Info: Early Japanese Army Air Force Aircraft

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Robert Hurst
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Post by Robert Hurst » 20 Jun 2003 14:18

Hi

Nakajima Ki-6

In December 1935, the Army announced its official acceptance of three types of new trainers. These were the Tachikawa Ki-9 Army Type 95-1 Intermediate Trainer (code-name Cypress), the Nakajima Ki-6 Army Type 95-2, and the Tachikawa Ki-17 Army Type 95-3 Primary Trainer (code-name Cedar).

Of these three, the Nakajima supplied trainer was simply the Nakajima-Fokker Super Universal converted to Army standards for crew training, a design already considered obsolete but one that was still functional as a trainer.

The Ki-6 was a single-engine high-wing cantilever monoplane, powered by a 450-580 hp Nakajima-built Jupiter VII air-cooled radial. It had a welded steel-tube fuselage with fabric covering, the wooden wings were covered with fabric and plywood.

Production models of this aircraft were only slightly different externally to the civil transport version, having a three-bladed propeller and oversize low-pressure tyres. They were provided with four crew stations for training in navigation, radio communication, aerial photography and aerial gunnery. For the latter role an open cockpit aft of the wing could be fitted with a flexibly mounted 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-gun.

This aircraft was the Army's counterpart to the Mitsubishi K3M2 Navy Type 90 Crew Trainer (code-name Pine). Because the Nakajima trainer was an adaptation of an already proven design, it gave good and reliable service, and therefore was sometimes used for transport and liaison duties. This aircraft was later replaced by the Tachikawa Ki.54 (code-name Hickory) which was designed specifically for this type of training role.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Nakajima Hikoki KK (Nakajima Aeroplane Co Ltd).
Type: Single engine high-wing monoplane crew trainer.
Crew (2+4): Two pilots with four instructors/students.
Powerplant: One 450-580 hp Nakajima-built Jupiter VII nine-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, driving a three-blade fixed-pitch metal propeller.
Dimensions: Span 15.437 m (50 ft 7 3/4 in); length 11.09 m (36 ft 4 1/2 in); height 2.819 m (9 ft 3 in); wing area 34.37 sq m (369.967 sq ft).
Weights: Empty 1,640 kg (3,615 lb); loaded 2,700 kg (5,952 lb); wing loading 78.6 kg/sq m (16.1 lb sq ft); power loading 4.65 kg/hp (10.2 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed 246.3 km/h (153 mph) at 2,800 m (9,186 ft); cruising speed 173.9 km/h (108 mph); climb to 3,000 m (9,843 ft) in 4 min 16 sec; service ceiling 6,000 m ( 19,685 ft); range 1,047.7 km (651 miles); endurance 5 1/2 hr.
Production: A total of 20 Ki-6s were built by Nakajima as follows: 1 - March 1934 and 19 December 1935-November 1936.

The photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft 1910-1941, by Robert C Mikesh & Shorzoe Abe.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 20 Jun 2003 15:05

Hi

Mitsubishi Ki-7

In 1933 the Army expressed a need for a crew trainer. In May of that year, Mitsubishi was given a contract by the Army to build two prototypes of a high-wing cabin monoplane trainer based on very broad requirements. This was not solely a pilot trainer, but was to be used for training navigators, gunners and other aircrew.

To meet this requirement, the company converted one of its own K3M2 Navy Type 90 Crew Trainers, but with changes to satisfy Army requyirements. In charge of the project as chief designer was Masakichi Mizuno, and to make the flying evaluation for the Army was Capt. Onda from the Army Air Technical Research Institute.

The Ki-7 was a single-engine high-wing cabin monoplane crew trainer. The fuselage was of welded steel tube covered in fabric. The wooden frame wing was also fabric covered.

Basic changes to be made in converting the Navy model to Army use was replacement of the 300 hp Gasuden Tempu engine with a 400 hp Mitsubishi Type 92 (A5-AS) radial, the Ki-7 differed from its naval counterpart in having a reinforced engine and forward fuselage structure, this first prototype was completed in December 1933, but the aircraft was badly damaged in an emergency crash landing accident while undergoing flight evaluation at the Hamamatsu Army Flying School.

The second Ki-7 prototype, powered by a 450 hp Nakajima Kotobuki radial, was handed over to Tokyo Koku K K for modification as a light civil transport when the Army lost interest in the project. Registered J-BABQ and known as the Mitsubishi MS-1 Civil Transport Plane, the sole civilian aircraft of this type was re-engined with a 420 hp Nakajma-built Jupiter VI radial and could be fitted with either fixed landing gear or twin floats.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Mitsubishi Jukogyo KK (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Co Ltd)
Type: Single-engine multi-seat crew trainer.
Crew (1+4): Pilot & one instructor plus three students.
Powerplant: One 400-475 hp Mitsubishi Type 92 ((A5-AS) nine-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, driving a Fairey-Reed two-blade fixed-pitch metal propeller.
Armament: One flexible 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-gun in dorsal position. Bomb load six 4 kg (8.9 lb) bombs.
Dimensions: Span 15.78 m (51 ft 9 1/4 in); length 9.65 m (31 ft 8 in); height 3.85 m (12 ft 7 1/2 in) approx; wing area 34.5 sq m (371.367 sq ft).
Weights: Empty 1,345 kg (2,965 lb); loaded 2,000 kg (4,409 lb); wing loading 57.6 kg/sq m (11.797 lb/sq ft); power loading 4.12 kg/hp (9.2 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed 185.1 km/h (115 mph) at 1,000 m (3,280 ft); climb to 2,000 m (6,562 ft) in 5 min.
Production: A total of 2 Ki-7s were built by Mitsubishi - 1933-34.

Photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft 1910-1941, by Robert C Mikesh & Shorzoe Abe.

Regards

Bob.
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Peter H
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Post by Peter H » 21 Jun 2003 06:53

Robert great posts :) .

Have you got anything on the Mitsubishi Ki-20 bomber,dubbed 'The Monster'?

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Post by Robert Hurst » 21 Jun 2003 14:10

Hi Moulded

In reply to your post the answer to that is yes. Originally I was going to do this in Type number order, but then I decided to go by the Kitai number instead.

So hopefully I can put some info with regard to Ki-20 on soon rather than later.

Regards

Bob.

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Post by Robert Hurst » 23 Jun 2003 11:20

Hi

Nakajima Ki-8

In 1933, Nakajima offered the Army an advanced company-funded two-seat fighter project. Chief designer for this project was Shigejiro Ohwada, with Toshio Matsuda as his assistant, the Army assigned the designation Ki-8 to the project.

The Ki-8 was an advanced low-wing cantilever monoplane with an inverted-gull tapered wing. This wing was a metal structure with metal skin on the forward half, the rear portion being fabric-covered. The fuselage was an all-metal monocoque structure. The undercarriage comprised two fixed non-retractable units, the wheels being enclosed by large spats. The Ki-8 was powered by a Nakajima Kotobuki 3 engine rated at 750 hp for take-off. The Kotobuki 3 was enclosed by a close-fitting ring cowling with blisters above the cylinder heads. The pilot's cockpit was semi-enclosed by a rearward sliding canopy, with the gunner being seated behind him in an open position. Armament comprised two fixed forward-firing 7.7 mm (0.303 in) guns and one flexible rear-firing 7.7 mm (0.303 in) gun in open dorsal position.

Five prototypes of the Ki-5 were built between March 1934 and May 1935 and an Army team led by Capt. Yatsuo Yokoyama evaluated these aircraft. During test flights, they were plagued by accidents, none serious, but bad enough to cause damage to the control surfaces which required constant changing. This was mostly aileron damage caused by a wing dropping on landing due to early stalling and it seems that this problem was never completely overcome.

Although testing and evaluation continued for sometime, the Army did not have a policy covering the use of two-seat fighters, and as a consequence the aircraft was never accepted as standard equipment. It was reported, however, that the general performance of the Ki-8 was almost equivalent to that of the light-weight single-seat Type 91 Fighter.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Nakajima Hikoki KK (Nakajima Aeroplane Co Ltd).
Type: Single-engine multi-seat Fighter.
Crew (2): Pilot and rear gunner.
Powerplant: One 540-710 hp Nakajima Kotobuki 3 nine-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, driving a two-blade fixed-pitch metal propeller.
Armament: Two fixed forward-firing 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-guns and one flexible rearward-firing 7.7 mm (0.303 in) in open dorsal position.
Dimensions: Span 12.88 m (42 ft 3 in); length 8.17 m (26 ft 9 1/4 in); height 3.57 m (11 ft 8 1/4 in); wing area 28.5 sq m (306.781 sq ft).
Weights: Empty 1,525 kg (3,362 lb); loaded 2,111 kg (4,654 lb); wing loading 74.1 kg/sq m (15.1 lb/sq ft); power loading 2.82 kg/hp (6.2 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed 328 km/h (204 mph) at 4,000 m (13,123 ft); climb to 3,000 m (9,843 ft) in 5 min 39 sec; service ceiling 8,760 m (28,740 ft).
Production: A total of 5 Ki-8 prototypes were built by Nakajima from March 1934 to May 1935.

The photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft 1910-1941, by Robert C Mikesh & Shorzoe Abe.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 23 Jun 2003 12:12

Hi

Tachikawa Ki-9

In 1933 the private-venture R-5 primary trainer (two built) powered by a 125 hp A D C Cirrus IV and built by Tachikawa Hikoki KK* was tested by the Japanese Army which found the aircraft too small for their use. However, as a result of these tests, Tachikawa were invited in March 1934 to discuss with personnel of the Tokorozawa Army Flying School the requirements for future Army trainers. A month later the Koku Hombu (Air Headquarters) instructed Tachikawa to design an aircraft which, by fitting different engines, could serve as a primary trainer or as an intermediate trainer. The intermediate trainer version was to be powered by a 350 hp Hitachi Ha-13a and equipped with full blind-flying instrumentation. With this engine the aircraft was required to have a top speed of 220 km/h (137 mph) and an endurance of 3.5 hours, and was stressed for 12 g manoeuvres. The primary trainer version was to be powered by a 150 hp Nakajima NZ and all special equipment was eliminated to reduce weight. Despite the fact that Tachikawa were not in favour of this type of interchangeability, the Koku Hombu, noting that the problems presented by this requirement had been successfully solved by aircraft designers in Poland and Sweden, insisted on having the Ki-9 designed along these lines.

Designed by Ryokichi Endo, three Ki-9 prototypes were built in late 1934 and the first Ha-13a powered intermediate trainer made its first flight on 7 January, 1935. Controls were found to be rather heavy and manoeuvrability was disappointing as the aircraft's centre of gravity was located too far forward, while the main undercarriage's shock absorbers were excessively hard. Minor modifications were quickly made and, on 9 January, during the second flight the stall characteristics were checked, the aircraft being delivered immediately after for Service trials at Tokorozawa. A second intermediate trainer prototype was delivered shortly after while the third aircraft was powered by the 150 hp Nakajima NZ and served as prototype for the primary trainer version. With the lighter engine the centre of gravity was located too far back and the aircraft suffered from poor handling characterstics on take-off.

Following competion of Service trials at Tokorozawa, only the Ha-13a powered intermediate trainer was accepted for production as the Ki-9, Army Type 95-1 Medium Grade Trainer Model A. later an improved version of the aircraft was produced as the Ki-9 KAI, Army Type 95-1 Medium Grade Trainer Model B. This version was lighter and featured a sturdier landing gear and shorter fuselage. This last modification resulted in a rear-ward shift of the centre of gravity which improved manoeuvrability. Both versions were used widely for blind-flying training with a folding hood over the rear cockpit, and at least one was modified with a glazed canopy over the rear cockpit for use as a staff officer transport.

The Ki-9s remained in service with the Japanese Army throughout the Sino-Japanese conflict and the Pacific War and was code named Spruce by the Allies. The aircraft was also operated during the war by the Cochin China, Manchurian and Thai air forces, and after the war, by the fledgling air arm of the Indonesian People's Security Forces.

Units allocated: Kumagaya, Mito, Tachiarai and Utsonomiya Army Flying Schools; Koku Shikan Gakko (Air Academy).

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Tachikawa Hikoki KK (Tachikawa Aeroplane Co Ltd).
Type: Single-engine basic trainer.
Crew (2): Instructor and pupil in tandem open cockpits.
Powerplant: (1st and 2nd prototypes & production Ki-9) One 350 hp Army Type 95 (Hitachi Ha-13) nine-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, driving a two-blade wooden propeller; (3rd prototype) One 150 hp Nakajima NZ seven-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, driving a two-blade wooden propeller.
Dimensions: Span 10.32 m (33 ft 10 5/16 in); length 7.525 m (24 ft 8 1/4 in); height 3 m (9 ft 10 1/8 in); wing area 24.5 sq m (263.715 sq ft).
Weights: Empty 1.015 kg (2,238 lb); loaded 1,425 kg (3,142 lb); wing loading 58.2 kg/sq m (11.9 lb/sq ft); power loading 4.1 kg/hp (9 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed 240 km/h (149 mph); cruising speed 150 km/h (93 mph); climb to 1,000 m (3,280 ft) in 4 min 55 sec; endurance 3.5 hours.
Production: A total of 2,398 Ki-9s were built by Tachilawa as follows: 3 Ki-9 prototypes - 1934, 2,395 Ki-9 production aircraft - 1935-1942. Plus 220
Ki-9 production aircraft built by Tokyo Koku KK - 1944-1945.

*From 1924 until 1936 this company was originally named Ishikawajima Hikoki Seisakusho KK (Ishikawajima Aeroplane Manufacturing Co Ltd), a branch of the Ishikawajima Shipbuilding Co Ltd.

The top photo was taken from The Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, by David Donald. The bottom photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific QWar, by Rene J Francillon.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 24 Jun 2003 15:05

Hi

Kawasaki Ki-10

In 1933 Kawasaki had designed the Ki-5, a clean inverted gull-winged cantilever monoplane, but in 1934 it was rejected by the Army as tests revealed that its manoeuvrability was unsatisfactory. In September 1934, shortly after the Ki-5's development had been discontinued, the Koku Hombu instructed Kawasaki to design a high-performance fighter biplane while Nakajima were asked to develop a competitive fighter monoplane.

Designed by Takeo Doi with the assistance of engineer Isamu Imachi, the Kawasaki Ki-10 was a clean-contoured all-metal single-bay biplane with unequal-span fabric-covered wings, with ailerons fitted to the upper wing only. Powered by an 850 hp Kawasaki Ha-9-IIa twelve-cylinder vee liquid-cooled engine driving a two-blade fixed-pitch propeller, the first Ki-10 prototype was completed in March 1935 and was followed a month later by a second, identical aircraft. Early flight test results confirmed that the aircraft was markedly superior to the unsuccessful Ki-5 in speed as well as in manoeuvrability. However, the competitive Nakajma Ki-11 with its low-wing monoplane configuration was still faster and Kawasaki feared that the production contract would go to Nakajima. Every effort was made to improve speed and the third prototype was fitted with a three-blade metal propeller in place of the two-blade wooden airscrew used on the first two aircraft, and flush-head rivets were adopted. The fourth prototype was identical with the exception of the upper wing which featured increased dihedral to improve stability. Even so modified the Ki-10 was still slower than the Ki-11, but the gap had been sufficiently reduced for the Ki-10 to win a large production contract on account of its exceptional manoeuvrability.

When placing a production order for the Ki-10-I, the Army had instructed Kawasaki to initiate a development programme aimed at improving the aircraft's stability. For this purpose the 185th Ki-10 was fitted with wings of increased span and area, and with a lengthened fuselage. Flight test results showed a marked improvement and the aircraft served as a prototype for the Ki-10-II series which went into production as the Army Type 95 Fighter Model 2 beginning in June 1937.

In April 1936, design of a cleaned-up version began and the 200th Ki-10 airframe was completed in October 1936 as the Ki-10 KAI. The large radiator was moved back from under the engine cowling to between the redesigned low-drag cantilever undercarriage with internally sprung wheels covered by drag-reducing wheel covers. At the same time the engine cowling, still housing an Ha-9-IIa, was cleaned-up. During tests a maximum speed of 420 km/h (261 mph) was reached, this speed exceeding that of the standard Ki-10-I by some 20 km/h (12.5 mph). Two generally similar Ki-10-II KAI were produced by incorporating the aerodynamic improvements of the Ki-10-I KAI into Ki-10-II airframes and, powered by the 850 hp Ha-9-IIb, this had a rating of 700 hp at sea level and a maximum rating of 950 hp at 3,800 m (12,470 ft) for short periods, they reached a top speed of 445 km/h (276.5 mph). Despite a maximum speed almost equal to that of the Nakajima Ki-27 fighter monoplane, the Ki-10-II KAI remained in prototype form as it was obvious that the heyday of the biplane combat aircraft was over.

The Ki-10-I and Ki-10-II saw service with units of the Japanese Army in Japan, Formosa, Korea and Manchukuo and particpated in combat operations over China and Manchuria during the second Sino-Japanese conflict and the Nomonhan Incident. However, when the Pacific War began the Ki-10 had been relegated to training and other ancillary duties. Allied intellligence officers, who early in the war still believed the aircraft to be in first-line service, assigned to it the code name Perry but aircraft of this type were only occasionally encountered over China.

Units Allocated: 1st, 4th, 5th, 6th, 8th, 11th and 13th Rentais. 4th, 9th, 33rd, 59th, 64th and 77th Sentais. Akeno Fighter Training School.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Kawasaki Kokuki Kogyo KK (Kawasaki Aircraft Engineering Co Ltd).
Type: Single-engined fighter biplane.
Crew (1): Pilot in open cockpit.
Powerplant: One 850 hp Kawasaki Ha-9-IIa twelve-cylinder vee liquid-cooled engine, driving a two-blade wooden propeller (1st & 2nd prototypes) or three-blade metal propeller (3rd & 4th prototypes, K-10-I, Ki-10-I KAI and Ki-10-II). One 850 hp Kawasaki Ha-9-IIb twelve-cylinder vee liquid-cooled engine, driving a three-blade metal propeller (Ki-10-II KAI).
Armament: Two fixed forward-firing 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Type 89 machine-guns mounted in the upper decking of the engine cowling.
Dimensions: Span (Ki-10-I & Ki-10-I KAI) 9.55 m (31 ft 3 31/32 in); length
7.2 m (23 ft 7 15/32 in); height 3 m (9 ft 10 1/8 in); wing area 20 sq m (215.277 sq ft). Span (Ki10-II & Ki-10-II KAI) 10.02 m (32 ft 10 1/2 in); length 7.55 m (24 ft 9 1/4 in); height 3 m 9 ft 10 1/8 in); wing area 23 sq m (247.569 sq ft).
Weights: Empty (Ki-10-I & Ki-10-I KAI) 1,300 kg (2,866 lb); loaded 1,650 kg (3,638 lb); wing loading 82.5 kg/sq ft (16.9 lb/sq ft); power loading 1.9 kg/hp (4.3 lb/hp). Empty (Ki-10-II & Ki-10-II KAI) 1,360 kg & 1,400 kg (2,998 lb & 3,086 lb); loaded 1,740 kg & 1,780 kg (3,836 lb & 3,924 lb); wing loading75.7 kg/sq m & 77.4 kg/sq m (15.5 lb/sq ft & 15.9 lb/sq ft); power loading 2 kg/hp & 2.1 kg/hp (4.5 lb/hp & 4.6 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed (Ki-10-I & ki-10-I KAI) 400 km/h & 420 km/h (248.5 mph & 261 mph) at 3,000 m (9,845 ft); Max speed (Ki-10-II & ki-10-II KAI) 400 km/h & 445 km/h (248.5 mph & 276.5 mph) at 3,000 m (9,845 ft); Climb to 5,000 m (16,405 ft) in 5 min; service ceiling (Ki-10-I & Ki-10-I KAI) 10,000 m (32,810 ft); service ceiling (Ki-10-II & Ki-10-II KAI) 11,500 m (37,730 ft); range 1,100 km (684 miles).
Production: A total of 588 Ki-10s were built by Kawasaki Kokuki Kogyo KK at Gifu as follows: 4 Ki-10 prototypes - Spring 1935; 300 Ki-10-I production aircraft - December 1935-October 1937; 1 Ki-10-II prototype - May 1936; 280 Ki-10-II production aircraft - June 1937-December 1938; - 1 Ki-1-I KAI prototype - October 1936; 2 Ki-10-II KAI prototypes - November 1937.

The photos were taken from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, by Rene J Francillon.


Regards

Bob
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Mait
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Post by Mait » 24 Jun 2003 17:52

Hello.

Nice thread so far :)

Perhaps You could also start a second thread and illuminate us all about the Japanese Army and Navy aircraft of WW2?

Some basic info about some of these aircraft is easily found in internet (about Zeros for instance) but such kind of detailed info as You show here is hard to find.

Best Regards,

Mait.

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Post by Robert Hurst » 25 Jun 2003 15:20

Hi

Nakajima Ki-11

Because of the failure of the inverted gull-wing Kawasaki Ki-5, the Army decided to hold a further contest to find a replacement for the Nakajima Type 91. Only two companies Kawasaki and Nakajima were asked to send in entrants. While Kawasaki reverted to the biplane formula in what became the Ki-10, Nakajima entered a low-wing monoplane fighter , the Ki-11 which bore a striking resemblance to the American Boeing P-26, which had entered service the year before.

The design for the Nakajima project was supervised by Yasushi Koyama, with Shinroku Inoue as chief designer. The Ki-11 was powered by a 710 hp Nakajima Kotobuki 3 nine-cylinder radial. It possessed an all-metal monocoque fuselage and a wing of mixed wood and metal construction covered by plywood and fabric, and wire-braced to the fuselage and undercarriage fairings. The wings featured rounded tips which gave an elliptical appearance. The non-retractable undercarriage had broad-chord trouser fairings.

Four prototypes were completed between April and December 1935, with some differences between each aircraft. The third prototype was equipped with a three-blade propeller, while the fourth had two blades and a cockpit canopy. Each had variations in undercarriage fairings, the fourth prototype had spats rather than the trouser type fairings of the others, and differences in the vertical tail surfaces as well as detail changes to due to test results.

The flying competition between the Ki-10 and Ki-11 was made by the flight-test team of the Army Air Technical Research Institute at Tachikawa in mid-1935. Flight evaluation was largely based on the Japanese favoured method of aerial combat, manoeuvrability in dog fighting, at this time the Japanese did not appreciate the hit-and run capabilities of the faster Ki-11 . This gave the Kawasaki Ki-10 biplane an advantage over the faster Nakajima Ki-11 monoplane. Based mainly upon these differences, the Ki-10 won the competition and became the Army Type 95 Fighter, while the Ki-11 was rejected by the Army. The one thing that did win favourable reports was the reliability of the Kotobuki radial engine used on the Ki-11 over that of the water-cooled Ha-9-II engine in the Ki-10. Regardless of these results, the Ki-11 established the foundation for the development of the next generation of fighters. There was also a single navalised prototype powered by a 580 hp Nakajima Kotobuki 5 engine. This was built for evaluation by the Japanese Navy during 1935, as a 9-Shi (1934) Shipboard Fighter, but the Mitsubishi Ka-14 was selected in preference (providing the basis for the A5M1).

Attempts were made by Nakajima to manufacture the Ki-11 as an export fighter for southeast Asian countries, but none of the possible customers showed any interest. Thus, production ended with the four prototypes. The first and third were used by Nakajima for research into future fighter designs, while the fourth was sold to Asahi Shimbun as a high-speed aircraft with designation AN-1 Communications Aircraft, it was registered J-BBHA.

The sole AN-1 achieved remarkable success while in service with the Asahi Shimbun. Piloted by Mosaburo Niino on 31 December 1935, it set a speed record from Tokyo to Osaka in 1hr 25min. This record was exceeded by only 5 minutes by the same aircraft when flown on this route by Masaki Iinuma. At the time of the solar eclipse in June 1936, the AN-1 flown by Iinuma delivered undeveloped film to the Tokyo office of the Asahi Shimbun and scooped all other newspapers. This was made at an average speed of 398.1 Km/h (247.5 mph). The AN-1 remained the fastest civil aircraft in Japan until the introduction of the Mitsubishi Karigane (Wild Goose) used by Asahi Shimbun as the Kamikaze (Morning Breeze) in March 1937. To prepare for the goodwill European flight in the Kamikaze, Iinuma used the AN-1 for proficiency flying befroe making the historic flight. The well known French pilot Marcel Deport, flew the AN-1 at hjameda Airport in September 1937, demonstrating his aerobatic skills with this advanced aircraft.

The top and middle photos were taken from the Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. The bottom photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft 1910-1941, by Robert C Mikesk & Shorzoe Abe.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Nakajima Hikoki KK (Nakajima Aeroplane Co Ltd).
Type: Single-engine fighter monplane.
Crew (1): Pilot in open cockpit.
Powerplant: One 550-700 hp Nakajima Kotobuki 3 nine-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, driving a two or three-blade controllable-pitch metal propeller.
Armament: Two fixed forward-firing 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-guns.
Dimensions: Span 10.802 m (35 ft 5 1/4 in); length 7.452 m (24 ft 5 1/4 in); height 3.370 m (11 ft 0 3/4 in); wing area 18 sq m (193.756 sq ft).
Weights: Empty 1,205 kg (2,656 lb); loaded 1,487 kg (3,278 lb); wing loading 82.6 kg/sq m (16.9 lb/sq ft); power loading 2.70 kg/hp (5.9 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed 420 km/h (261 mph) at 4,300 m (14,107 ft); cruising speed 350.9 km/h (218 mph); climb to 3,000 m (9,843 ft) in 6 min 9 sec; endurance 2.5 hrs.
Production: A total of 4 Ki-11 prototypes were built by Nakajima between April-December 1935.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 26 Jun 2003 14:10

Hi

Nakajima Ki-12

Early in 1935, the Mitsubishi Company imported two* examples of the Dewoitine D.510 for study purposes. The outstanding appeal for this aircraft was its new engine-mounted 20 mm cannon which fired through the propeller shaft. Taking this and other features of the Dewoitine fighter into condsideration, Nakajima designed a comparable fighter which went a one step further by adding a retractable undercarriage.

Designed by Shigenobu Mori under the overall supervision of two French engineers, Roger Robert and Jean Beziaud, the new fighter, the Ki-12 was powered by a 610-690 hp Hispano-Suiza 12Xcrs water-cooled V-12 engine, an oval-shaped radiator was mounted in front of the nose instead of beneath as in the D.510. This reduced the frontal area of this aircraft as with the similar D.513.

The Ki-12 was of all-metal construction with a monocoque fuselage, with all-metal wings that were of multi-spar stressed skin construction, the hydraulically-operated undercarriage retracted inwards into the elliptically shaped wings which also had split flaps. The tailwheel was fully retractable. The headrest behind the open cockpit was extended aft to become part of the fin. Armament consisted of a 20 mm engine-mounted cannon which was imported separately and two 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-guns. The result was perhaps one of the most refined fighter airframes in the world at that time.

A prototype of this sophisticated aircraft was completed in October 1936 and moved immediately into the flight-test phase. It was tested against the Mitsubishi Ki-18 which had been completed fourteen months previously, as well as the Mitsubishi Ki-33, Kawasaki Ki-28 and the Nakajima Ki-27., the last of these being finished about this time. Despite its high performance the Nakajima Ki-12 was found to be inferior to all in manoeuvrability, a quality which the Japanese Army placed above all others. Failing this most important test, the design was doomed because it was not thought that a licence manufacturing agreement for the Hispano-Suiza 12Xcrs would be granted, and Japan did not want to rely upon imported engines for its combat aircraft. Consequently, the Ki-12 programme ended with but one prototype, and Nakajima's Ki-27 won the Army's approval to become its next standard fighter.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Nakajima Hikoki KK (Nakajima Aeroplane Co Ltd).
Type Single-engine fighter monoplane.
Crew (1): Pilot in open cockpit.
Powerplant: One 610-690 hp Hispano-Suiza 12Xcrs twelve-cylinder vee liquid-cooled engine, driving a three-blade fixed-pitch metal propeller.
Armament: One 20 mm engine-mounted cannon firing through propeller shaft, two 7.7 mm (0.303 in) wing-mounted machine-guns.
Dimensions: Span 11 m (36 ft 1 in); length 8.30 m (27 ft 2 3/4 in); height 3.30 m (10 ft 10 in); wing area 17 sq m (182.992 sq ft).
Weights: Empty 1,400 kg (3,086 lb); loaded 1,900 kg (4,188 lb); wing loading 111.9 kg/ sq m (22.9 lb/sq ft); power loading 2.75 kg/hp (6 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed 368.9 km/h (229.2 mph); cruising speed 370.2 km/h (230 mph); landing speed 120.4 km/h (74.8 mph); climb to 5,000 m (16,404 ft) in 6 min 30 secs; service ceiling 10,500 m (34,448 ft); range 801.5 km (498 miles).
Production: Only a single prototype was built by Nakajima in October 1936.

*One for the Army, and one for the Navy.

The photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft 1910-1941, by Robert C Mikesh & Shorzoe Abe.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 27 Jun 2003 11:49

Hi

Mitsubishi Ki-15 and C5M- Pt 1

Development of the Ki-15 had begun on 11 July, 1935, when the Koku Hombu instructed Mitsubishi Jukogyo KK to design a fast reconnaisance aircraft. Drafted by Capt. Yuzo Fujita and Eng. Masao Ando of the Technical Department of the Koku Hombu, the specification called for a two-seat reconnaissance aircraft with a top speed of 450 km/h (280 mph) at 3,000 m (9,843 ft); an operational altitude of 2,000 m to 4,000 m (6,562 ft to 13,124 ft); an endurance of one hour at combat at 400 km (248 miles) from base; a loaded weight of less than 2,400 kg (5,291 lb); and armament comprising a single flexible 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-gun in the rear cockpit. The aircraft was to be powered by a single engine in the 700-800 hp class and be fitted with Hi-4 radio-equipment and light aerial cameras.

To meet the performance requirements Fumihiko Kono, assisted by Tomio Kubo and Shokichi Mizumo, designed a clean low-wing cantilever monoplane with spatted undercarriage and selected the Nakajima Ha-8 nine-cylinder air-cooled radial rated at 640 hp at take-off and 750 hp at 4,000 m (13,123 ft) to power the aircraft. Construction of prototypes began in December 1935 and the machine was completed within five months, flying for the first time in May 1936. During the flight test programme the aircraft demonstrated pleasant flying characterstics and easily exceeded all performance requirements, achieving a top speed of 481 km/h (298 mph) at 4,050 m (13,287 ft). The Ki-15, however, offered poor forward visibility particularly on the ground, take-off and landing runs were somewhat disappointing, and speed fell sharply during prolonged turns. Despite these minor shortcomings the Ki-15 was enthusiastically received by the Army, and Mitsubishi were instructed to put the aircraft into production as the Ki-15-I Arrmy Type 97 Command Reconnaissance Plane Model I, the first production aircraft being delivered in May 1937.

While the first Ki-15 was undergoing flight trials, the Asahi Shimbun, one of Japan's leading newspapers, had obtained authorisation from the Army to purchase from Mitsubishi the second prototype for use in an attempt to make a record flight between Japan and England on the occasion of the Coronation of HM King George VI. Built under the civil designation of Karigane I (Wild Goose) Communication Plane, the aircraft was completed on 19 March, 1937, and registered J-BAAI and named Kamikaze (Divine Wind), the aircraft was delivered to Asahi Shimbun on 25 March. The aircraft was identical to the military prototype except that all military equipment including cameras and armament was removed. The outstanding performance of this aircraft was revealed to the Western World when, between 6 and 9 April, Masaaki Iinuma, pilot, and Kenji Tsukagoshi, flight mechanic and navigator, flew J-BAAI from Tachikawa to London covering 15,359 km (9,542 miles) in 94 hr 17 min 56 sec, the actual flying time being 51 hr 17 min 23 sec and the average speed 162.9 km/h (101.2 mph) (according to the Federation Aeronautique Internationale which homologated the record). Later a small number of Ki-15-Is were transferred to civilian operators and these included J-BAAL Asakaze (Morning Breeze) and J-BAAM Sochikaze (Providential Wind).

The photos were taken from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, by Rene J Francillon.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Marcus » 27 Jun 2003 14:32

Thanks again Robert.

/Marcus

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Post by Robert Hurst » 28 Jun 2003 10:58

Hi

Mitsubishi Ki-15 and C5M - Pt 2

At the start of the second Sino-Japanese conflict the Army Type 97 Command Reconnaissance Planes were amongst the first aircraft to be committed to combat operations. Faced by a motley collection of Chinese fighters including the Curtiss Hawk, Gloster Gladiator and Polikarpov I-15bis and I-16, the Ki-15-Is were able to fly deep into China from their bases in Manchuria, as their top speed of 479.6 km/h (298 mph) exceeded that of all Chinese-operated fighters with the exception of the Polikarpov I-16. Almost immune from interception, the Ki-15s and their crews could keep the Japanese Army informed well ahead of time of all Chinese ground movements. Under combat conditions the aircraft performed with great reliability and the only compaint against it stemmed from its pilots who deplored the lack of forward visibility. Even though the Ki-15-I proved to be far more successful than the most sanguine expectations could have foreseen, development of a model with higher performance was initiated within a year of the Service debut of the Army Type 97 Command Reconnaissance Plane Model 1.

The engine selected to power the Ki-15-II was the Mitsubishi Ha-26-I fourteen-cylinder radial rated at 850 hp for take-off and 900 hp at 3,600 m (11,811 ft)) which had a smaller diameter than the Ha-8 nine-cylinder radial powering the Ki-15-I and thus improved forward visibility. The first Ha-26-I powered Ki-15-II was completed in June 1938, and during its flight trials reached a maximum speed of 510 km/h (316.9 mph), an increase of 30 km/h (18.7 mph) over the speed of the Ki-15-I. Despite this gain in performance the Ki-15-II was not placed in production until September 1939 when the aircraft was introduced as the Army Type 97 Command Reconnassance Plane Model 2. At least two of these aircraft were completed as Karigane II (Wild Gosse II) Communication Planes and, registered J-BAA0 Amakaze (Heavenly Wind) and J-BACL, were operated by Asahi Shimbun.

The top photo was taken from The Concise Guide to Axis Aircraft of World War II, by David Mondey. The centre and bottom photos were taken from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, by Rene J Francillon.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 28 Jun 2003 12:02

Hi

Mitsubishi Ki-15 and C5M - Pt 3

The ability of the Ki-15 to penetrate deep into Chinese territory attracted the attention of the Imperial Japanese Navy which at that time, for lack of a high-performance reconnaissance aircraft, had to rely on visual reconnaissance by Navy Type 96 Fighters wherever Chinese air opposition was anticipated. Accordingly in 1938 the Navy placed an order for twenty aircraft similar to the Ki-15-II but fitted with naval radio and camera equipment. Designated Navy Type 98 Reconnaissance Plane Model 1 or C5M1, these aircraft were powered by an 875 hp Mitsubishi Zusei 12, rated at 780 hp for take-off and 875 hp at 3,600 m (11,810 ft), which was a naval version of the Ha-26-I. Thirty externally similar C5M2s, specially designed for the Navy and powered by 950 hp Nakajima Sakae 12, rated at 940 hp for take-off and 950 hp at 4,200 m (13,780 ft), and driving a three-blade propeller, were acquired in 1940 under the designation Navy Type 98 Reconnaissance Plane Model 2. Despite its more powerful engine the C5M2 was slower than the Ki-15-II as loaded weight had been increased by the addition of extra equipment.

The fastest version of the aircraft was the Ki-15-III which had been designed for the Japanese Army in 1939. Two prototypes of this aircraft, each powered by a 1,050 hp Mitsubishi Ha-102 fourteen-cylinder radial, rated at 1,080 hp for take-off, 1,055 hp at 2,800 m (9,186 ft) and 950 hp at 5,800 m (19,028 ft), driving a three-blade propeller were built and reached a top speed of 530 km/h (329.4 mph). However, by that time the Mitsubishi Ki-46, the intended successor tot he Ki-15, was about to commence flight trials, and, as its performance was aniticipated to substantially exceed that of the Ki-15-III, the latter was not placed in production.

When production ended almost 439 Ki-15s had been built, the majority being in first-line service when the Pacific War started. Given the Code-name 'Babs' by the Allies. By 1943 the type had been relegated to such second-line roles as advanced trainers and communications aircraft, but many survived to be finally expended in Kamikaze sorties in the closing months of the war.

Ki-15

Units Allocated

8th, 10th, 15th, 28th, 29th 81st and 82nd Sentais. 16th, 18th, 50th, 51st, 74th, 76th and 81st Dokuritsu Dai Shijugo Chutais. 17th and 18th Hikodans.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Mitsubishi Jukogyo KK (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Co Ltd).
Type: Single-engine reconnaissance aircraft.
Crew (2): Pilot and radio-operator/observer/gunner in enclosed cockpit.
Powerplant: (Ki-15-I) One 550 hp Army Type 94 (Nakajima Ha-8) nine-cylinder air-cooled radial, driving a two-blade metal propeller; (Ki-15-II) One 900 hp Army Type 99 Model I (Mitsubishi Ha-26-I) fourteen-cylinder air-cooled radial, driving a two-blade metal propeller; (Ki-15-III) One 1,050 hp Mitsubishi Ha-102 fourteen-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, driving a three-blade metal propeller.
Armament: (Ki-15-I and Ki-15-II) One flexible rear-firing Type 89 machine-gun.
Dimensions: (Ki-15-I) Span 12 m (39 ft 4 7/16 in); length 8.49 m (27 ft 10 1/4 in); height 3.34 m (10 ft 11 1/2 in); wing area 20.36 sq m (219.152 sq ft). (Ki-15-II) Span 12 m (39 ft 4 7/16 in); length 8.7 m (28 ft 6 17/33 in); height 3.34 m (10 ft 11 1/2 in) wing area 20.36 sq m (219.152 sq ft).
Weights: (Ki-15-I) Empty 1,339 kg (3,084 lb); loaded 2,033 kg (4,482 lb); maximum 2,300 kg (5,071 lb): wing loading 99.9 kg/sq m (20.5 lb sq ft); power loading 3.2 kg/hp (7 lb/hp). ((Ki-15-II) Empty 1,592 kg (3,510 lb); loaded 2,189 kg (4,826 lb); maximum 2,481 kg (5,470 lb); wing loading 107.5 kg/sq m (22 lb/sq ft); power loading 2.6 kg/hp (5.7 lb/hp).
Performance: (Ki-15-I) Maximum speed 480 km/hr (298 mph) at 4,000 m (13,123 ft); cruising speed 320 km/h (198 mph); climb to 5,000 m (16,404 ft) in 8 min 27 sec; service ceiling 11,400 m (36,089 ft); range 2,400 km (1,491 miles). (Ki-15-II) Maximum speed 510 km/h (316 mph) at 4,330 m (14,206 ft); cruising speed - ; climb to 5,000 m (16,404 ft) in 6 min 49 sec; service ceiling (Ki-15-I) 11,400 m (37,400 ft); range 2,400 km (1,491 miles).
Production: A total of 439 Ki-15s of all types were built by Mitsubishi Jukogyo KK at Nagoya between May 1936-1940.

C5M

Units Allocated.

22nd and 23rd Koku Sentais.

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Same as Ki-15
Type: Same as Ki-15
Crew: Same as Ki-15
Powerplant: (C5M1) One 875 hp Mitsubishi Zuisei 12 fourteen-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, driving a two-blade metal propeller, (C5M2) one 950 hp Nakajima Sakae 12 fourteen-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, driving a three-blade metal propeller.
Armament: One flexible rear-firing 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Type 92 machine-gun.
Dimensions: Span 12 m ((39 ft 4 7/16 in); length 8.7 m (28 ft 6 17/32 in); height 3.465 m (11 ft 4 13/32 in); wing area 20.36 sq m (219.152 sq ft).
Weights: Empty (C5M1) 1,605 kg (3,538 lb), (C5M2) 1,715 kg (3,781 lb); loaded (C5M1) 2,197 kg (4,844 lb), (C5M2) 2,345 kg (5,170 lb); wing loading (C5M1) 107.9 kg/sq m (22.1 lb/sq ft), (C5M2) 115.1 kg/sq m (23.6 lb/sq ft); power loading (C5M1) 2.8 kg/hp (6.2 lb/hp), (C5M2) 2.5 kg/hp (5.5 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed (C5M1) 253 kt (291 mph) at 4,280 m (14,400 ft), (C5M2) 263 kt (303 mph) at 4,550 m (14,930 ft); climb to 3,000 m (9,845 ft) (C5M1) 4 min 51 sec, (C5M2) 3 min 58 sec; service ceiling (C5M1) 8,230 m (27,000 ft), (C5M2) 9,580 m (31,430 ft); range (C5M1) 630 naut miles (725 miles), (C5M2) 600 naut miles (691 miles).
Production: A total of 20 C5M1s (1938) and 30 C5M2s (1940) were produced by Mitsubishi Jukogyo KK at Nagoya.



The photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, by Rene J Francillon.

Regards

Bob
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Post by Robert Hurst » 30 Jun 2003 15:40

Hi

Tachikawa Ki-17

When, early in 1935, the 150 hp Nakajima NZ powered primary trainer version of the Ki-9 failed to give satisfaction, the Japanese Army finally decided to review their earlier decision to select a common type for primary and intermediate training. Accordingly, in April 1935, Tachikawa were instructed to design a new primary trainer which received the designation Ki-17. The specification called for an aircraft with a loaded weight not exceeding 1,000 kg (2,205 lb) and a wing loading of less than 35 kg/sq m (7.2 lb/sq ft). Whereas the Ki-9 was stressed for 12 g manoeuveres the Ki-17 was to be stressed for only 6 g. Tachikawa were instructed to have two prototypes ready by August 1935 as the Army were anxious to have the aircraft as soon as possible to train the large number of pilots required for their expansion programme.

Despite engineer Fugita's suggestion that the wing loading be increased over the 35 kg/sq m (7.2 lb sq ft) requirement of the specification the Technical Department of the Koku Hombu insisted on its being retained. The result was a remarkably light biplane with a loaded weight of only 900 kg (1,984 lb) which bore a strong family resemblance to the earlier Ki-9. The principal external difference lay in the wings which were of equal span, whereas on the Ki-9 they were of unequal span, resulting in the Ki-17 having a larger wing area despite the fact it had a shorter span.

Powered by a 150 hp Hitachi Ha-12 seven-cylinder radial engine, the first of two Ki-17 prototypes was completed in July 1935. The Ki-17 was a tandem two-seat single-bay biplane, but with the engine uncowled and a simplified landing gear. In its original form the aircraft was fitted with ailerons on both the upper and lower wings, as was the Ki-9, but during flight trials these ailerons proved over-sensitive and those on the upper wing were deleted.

Following this modification the aircraft was placed in production as the Army Type 95-3 Primary Trainer. In service it was found to be too docile even for basic training duties, and although it continued in production until 1944, only 560 were constructed, including the prototypes. Instead the Ki-9 became the all-purpose Army trainer, and some Ki-17s were later transferred to liaison or communications duties. During the Pacific War the type was given the Allied code name Cedar.

The top photo was taken from the Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, by David Donald. The bottom photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, by Rene J Francillon.


Unit Allocation: Kumagaya, Mito, Tachiarai and Utsonomiya Army Flyng Schools; Koku Shikan Gakka (Air Academy).

Technical Data

Manufacturer: Tachikawa Hikoki KK (Tachikawa Aeroplane Co Ltd).
Type: Single-engine primary trainer.
Crew (2): Instructor and pupil in taandem open cockpit.
Powerplant: One 150 hp Army Type 95 (Hitachi Ha-12) seven-cylinder, air-cooled radial engine, driving a two-blade wooden propeller.
Dimensions: Span 9.82 m (32 ft 2 5/8 in); length 7.8 m (25 ft 7 3/32 in); height 2.95 m (9 ft 8 5/32 in); wing area 26.02 sq m (280.076 sq ft).
Weights: Empty 618 kg (1,362 lb); loaded 900 kg (1,984 lb); wing loading 34.6 kg/sq m (7.1 lb/sq ft); power loading 6 kg/hp (13.2 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed 170 km/h (106 mph); cruising speed 130 km/h (81 mph); service ceiling 5,300 m (17,390 ft); endurance: 3.45 hr.
Production: A total of two prototypes and 558 production Ki-17s, were built by Tachikawa Hikoki KK at Tachikawa between 1935 and 1944.

Regards

Bob
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