Refugees in Central and Eastern Europe - 1939/50.

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tigre
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Refugees in Central and Eastern Europe - 1939/50.

Post by tigre » 10 May 2014 20:08

Hello to all :D; I've stumbled with this diagram.............

Refugees in Central and Eastern Europe - 1939/50.

Millions fled eastward during the war due to the Wehrmacht's progress, besides the German deported hundreds of thousands of from Poland during the period 1939/42 (dark arrows).

When the Red Army won the upper hand in 1944, it drives westward similar large refugee flows. After 1945 the etnics German were sometimes brutally expelled from Eastern Europe during he period 1944/50 (light arrows).

Source: Geo Epoche Nº 44 – Das Zweite Weltkrieg Teil II: 1943-45.

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
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Re: Refugees in Central and Eastern Europe - 1939/50.

Post by tigre » 16 May 2014 00:43

Hello to all :D; something more.............

Refugees in Central and Eastern Europe - 1939/50.

Source: Geo Epoche Nº 44 – Das Zweite Weltkrieg Teil II: 1943-45.
http://www.odkrywca.pl

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
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tigre
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Re: Refugees in Central and Eastern Europe - 1939/50.

Post by tigre » 20 May 2014 22:17

Hello to all :D; something more.............

Refugees in Central and Eastern Europe - 1939/50.

Source: Geo Epoche Nº 44 – Das Zweite Weltkrieg Teil II: 1943-45.
http://www.odkrywca.pl

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
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tigre
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Re: Refugees in Central and Eastern Europe - 1939/50.

Post by tigre » 26 May 2014 16:21

Hello to all :D; something more.............

Refugees in Central and Eastern Europe - 1939/50.

Source: http://www.odkrywca.pl

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
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Karelia
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Re: Refugees in Central and Eastern Europe - 1939/50.

Post by Karelia » 26 May 2014 17:13

Also c. 430.000 (c. 12 % of the Finnish population) Finnish Karelians (407.000), Gulf of Finland islanders, Northern Finns and Skolt Samis escaped from the areas that the USSR demanded from Finland.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evacuation ... sh_Karelia
https://www15.uta.fi/FAST/FIN/HIST/kt-evac.html
http://www.karjalanliitto.fi/english
Evacuees_from_East-Finland.jpg
winterwar5_b.jpg
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Re: Refugees in Central and Eastern Europe - 1939/50.

Post by Maxschnauzer » 26 May 2014 22:34

Very Interesting map, tigre. Here is another representation of the postwar refugee situation by ethnicity which includes the Finnish migration that Karelia mentioned:
population-flight-and-expulsions-after-wwii.jpg
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Cheers,
Max

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Re: Refugees in Central and Eastern Europe - 1939/50.

Post by tigre » 27 May 2014 03:26

Hello to all :D; thanks for your input Karelia and Max very good complement, thanks :wink:. Cheers. Raúl M 8-).

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Re: Refugees in Central and Eastern Europe - 1939/50.

Post by Karelia » 27 May 2014 10:40

Maxschnauzer wrote:Very Interesting map, tigre. Here is another representation of the postwar refugee situation by ethnicity which includes the Finnish migration that Karelia mentioned:
population-flight-and-expulsions-after-wwii.jpg
It's also worth mentioning, that the arrows from the Baltic countries to the East were not "emmigrants" but deportees.

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Re: Refugees in Central and Eastern Europe - 1939/50.

Post by tigre » 22 Jan 2015 00:50

Hello to all ; something more.............

Poland - Fall 1939.

Source: http://odkrywca.pl/pokaz_watek.php?id=736157

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
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Re: Refugees in Central and Eastern Europe - 1939/50.

Post by tigre » 06 Sep 2020 18:40

Hello to all :D; something more.............

The exodus!

The German exodus from Central and Eastern Europe did not begin in 1944 with the flight of the Red Army, it had already begun in 1939 when Hitler called on "peoples of German nationality" to return "home to the Reich." In his speech in the Reichstag of October 6, 1939, he described the "most important task" after the end of the Polish campaign "a new order of ethnographic conditions, that is, a resettlement of nationalities, so that at the end of the development better dividing lines emerge than the present case.

The impetus for this resettlement program was the additional protocol of the German-Soviet non-aggression pact of August 23, 1939, which delimited the respective areas of interest in Eastern Europe. Since the Baltic states were Soviet interests, the Germans in these states should have the opportunity to opt for the Reich. In 1939 there were about 17,000 Germans in Estonia, 63,000 in Latvia, and 52,000 in Lithuania.

The situation of the Baltic Germans, who made up the economic or aristocratic upper class, worsened after the First World War, so many of them gradually considered a "return" to the Reich. That is why Hitler's 1939 invitation to resettle in the Reich was definitely attractive to many Baltic Germans. Most opted for Germany in 1939; the others followed in 1941 after the Soviet Union occupied the Baltic states. The Germans from Estonia were resettled to the west on the basis of the German-Estonian protocol of October 15, 1939, and the Germans from Latvia under the German-Latvian resettlement agreement of October 30, 1939. But those who stayed behind As well as the Germans from Lithuania, they decided to leave the country on the basis of the German-Soviet resettlement agreement of January 10, 1941.

It should be noted that the Baltic Germans left largely voluntarily and that household items and sometimes horses, cows, pigs and sheep were able to be taken away. They did not settle as a group in their settlement areas, West Prussia and the Warthegau, but lived scattered throughout the country among the rest of the German population. Only in the cities of Posen, Lodz (Litzmannstadt) and Gdynia (Gotenhafen) were they found in larger groups. After the outbreak of the German-Soviet war in the summer of 1941, many Baltic Germans returned, mainly to Lithuania, so they had to flee in the summer of 1944 to avoid being overwhelmed by the advance of the Red Army.

Hitler's "Heim-ins-Reich" program affected not only Baltic Germans, but also ethnic Germans in Volhynia, Romania, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia. Before the war there were around 50,000 Germans living in Volhynia, Poland, who moved to the Posen area in 1939-40. About 215,000 ethnic Germans were resettled from Romania: 93,500 from Bessarabia, 43,000 from North Bucovina, 52,000 from South Bucovina, 154,000 from North Dobruja, 500 from South Dobruja, and 10,000 from Old Romania. They settled mainly in what was then the Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia and in Warthegau. Only relatively few ethnic Germans were resettled from Yugoslavia, about 35,800 from Carniola (Gottschee, northern Yugoslavia), Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, and Serbia. Some of them stayed in occupied Yugoslavia, such as the 14,000 German Gottschee in Lower Styria, while others settled in Poland in the district of Lodz and Lublin. The German minority in Bulgaria, with some 3,500 souls, also emigrated on the basis of a German-Bulgarian resettlement agreement. Many were resettled in Warthegau, others in the Lublin district. Therefore, they were also victims of subsequent flight and displacement.

Source: Die Flucht. Alfred M. de Zayas.
https://www.wikiwand.com/en/Baltic_Germans

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
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Re: Refugees in Central and Eastern Europe - 1939/50.

Post by tigre » 13 Sep 2020 21:18

Hello to all :D; something more.............

Evacuation and escape in south-east Europe

The major Soviet offensive of June 22, 1944 was the prelude to the evacuation and flight of the ethnic Germans in the southeast. The resettlements from Romania at the beginning of the war were followed by a partial evacuation or escape from the summer of 1944. The political upheaval in Romania on August 23, 1944 cleared the way for the Soviet troops to the Hungarian border. In September the first ethnic Germans migrated from Romania through eastern Hungary. Around 20,000 ethnic Germans fled from northern Transylvania, 2,000 from Sathmar and 66,000 from the Romanian Banat and southern Transylvania.

In September 1944 the Red Army invaded Hungary. Here the evacuation was relatively organized on already established trek routes. Aid stations have been set up and transit quarters have been prepared. In each place an evacuation officer took care of the passing treks. The Germans from Budapest were evacuated at the end of October. However, when the city was surrounded by Soviet troops on December 24th, there were still thousands of ethnic Germans here.

In western Hungary, the vast majority of Hungarian-Germans refused to leave their homeland because they believed the war was lost and hoped to be able to survive the coming times better in their familiar surroundings than in the unknown. Those who fled led their treks west to Austria, some further to Bavaria and Württemberg or in a northerly direction to Bohemia and Moravia, to Saxony and even to Silesia. It is important to note that there was generally no tension between Germans and Magyars; not infrequently did the Magyars try to persuade the departing to stay.

Despite the efforts of the National Socialist-oriented Volksbund to persuade as many ethnic Germans as possible to evacuate, the number of refugees remained relatively small. It was about 10-15 percent of the Hungarian Germans, i.e. 50,000 to 60,000 people. The evacuation from Yugoslavia due the Partisan already started in January 1944 as a result of the partisan war, when Himmler ordered the resettlement of ethnic Germans from the "gang-endangered" areas of western Slavonia to Syrmia. By the end of April 1944, around 25,000 Germans of Slavonia had been transported to the area around Esseg and temporarily housed with German families and on abandoned Serbian homesteads.

Under the pressure of the military situation, the treks organized with the help of the Wehrmacht began to move to Austria in October 1944. Later about half of the Germans managed to escape from the Batschka and Baranja. However, less than a tenth fled the Banat; only the Germans living in Belgrade were brought out of the city by rail and ship in good time before the siege began. It is estimated that over 200,000 ethnic Germans fled Yugoslavia, while over 200,000 remained under the occupation of Russians and partisans.

Source: Die Flucht. Alfred M. de Zayas.
https://www.lwl.org/aufbau-west/LWL/Kul ... index.html

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
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Re: Refugees in Central and Eastern Europe - 1939/50.

Post by Futurist » 14 Sep 2020 00:35

Were the remaining Banat Germans deported by the post-WWII Yugoslav government? If so, when? Also, to West Germany, correct?

It's quite interesting that Germany had such a vibrant diaspora in Europe--in some cases, being centuries-old, sometimes even from the days of the Medieval Ostsiedlung (such as in Transylvania).

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Re: Refugees in Central and Eastern Europe - 1939/50.

Post by SloveneLiberal » 14 Sep 2020 11:02

In Slovenia Germans from Kočevje were deported or moved from Italian occupation zone to territory annexed by Third Reich already in 1941. More than 10.000 of them. That happened in agreement with Hitler and Mussolini. However Slovenes from the area of Posavje were expelled to Serbia or Germany making with that place for Germans from Kočevje area.

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Re: Refugees in Central and Eastern Europe - 1939/50.

Post by Futurist » 16 Sep 2020 21:07

Interesting; thank you!

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Re: Refugees in Central and Eastern Europe - 1939/50.

Post by tigre » 20 Sep 2020 18:02

Hello to all :D; something more.............

Evacuation from the Baltic States and the German eastern provinces.

The evacuation and flight from the eastern provinces, especially from East Prussia, is one of the great catastrophes in Western history. The number of people affected is only an external framework for the magnitude of the misery, the need, but also the nobility at this time.

The prewar population of the German eastern provinces has been estimated by the Federal Statistical Office at 9,620,800, 2,488,100 in East Prussia, 1,895,200 in East Pomerania, 644,800 in East Brandenburg and 4,592,700 in Silesia.

There were also 249,500 Germans in the Baltic States and the Memel region, 380,000 in Danzig and 1,371,000 in Poland, especially in the former imperial provinces of West Prussia, Posen and Upper Silesia. During the war, resettlers from Eastern and Southeastern Europe came to these areas, so that a total of around twelve million Germans lived east of the Oder-Neisse line. In the summer of 1944, nobody suspected that a year later over seven million would have fled.

The first to be evacuated "temporarily" from the rapidly moving front were the 120,000 Germans of Memel. On July 13, 1944, Vilnius and Kovno on August 1 were taken by Soviet troops. Soon the first treks from Memel moved west through East Prussia. The farmers there were confident because they had built the "Ostwall" in July 1944. Men up to the age of 65 were assembled in work columns and sent to the eastern border of East Prussia and behind the Narew Front to build anti-tank ditches, trenches and bunkers. For the entire Ostwall construction from the Memel to Warsaw, the supreme command was in the hands of the Gauleiter and "Reich Defense Commissioner" of East Prussia, Erich Koch.

The propaganda had convinced the East Prussian population that the Russians could at best advance as far as Memel, but there the Wehrmacht would first stop them at the East Prussian border and then throw them back. In fact, East Prussia was considered an oasis of peace until mid-1944. Many thousands of so-called "bomb evacuees" sought safety there from the almost non-stop air raids in the west. Above all, many Berlin families found refuge here after an agreement between Gauleiter Erich Koch and Goebbels.

In the summer of 1944, Army Group Center (Colonel General Reinhardt) and Army Group North (Colonel General Schörner) suffered heavy defeats. They withdrew 400 kilometers from the Ukraine and Belarus in the direction of East Prussia. The "golden pheasant", the party functionaries in the occupied Soviet territory, whose activities had now come to an abrupt end, then poured into Königsberg. The stories of the people flowing back did not calm the East Prussian population. Then began the escape of the bomb evacuees from Berlin and other places in West Germany. The East Prussian population was initially not allowed to flee because this was interpreted as doubts about the final victory. Even so, experienced military commanders warned the civil authorities in East Prussia several times of the threat posed by the rapidly approaching front.

Source: Die Flucht. Alfred M. de Zayas.
http://www.mohrungen.eu/moh_mod/templat ... lucht.html

Cheers. Raúl M 8-).
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