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The Green Shirts and Others: A History of Fascism in Hungary and Romania. Nicholas M. Nagy-Talavera. Hoover Institution Press (Stanford University), Stanford, CA, 1970.
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Hungarian fascist party and movement created by Ferenc Szalasi in 1937. The name is also often used, inaccurately, to designate other parties (such as the Party of the National Will and the Hungarian National Socialist party) that were also founded and led by Szalasi.
Szalasi labeled his theories Hungarizmus. They were a hardly intelligible mixture of romantic agrarian, anti-capitalist, anti - Marxist, nationalist, and, above all, aggressively anti-Semitic ideologies. The movement's leadership, like Szalasi himself, came from the ranks of ex-army officers, journalists, and middle-ranking government and county officials. Popular support came mainly from officers, students, impoverished intellectuals, and the lowest classes of the urban and agrarian proletariat. In the 1939 national election, the only election in which the party took part, the Arrow Cross obtained over 25 percent of the vote (in Budapest it received 72,383 votes, compared with 95,468 for the government party) and became the most important opposition party.
Rise to Power
Although the Arrow Cross advocated a consistent pro-German foreign policy, the party was not included in the pro-Nazi government, even after the German occupation of Hungary on March 19, 1944. Only after the deportation of Jews was stopped on July 7 and after Miklos Horthy's attempt to make a separate armistice was aborted on October 15 was a coalition government led by the Arrow Cross formed, under German pressure. During the short Arrow Cross rule the deportation of Jews was resumed, and eighty thousand Jews were expelled from Hungary, most of them women, in a severe and murderous march to the Austrian border. Many of the deportees died en route. In Budapest during this time, several thousand Jews were murdered and their bodies thrown into the Danube. The government came to an end when the Red Army took Budapest in January 1945.
After the war, Szalasi and most of the prominent Arrow Cross leaders were tried as war criminals by the Hungarian courts. The majority of the party's rank and file were reintegrated into civilian life, many of them joining the Communist party.
The "H" on the Hungarian Nazi (Arrow Cross) movement's flag stands neither for "Hungaria" nor for "Horthy" (Horthy was an enemy of the Arrow Cross movement). It stands for "hungarizmus" (hungarism), the name of the ideology of the Arrow Cross movement.