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Good afternoon all,
Besides the scientific aspect, article discusses the payload of the Lancaster, the Liberator and the Heinkel III.
Note the reference to the 2 firestorm bombings: Hamburg and Dresden.
A bar graph with sketch map displays dropped tonnage. At bottom, the key/legend of map has a symbol for evacuees. This got my attention since I recently worked the minor matter of those fleeing a hurricane. I worked the luxury trade compared to what the map's symbol represented.
Authors are a history professor and a physics professor.
I'm hoping this is best location for article.
eastern Virginia, USA
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https://phys.org/news/2011-07-world-war ... sight.html
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What is there, in plain language:
Since 1932 every day at noon at Ditton Park density of electrons high in the ionosphere (and directly above the place) was measured. They measured a small part of the ionosphere, but it was the only one which strongly affects the propagation of radio waves.
Obviously, such information was very needed.
The authors of the paper say they were able to find changes in the density which corresponded to bombing raids in Europe, more than 1000 kilometers away.
The effect isn't visible to humans, it was found using computers and a statistical tool design for detecting a faint signal in lots of noise. Then using more computers and statistical tools they were able to establish that the strongest changes happened several hours after the raids.
They assumed it was sound waves that did it, such sound waves would require an hour to reach the ionosphere above Ditton Park and disturb it by heating.
But they don't know that as a fact.
That part of the ionosphere is just a bunch of electrons (not only but electrons are the only important) and not that many of them. Because they are electrons and not that many to boot they are very easy to disturb.
That was first noticed in 1933 when a strong radio station in Luxemburg was shown to be able to modify the density of ionosphere, and simultaneously signals of other radio stations.
Generally, because it has been known since like ever that the ionosphere is very fragile the newest "bombing" discovery (if real) is rather a footnote that a groundbreaking discovery.
The paper discusses the planes, payloads, and bombs but it's just a filler for length, that information is spurious and not related to the discovery.