and SS.
00.00.1933 – 00.00.1934 Leiter of the Reichsärztelager (Reich Physicians Camp) at Hohenaschau.
00.00.1935 – 00.05.1945 Appointed as a Professor and assigned as Leiter of the “Medizinische Institut für Leibesübungen” (Medical Institute for Physical Training) in Berlin-Charlottenburg.
00.00.1935 – 00.05.1945 Beratender Arzt (Consulting Physician) to the Reichssportführer (Hans
Tschammer von Osten until 1943, then Karl Ritter von Halt) and Leiter of the “Medizinische Abteilung” (Medical Department) of the “Reichsakademie für Leibesübungen” (Reich Academy for Physical Training).
20.04.1935 – 01.04.1936 SS-Führer z.b.V. to the Reichsführer-SS.
01.04.1936 – 20.04.1938 Attached to the Stab Sanitätsamt / SS-Hauptamt and assigned as Personalarzt
(Personal Physician) to the Reichsführer-SS.
01.08.1936 – 16.08.1936 Leitender Arzt (Head Physician) for the XIth Olympic Games in Berlin.
00.00.1936 – 08.05.1945 Chefarzt of the “Orthopädischen Heilanstalt” (Orthopedic Medical Institute)
Hohenlychen in Brandenburg. He developed the Hohenlychen Institute as a private sanitorium for the use of high-ranking SS and Party officials.
00.00.1937 – 00.00.1945 Professor and Ordinarius for Orthopedic Surgery at the University of Berlin.
[01.12.1937] – 00.00.1945 Member of the Lebensborn Society.
20.04.1938 – 15.05.1940 Attached to the Stab Reichsführer-SS.
20.04.1938 – 00.05.1945 “Begleitarzt und Leibarzt des RFSS (Escorting and Personal Physician to the
05.09.1938 Entered active service in the Deutschen Roten Kreuzes (DRK / German Red Cross).
26.10.1939 – 08.04.1940 “Beratender Chirurg des Korpsarztes der bewaffneten SS” (Consulting Surgeon to the Corps Physician of the Militarized SS [SS-Verfügungstruppe and SS-Totenkopfverbände]), under Dr. med. Friedrich Dermietzel.
26.10.1939 – 00.05.1945 Chefarzt of the SS-Lazarett (SS Hospital) at the “Orthopädischen Heilanstalt” in Hohenlychen.
10.10.1939 – 30.01.1940 Divisionsarzt (Divisional Physician) of the SS-Verfügungs-Division. Succeeded by Dr. med. Bruno Rothardt.
00.00.1940 – 08.05.1945 Leiter of the Medizinischen Abteilung (Medical Department) of the
“Reichsakademie für Leibesübungen” (Reich Academy for Physical Training).
15.05.1940 – 08.05.1945 “Beratender Chirurg der Waffen-SS” (Consulting Physician of the Armed SS).
Succeeded Dr. med. Richard Krueger.
15.05.1940 – 08.05.1945 Assigned to Persönlicher Stab Reichsführer-SS.
Early-06.1942 Attended the mortally wounded Reinhard Heydrich after the assassination
attempt of 27.05.1942. Although Heinrich Himmler thanked him, in a letter dated 09.10.1942, for easing Heydrich’s suffering through high doses of morphine, Gebhardt was blamed in certain circles for Heydrich’s death because the wounds turned gangrenous. This led him to undertake experiments, in which wounds were deliberately inflicted and infected, on Polish female inmates from Ravensbrück.
00.04.1943 – 00.05.1943 Accompanied Himmler, as consulting surgeon, on his visit to the SS-Panzer-
Korps, Eastern Front.
24.05.1943 – 26.05.1943 Chairman of the “3.Arbeitstagung Ost der Beratenden Ärzte” (Third Eastern
Working Conference of Consulting Physicians) at the “Militärärztlichen Akademie” (Military Medical Academy) in Berlin. At this conference, attended by some 200 German medical professionals, Gebhardt presented the results of his experiments, entitled “Special Experiments on the Effect of Sulfonamides”, in treating wounds (inflicted on female inmates of the Ravensbrück concentration camp).
31.08.1943 – 08.05.1945 Oberster Kliniker (Senior Clinician) attached to the “Reichsarzt SS- und Polizei” (Prof. Dr. med. Ernst Robert Grawitz).
16.05.1944 – 18.05.1944 Chairman of the “4.Arbeitstagung Ost der Beratenden Ärzte” (Fourth Eastern
Working Conference of Consulting Physicians) at the “SS-Lazerett Hohenlychen.”
(06.09.1944) In Belgium and the Netherlands as “Sonderbeauftragter des RFSS” (Special Representative of the Reichsführer-SS). Among the reasons for his mission to the Netherlands was to discipline the commander of II.SS-Panzer-Korps at Arnhem, Willi Bittrich for insubordination.
24.10.1944 Involved in the production of shock propaganda in Nemmersdorf / Ostpreussen, where the bodies of women and children (killed in a Soviet attack on 07.10.1944) were exhumed in order to demonstrate examples of Soviet bestiality. Reichsminister Dr. Goebbels had this act of trickery filmed to instill fear and will to resist in the German people.
02.12.1944 – 24.01.1945 (?) Heeresgruppenarzt (Army Group Physician) of Heeresgruppe Oberrhein (under
24.01.1945 – 00.00.1945 Heeresgruppenarzt of Heeresgruppe Weichsel (under Heinrich Himmler).
25.04.1945 – 08.05.1945 “Reichsarzt SS- und Polizei” and “Geschäftsführender Präsident des Deutschen Deutschen Roten Kreuzes” (Temporary President of the German Red Cross). Succeeded Prof. Dr. med. Ernst-Robert Grawitz (suicide on 24.04.1945) in both posts.
09.05.1945 – 20.05.1945 Appointment as President of the Deutschen Roten Kreuzes renewed by the new Reich Chancellor, Grossadmiral Karl Dönitz.
From 20.05.1945 to 23.05.1945, Gebhardt accompanied Himmler, Otto Ohlendorf, and Hans-Adolf Prützmann as they traveled through Holstein dressed as ordinary soldiers, with the goal of escaping south to Bavaria. Himmler and his entourage were captured by a British Military Police patrol near Lüneburg Heath and they were taken to Prison Camp No. 031 at Lüneburg. There he was identified and he was later transferred to Nürnberg. A Soviet investigation concerning Gebhardt and other Hohenlychen doctors’ experiments at Ravensbrück commenced in Spring 1946. Tried by U.S. Military Tribunal, Nürnberg (“Doctors Case”, No. 1; Defense Counsel: Dr. Alfred Seidl and Associate Counsel: Dr. Georg Gierl), 25.10.1946-20.08.1947. Charged with War Crimes, Crimes Against Humanity, and Membership in a Criminal Organization (the SS). Specifically accused of involvement in the following criminal projects: High-Altitude Experiments at Dachau (ca. 03.1942-ca. 08.1942); Freezing Experiments at Dachau (ca. 08.1942-ca. 05.1943); Malaria Experiments at Dachau (ca. 02.1942-ca. 04.1945); Lost (Mustard) Gas Experiments at Sachsenhausen, Natzweiler, and other concentration camps (between.09.1939 and.04.1945); Sulfanilamide Experiments at Ravensbrück (ca. 07.1942-ca. 09.1943); Bone, Muscle, and Nerve Regeneration and Bone Transplantation Experiments at Ravensbrück (ca. 09.1942-ca. 12.1943); Sea-water Experiments at Dachau (ca. 07.1944-ca. 09.1944); Epidemic Jaundice Experiments at Sachsenhausen and Natzweiler (ca. 06.1943-ca. 01.1945); Sterilization Experiments at Auschwitz and Ravensbrück (ca. 03.1941-ca. January 1945; Spotted Fever (Fleckfieber) Experiments at Buchenwald and Natzweiler (ca. 12.1941-ca. 02.1945); Experiments with Poison at Buchenwald (in or about 12.1943 and in or about 10.1944); Incendiary Bomb Experiments at Buchenwald (ca. 11.1943-ca. 01.1944). Sentenced to death, 20.08.1947 (the text of Gebhardt’s closing statement to the Court is reproduced in the “Notes” section, below).
Decorations & Awards:
31.05.1944 Ritterkreuz des Kriegsverdienstkreuzes mit Schwertern as SS-Gruppenführer und Generalleutnant der Waffen-SS and Oberster Kliniker to the Reichsarzt-SS und Polizei “for his efforts in the area of surgery for serious damaging wounds, particularly limb reconstruction.”
20.04.1944 Deutsches Kreuz in Silber as SS-Gruppenführer und Generalleutnant der Waffen-SS and Oberster Kliniker to the Reichsarzt-SS und Polizei
00.00.1943 1939 Spange zum 1914 Eisernes Kreuz I. Klasse
00.00.1943 1939 Spange zum 1914 Eisernes Kreuz II. Klasse
00.00.191_ 1914 Eisernes Kreuz I. Klasse
00.00.191_ 1914 Eisernes Kreuz II. Klasse
00.00.194_ Kriegsverdienstkreuz I. Klasse mit Schwertern
00.00.194_ Kriegsverdienstkreuz II. Klasse mit Schwertern
00.00.194_ Verwundetenabzeichen, 1939 in Schwarz
00.00.1918 Verwundetenabzeichen, 1918 in Schwarz
ca. 1934 Ehrenkreuz für Frontkämpfer
00.00.193_ Ehrenzeichen des Deutschen Roten Kreuzes 1. Stufe
00.00.1936 Deutsche Olympia-Ehrenzeichen I. Klasse
00.00.19__ Ehrendegen des Reichsführers-SS
00.00.19__ Totenkopfring der SS
16.12.1935 Julleuchter der SS
00.00.19__ Order of the Yoke and Arrows (Spain)
(Note: Recommended for, but never received, the Blutorden der NSDAP)
* Son of the physician and later Ministerialrat Dr. med. Franz Gebhardt.
* Religion: Catholic.
* Married on 23.10.1933 to Marianne Hess (born 3.09.1911 in Cham; Member of NS-Frauenschaft [joined 1.08.1937] and NSV [joined 15.04.1934]). Two sons (Jürgen, born 27.07.1934 and Peter, born 26.02.1937).
* Height: (169 cm.)
* The following is Dr. Gebhardt’s closing statement before the U.S. Military Tribunal, Nürnberg, 19.07.1947:
“I wish to thank the high Tribunal for having granted me an opportunity, in the witness box, to describe my personal position in 1942 in such detail.
“The historical situation at that time placed me in a totalitarian state which, in turn, placed itself between the individual and the universe. Virtues in the service of the state were paramount virtues. Beyond that I do not know anywhere where the intellect was not debased as a tool for war. Everywhere, in some way values and solutions were put into the service of the war. And here again, in the intellectual field, the first step is the decisive one. I may be permitted to recall that in the war of nerves, it was propaganda with and for "medical preparations" which caused the first step, the order to examine the question of sulfanilamides.
“In my final statement today may I be permitted to describe my entire attitude. In doing so, I may perhaps utilize the most important of the four American freedoms, that is to say the freedom of speech, until the very end in such a way that I will refrain from any denunciation or from incriminating others.
“Without exaggerating the importance of my own person, a physician can only be measured according to his conception of medical science. Basically, I was neither a cold technical specialist nor a pure scientist. I believe that I have always tried, for example when carrying out surgical experiments, to see every disease as a human condition of suffering. I did not look on my task as something to serve my own advantage, or as a cheap gesture of theoretical pity, but as a personal active support to the trembling existence of the suffering patient. My goal as a physician was not so much purely technical therapy for the individual patient, as therapeutic care for the particularly underprivileged group of the poor, the children, the cripples, the neurotics.
“I am anxious that it should be believed that it was not due to moral baseness nor to the selfish arrogance of the scientist that I came into contact with experiments on human beings. On the contrary, during the entire period in question I had experiments in my field of research carried out on animals. It was only because I was the competent responsible surgical expert that I was informed about the imminent experiments on human beings in my field of surgery, which had been ordered by the state authorities. After the order had been given, it was no longer a question of stopping these experiments, but the problem was the method of their execution.
“My problems as an expert consisted of the following: For one, the experiments that had been ordered had to be of practical scientific value, for the purpose of testing immunization to protect thousands of injured and sick. On the other hand, I considered humane safety measures for the experimental subjects most important. The main point for me was never the purpose and the object of the experiments, but the manner in which they were carried out. To realize that in a humane way I did not remain aloof and restrict myself to theoretical instruction in the field of surgery, but I myself took part, with my clinic and with all its safety measures.
“I hope that this will show that in carrying out experiments I tried with the best of intentions to act primarily in the interest of the experimental subjects. We did not take advantage of the unlimited opportunities given us by Himmler, that is to say, the surgical experiments were not followed by others. I believe that as far as was possible at that chaotic period I fulfilled my duty as an expert, because these experiments did not increase in the field of surgery in spite of the crescendo of the catastrophic policy. My desire was to help and not to give a bad example.
“In seeing my responsibility in this way I, of course, made a decision for myself. I hope that hitherto I have always faced criticism, even from foreign countries, without any secrecy, but also without any feeling of guilt for my activities as an expert.
“Through these activities, however, as a military physician, not through my own initiative, I was brought into contact with concentration camps. I can understand how heavily that deadly shadow must lie upon anyone who was ever active there. In the ghostly phenomenon of that sphere, which at that time was unknown to me as well, we can now in retrospect begin to realize the frightfulness of the negative ideology of extermination becoming combined secretly with the negative selection of the guards. Only from the documents of the international trial have we been able to see definitely that of the 35,000 guard troops, only 6,000 were SS men who were unfit for combat. The rest were scum, conscripts, foreigners, etc., who with the greatest injustice and to our bitter shame were given the same Waffen-SS uniform as we wore at the front. As head of a well-known clinic, known for its measures of safety, in the interest of the experimental subjects, within the framework of my duty as an expert as I saw it, I got in touch with concentration camp doctors. As far as it was at all possible I tried to exclude that atmosphere from my sphere of work. That my counteractions went beyond purely clinical safety measures for the experimental subjects may, I think, be seen from the following fact: Of the several thousand foreign inmates of this concentration camp — among whom, as we were told here, there were at least seven hundred Polish women — only 200 were turned over to the Red Cross at the end of the war. Of these two hundred, however, sixty were my experimental subjects, as was proved.
“Just as I have tried to clarify my actions as a doctor and to explain my good intentions and possibilities for influence, so my final thought should be devoted to self-criticism, above all as regards on my moral obligation.
“In a parody on the words of Heinrich Heine we see today that ‘Just to have been an SS man is fate in itself’. Although I believe and hope that in that terrible confusion between the decent Waffen-SS and the executive organization, I did my duty as a specialist, an officer, and a human being, I still feel bound to make every form of reparation for this confusion. My possibilities for doing that of course are limited.
“Without seeking sensation I offered to undergo an experiment on myself as proved, and that without any surgical safety measures, as soon as the first opportunity arose. My responsibility for the execution of the experiments carried out with good intention, and especially for those who were my subordinates, I have emphasized. I have a further criticism and responsibility, which I spoke of not only now in the dim light of my own defense but already in May 1945 on the day when Himmler released us from our oath and from our orders, and he himself left his post without reserve. It was my endeavor with others to prevent any illegal continuation of an SS conception, and for that purpose to take the burden off the shoulders of our credulous youth by making the SS generals responsible.
“Today as a private individual I can only repeat what I am ready to do, at least as far as my former professional standing is concerned.
“Where, in spite of my earnest endeavors, reproach and guilt seem to cloud the picture in the sphere for which I was responsible, may the consequences affect me in such a way that I may make the path easier for the younger men who, believing in me, also joined the SS as surgeons. I believe that this pile of rubble, Germany, with its wasted biological material, cannot afford to let these fine young doctors perish in camps and in other inactivity. Also I know every measure which would make the work easier for the old German universities and their respected teachers.
“I have summarized my point of view in order to help avoid possible mistakes. From unwholesome social conditions it is a pathological and deceptive escape, then as well as today — here and everywhere, to unite and combine spiritual with economic and political concepts. It is a disastrous error to confuse the organized unanimity of voices with harmony. Destructive criticism only brings intolerant lack of cooperation, which interrupts all cohesion. The private as well as the public conscience cannot be subjugated to any official virtue, nor to any temporal moral principles. It can only find its place within a God-given order.
“In the spirit of ‘earthly constructive pessimism’, as I wrote before the war, in this alone consideration for the painful reality of this social catastrophe seems to be found.
“My last sentence is to express our personal gratitude to Dr. Seidl who has stood by the side of my colleagues and myself so conscientiously and with such human kindness.”
(Michael D. Miller, Leaders of the SS & German Police, Volume I. R. James Bender Publishing, 2006)
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It's interesting he was a POW in England for 2 years.
OFFICE OF CHIEF OF COUNSEL FOR WAR CRIMES
TRANSLATION OF DOCUMENT No NO-671
I, Dr. Karl Gebhardt, being duly sworn, depose and state:
I was born on 23 November 1897 at Haag, Germany. I attended school in Haag, Munich, Rosenheim, and Landshut, and in 1916 I joined the German Army. I took part in the fighting on the Western Front. From 1917 – 1919 I was a prisoner of war in England. In 1920 I was a member of the Munich Student Company during the fighting under the leadership of the then Minister of the Interior Noske in the skirmishes in the Ruhr Territory.
In 1919 I continued my medical studies at the University of Munich. During 1922 I interned at the City Hospital in Landshut and at the Pathological Institute at Munich, and became an assistant resident physician without any pay there in the fall of 1922.
On 9 November 1923 I took part in the Nazi putsch in Munich as a member of the Free Corps “Bund Oberland”. In 1924 I became an assistant at the Munich University Surgical Clinic under Geheimrat Sauerbruch until 1926, then under Geheimrat Lexer until 1933. In 1932 I became instructor in surgery at Munich University.
I joined the Nazi Party on 1 May 1933, my number being 1,723,317. I joined the General SS on April 20, 1935 my number being 265,894. I ultimately rose to the rank of SS Gruppenführer in the General SS and to the rank of Generalleutnant (Major General) in the Reserve of the Waffen-SS.
In 1933 I was assigned to the hospital (Lazarett) at Hohenlychen as Chief Physician. I remained in this position until the end of the war. At the same time I was consulting physician to the Reich Sport Leadership and Chief of the Medical Institute of the Reich Academy for Physical Exercise in Berlin. In 1935 I became honorary University Professor and in 1937 Professor at the University of Berlin. During 1933 and the summer of 1936 I was Physician-in-Chief at the Olympic Games. In 1938 I became a physician at Hitler’s Headquarters. I was also personal physician to Himmler and his family.
In 1940 I became surgical adviser to the Waffen-SS and visited the front line divisions. Since 1935 I had been surgical adviser to the Organization Todt, at first for the Reich Autobahns and since 1940 for the West Wall work. Since 1940 I was also in charge of the convalescent home Kulmbach of the Organization Todt.
In August 1940 I created and took over the position of SS Chief Clinical Officer (Oberster Kliniker) of the Reichsarzt-SS and Polizei. I held this position until the end of the war. Dr. Grawitz was my superior. From February 1943 until the spring of 1944 I was personal physician to Albert Speer. I treated him at Hohenlychen and then accompanied him to Italy.
With the invasion in 1944 I also became Heeresgruppenarzt of the Army group Oberrhein and in 1945 of Army Group Weichsel, my services being required at the front, in the defense areas and at home, On 23 April 1945 I became President of the German Red Cross.
I have read the above statement in the German language, consisting of two pages and it is true and correct to the best of my knowledge and belief. I have had the opportunity to make any changes and corrections in the forgoing statement. This statement was given by me freely and voluntarily, without promise of reward and I was subjected to no duress of threat of any kind.
Nurnberg, 12 November 1946
/s/ KARL GEBHARDT
Reason: Weichsel - not Weichseil; Heeresgruppenarzt - not Heersgruppenartz; Oberrhein - not Obberhein; Geheimrat - not Geheinrat
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It is Himmler Persönlicher Referent SS-Ostubaf. Dr. Rudolf Brandt.
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War does not decide who is right but only those who are left.