Logistical data 6 th Army Fall Blau

Discussions on WW2 in Eastern Europe.
User avatar
Aida1
Member
Posts: 2426
Joined: 04 Aug 2019 08:46
Location: Brussels

Re: Logistical data 6 th Army Fall Blau

Post by Aida1 » 24 Nov 2022 15:20

" From Armeekommando 6 OQu
to OKH Gen.Qu

Day report for 13.8.1942

1)Supply situation

See special report

2) a)Ammo consumption 160 to

b) fuel consumption 774 cbm Otto 93 cbm Diesel



3) Stocks of the troop

a)ammo :

s.J.W. 70% at XIV Pz corps l.J.G. 40%
l.F.H. 75% at XI AK 55%
s.F.H. 60%
10 cm Kan. K18 20%

b) fuel : see special report to command center B on fuel situation

c) rations
Fixed daily rates cannot be reported. At part of the division supply from the land meets difficulties, because the supplies found , particularly evening food are not sufficient to supply the troops.Fodder situation unchanged.

4) Stocks in army depots

V.St.P Manoilin Supply goods of all categories moving up.

V.St.P Bokowskaja
1650 to ammo from which
375 to s.J.W.
965 to l.F.H.

140 to rations
100 cbm Otto 50 cbm Diesel

V.St.P Meschkoff :
30 to rations

Transshipment point Millerowo

The supply goods arrived are immediately transshipped on supply columns and brought forward to supply bases, repectively the troops.Ca 170 to supply goods have arrived today, which in no way corresponds to the need .

Rear depots

Transshipment position Kupjansk/ 1690 to ammo
AVL Starowerowka 4390 to rations of which
1310 flour
135 to salt
585 to vegetables
1540 to oats and canned fodder
1650 cbm Otto 350 cbm Diesel

V.St.P. Starowerowka unchanged
Vst.P. Charkow unchanged

5) Range of the army stocks

vegetables 31 days
canned meat 19 days
live cattle 21 days
evening food 21 days
fat 21 days
flour 14 days
oats and canned fodder 8 days

6) Delivery by train

in Porschin:

F.Nr 252617 259 cbm fuel

in Millerowo
F.Nr 419254 15 waggons fuel
F.Nr 422774 52 waggons fuel
F.Nr 470265b 13 waggons fuel
F.Nr 470316 24 waggons fuel
F.Nr 423392 14 waggons ammo
F.Nr 411419 12 waggons ammo
F.Nr 863164 1 waggons fuel
F.Nr 842182 11 waggons rations

........"

to be continued.

User avatar
Aida1
Member
Posts: 2426
Joined: 04 Aug 2019 08:46
Location: Brussels

Re: Logistical data 6 th Army Fall Blau

Post by Aida1 » 24 Nov 2022 15:51

" Telex
From AOK6/OQu to 1)OKH /Gen.OQu
2) Command center B OKH/Gen.Qu
3) chief of staff AOK 6

Point 1 of day report 13.8.1942

Supply situation

Inflow of fuel in Millerowo was sufficient.
Low volume of fire. Until now trains with heavy artillery ammo arrived neither in Ostrogoshk nor in Millerowo. From the special action requested in the last day report to quickly deliver this ammo nothing has become known to the Army until now.
The inflow of rations - on 13.8 11 waggons with rations have arrived - is still fully insufficient. It is again urgently requested to daily move up one rations train to the Army as was also promised by Oberst i.G. Weinknecht at 12.8.
After consultation,with Bv.T.O. 6 , Kodeis 6 , General Transportwesen Heeresgruppe B and Oberstleutnant i.G. von Schönfeldt , OKH Planungsabteilung the intention does not exist to assign Kodeis 6 with the buiding of the main supply rail line of the Army from Lichaja to the Don.
AOK 6 requests again to obtain in this matter from Feldtransportchef that this rail line vital for the AOK is rebuilt by Kodeis 6 , at least that the Kodeis that is assigned for the building mission seconds a liaison commando to AOK 6 OQu ,so that the Army has the possibility of immediate influence on the building. "

User avatar
Aida1
Member
Posts: 2426
Joined: 04 Aug 2019 08:46
Location: Brussels

Re: Logistical data 6 th Army Fall Blau

Post by Aida1 » 24 Nov 2022 18:31

" From Armeekommando 6 OQu
to OKH Gen.Qu

Day report for 14.8.1942

1)Supply situation

See special report

2) a)Ammo consumption 210 to

b) fuel consumption 846 cbm Otto 207 cbm Diesel



3) Stocks of the troop

a)ammo :

s.J.W. 75 %
l.F.H. 75 %
s.F.H. 55 %
10 cm Kan. K18 20% , at 16. Pz div no stock

b) fuel : see special report to command center B on fuel situation

c) rations
Troop is supplied for 2 days, bread for 3 days. At most divisions there is however a shortage of evening food.The rations moved up by railroad have not yet reached the troop. No stocks in hard fodder. The horses are almost exclusively fed with green feed.

4) Stocks in army depots

V.St.P Manoilin Supply goods arrived are almost entirely immediately issued to the troop(accurate reports are not available).
Fuel stock : 100 cbm Otto

V.St.P Bokowskaja
1220 to ammo from which
250 to s.J.W.
700 to l.F.H.

210 to rations of which
100 to flour
80 to bread

Transshipment point Millerowo: no stocks

Rear depots

Transshipment position Kupjansk/ 1690 to ammo
AVL Starowerowka 4390 to rations of which
1310 flour
135 to salt
585 to vegetables
1540 to oats and canned fodder
1650 cbm Otto 350 cbm Diesel

A.M.L. Starowerowka
2430 to ammo of wchich
205 to s.J.W.
120 to l.F.H.
1510 to s.F.H.

Vst.P. Charkow
2410 to ammo of which
730 to s.J.W.
240 to l.F.H.
670 to s.F.H.
6450 to rations


5) Range of the army stocks

vegetables 35 days
canned meat 19 days
live cattle 21 days
evening food 21 days
fat 18 days
flour 18 days
oats and canned fodder 7 days

6) Delivery by train

in Millerowo
F.Nr 411419a 5 waggons ammo
F.Nr 435513 26 waggons rations
F.Nr 842182 9 waggons rations
F.Nr 422774 13 waggons fuel
F.Nr 794860 12 waggons ammo
F.Nr 44994 37 waggons fuel
F.Nr 44271 13 waggons rations


........"

to be continued.

User avatar
Aida1
Member
Posts: 2426
Joined: 04 Aug 2019 08:46
Location: Brussels

Re: Logistical data 6 th Army Fall Blau

Post by Aida1 » 24 Nov 2022 18:44

" Telex
From AOK6/OQu to 1)OKH /Gen.OQu
2) Command center B OKH/Gen.Qu
3) chief of staff AOK 6

Point 1 of day report 14.8.1942

Supply situation

Negligible volume of fire.
Still high fuel consumption at all divisions.
The ammo for heavy artillery did not arrive in time. AOK 6 again requests fast delivery because the only very low stocks of the troop could be fired on 15.8. There is no ammo anymore in the Army stocks for 5 cm KwK lg and 7,5 cm KwK lg. Delivery of sufficient quantities is urgent.
By the arrival of rations in Millerowo rations can again be issued to the divisions in ca 2 to 3 days.
AOK 6 requests urgently to continue the delivery of rations to Millerowo regularly and sufficiently because in increasing measure the supply from the land for the divisions will become impossible..."

User avatar
Aida1
Member
Posts: 2426
Joined: 04 Aug 2019 08:46
Location: Brussels

Re: Logistical data 6 th Army Fall Blau

Post by Aida1 » 25 Nov 2022 08:54

" From Armeekommando 6 OQu
to OKH Gen.Qu

Day report for 15.8.1942

1)General supply situation

See special report

2) a) Ammo consumption: higher volume of fire than on earlier days, no exact numbers available

b) fuel consumption : 651 cbm Otto 131 cbm Diesel

c) 1 VS of the Army : 1976 cbm Otto , 540 cbm Diesel

3) Stocks of the troop

a)ammo : see annexe

b) fuel : see special report to command center B on fuel situation

c) rations
The reported difficulties continue. Besides flour and meat, no substantial supplies can be gotten from the land anymore.

4) Stocks in army depots

V.St.P Manoilin : Arriving supply goods arrived are for the largest part immediately issued to the troop
ammo stocks ca 80 to

V.St.P Bokowskaja
1220 to ammo from which
270 to s.J.W.
610 to l.F.H.

280 to rations of which
160 to flour
80 to bread
no fuel

Transshipment point Millerowo: no stocks

Rear depots

Transshipment position Kupjansk
1690 to ammo
4260 to rations

A.V.L. Starowerowka
1600 cbm Otto 300 cbm Diesel

A.M.L. Starowerowka
2430 to ammo of wchich


Vst.P. Charkow
2140 to ammo
6450 to rations


5) Range of the army stocks

vegetables 22 days
canned meat 10 days
live cattle 21 days
evening food 15 days
fat 17 days
flour 24 days
oats and canned fodder 6 days

6) Delivery by train

in Millerowo
F.Nr 474271 28 waggons rations
F.Nr 842182 1 waggon rations
under F.Nr 449492 and F.Nr 479434 13 fuel arrived. No exact waggon numbers can be given as the present report is unclear. ........

......."

to be continued.

User avatar
Aida1
Member
Posts: 2426
Joined: 04 Aug 2019 08:46
Location: Brussels

Re: Logistical data 6 th Army Fall Blau

Post by Aida1 » 25 Nov 2022 09:06

" Telex
From AOK6/OQu to 1)OKH /Gen.OQu
2) Command center B OKH/Gen.Qu
3) chief of staff AOK 6

Point 1 of day report 15.8.1942

Supply situation

Volume of fire stays within normal limits.
Still lack of ammo for heavy artillery ,do devices and KwK. The volume of firre in KwK today could not be replaced.
Sufficient rations could be brought forward in the AVL Bokowskaja on 15.8. ." Through this the supply situation at the troop can slightly get better in 2 days.
Because of the fast advance of the Pz divisions, high fuel consumption which will continue in the next days. Sufficient delivery of fuel therefore urgent."

User avatar
Aida1
Member
Posts: 2426
Joined: 04 Aug 2019 08:46
Location: Brussels

Re: Logistical data 6 th Army Fall Blau

Post by Aida1 » 25 Nov 2022 09:58

" From Armeekommando 6 OQu
to OKH Gen.Qu

Day report for 16.8.1942

1)General supply situation

See special report

2) a) 355 to
b) fuel consumption : 853 cbm Otto 161 cbm Diesel


3) Stocks of the troop(16.8 morning)

a)ammo :

s.Inf.W 80% at XVII AK 65%
le.F.H. 80%
s.F.H. 60% at 22.Pz div. 20%

b) fuel : see special report to command center B on fuel situation

c) rations

Troop is supplied with meat and bread for 3 days. The evening food in delivery will probably arrive on 17.8 at the troop , so that the supply situation will be somewhat better.
The difficulties in the fodder situation still exist.

4) Stocks in army depots

V.St.P Manoilin :
580 to ammo of which
80 to s.J.W.
250 to l.F.H.
300 cbm fuel
170 to rations immediately issued to the troop

V.St.P Bokowskaja
1170 to ammo from which
260 to s.J.W.
560 to l.F.H.
no s.F.H.
50 cbm Otto 20 cbm Diesel
490 to rations

Transshipment point Millerowo: no stocks

Rear depots

Transshipment position Kupjansk
1690 to ammo
1500 cbm Otto 270 cbm Diesel
4260 to rations

A.M.L. Starowerowka
2430 to ammo


Vst.P. Charkow
2140 to ammo
6450 to rations


5) Range of the army stocks

vegetables 24 days
canned meat 12 days
live cattle 20 days
evening food 18 days
fat 19 days
flour 25 days
oats and canned fodder 6 days

These quantities are mostly in rear depots

6) Delivery by train

in Millerowo
F.Nr 423506 14 waggons ammo
F.Nr 474271 5 waggons rations
F.Nr 0793889 1 waggon ammo
F.Nr 794862 18 waggons ammo
F.Nr 464534 14 waggons ammo
F.Nr 422773 23 waggons fuel
F.Nr 419423 22 waggons fuel

......."

to be continued.

User avatar
Aida1
Member
Posts: 2426
Joined: 04 Aug 2019 08:46
Location: Brussels

Re: Logistical data 6 th Army Fall Blau

Post by Aida1 » 25 Nov 2022 10:27

" Telex
From AOK6/OQu to 1)OKH /Gen.OQu
2) Command center B OKH/Gen.Qu
3) chief of staff AOK 6

Point 1 of day report 16.8.1942

General supply situation

Moderate ammo consumption.
Lack of ammo for 10 cm Kan. and 21 cm Mrs not yet remedied.
Because of attack higher fuel consumption. Continuous supply of fuel in the volume of 1000 cbm daily as before necressary.
Supply situation see point 3,c.
In the actual combat area of the Army there is nothing to be found for man and horse.
The poor steppe grass cannot maintain the strength of the horses. Absoutely necessary therefore is the supply of oats and canned fodder which were not delivered to Millerowo until now.
Delivery of rations to Millerowo at 16.8 was sufficient except oats.
AOK believes it can get through further operations by living from hand to mouth when rations further continuously flow in to Millerowo.
Supply route of the Army columns again 300 km. Acceleration of the building of the rail stretch Porschkin to the Don urgent because then the supply route will be reduced to 75-125 km."

User avatar
Aida1
Member
Posts: 2426
Joined: 04 Aug 2019 08:46
Location: Brussels

Re: Logistical data 6 th Army Fall Blau

Post by Aida1 » 25 Nov 2022 19:38

" From Armeekommando 6 OQu
to OKH Gen.Qu

Day report for 17.8.1942

1)General supply situation

See special report

2) a) volume of fire ammo 275 to
b) fuel consumption : 711 cbm Otto 157 cbm Diesel

3) Stocks of the troop(17.8 morning)

a)ammo :

s.Inf.W 75% at XVII AK 60%
le.F.H. 85% at VIII AK 60%
s.F.H. 60% at at XI AK 45% , at XVII AK 40%

b) fuel : see special report to command center B on fuel situation

c) rations

On average troop is supplied for 3 days, XVII AK for 5 days. It is again referred to the report of 16.8 . Especially, complaints abaut lack of horsefeed are piling up. In case of further abscence of hard fodder, higher losses of horses have to be anticipated in the near future.


4) Stocks in army depots

V.St.P Manoilin :
600 to ammo of which
60 to s.J.W.
200 to l.F.H.
no s.F.H.
175 to rations
no fuel

V.St.P Bokowskaja
1105 to ammo from which
245 to s.J.W.
525 to l.F.H.
no s.F.H.
50 cbm Otto 20 cbm Diesel
475 to rations of which
95 to flour
100 to vegetables

Rear depots

Transshipment position Kupjansk
1690 to ammo
4530 to rations of which
1390 to flour
420 to vegetables
1440 to oats and canned fodder

A.M.L. Starowerowka
2430 to ammo


Vst.P. Charkow
2140 to ammo
6500 to rations


5) Range of the army stocks

vegetables 27 days of which in forward depots 4
canned meat 11 days of which in forward depots 1
live cattle 23 days
evening food 19 days of which in forward depots 3
fat 18 days of which in forward depots 1
marmelade 12 days of which in forward depots 1
flour 23 days of which in forward depots 1
oats and canned fodder 6 days of which in forward depots nothing

6) Delivery by train

in Millerowo
F.Nr 793032 13 waggons ammo
F.Nr 474862b 10 waggons rations
F.Nr 419329a 11 waggons fuel
F.Nr 474443 7 waggons fuel
F.Nr 474443b 8 waggons fuel
F.Nr 796032a 10 waggons ammo
F.Nr 793894b 2 waggons rations
F.Nr 474443c 7 waggons fuel

......."

to be continued.
Last edited by Aida1 on 26 Nov 2022 08:33, edited 1 time in total.

User avatar
Aida1
Member
Posts: 2426
Joined: 04 Aug 2019 08:46
Location: Brussels

Re: Logistical data 6 th Army Fall Blau

Post by Aida1 » 25 Nov 2022 19:53

" Telex
From AOK6/OQu to 1)OKH /Gen.OQu
2) Command center B OKH/Gen.Qu
3) chief of staff AOK 6

Point 1 of day report 17.8.1942

General supply situation

Low volume of ammo fired.
Deficiency in heavy artillery ammo still exists. Until 18.8 can be arrived at the troop: Mörser ammo fulll 1.Ausstattung , s.F.H. , 10 cm Kan. and 15 cm Nebelwerfer 50-60 % 1.Ausstattung.
Fuel was not delivered in sufficient quantities on 17.8 in Millerowo, so that the divisions could not be filled up in accordance with consumption.
The works in the transshipment position Forchstadt are ongoing and are so pushed forward that the facilities and the bridge building are ready on 24.8. The same thing goes for the unloading facilities at the railway stations Porschkin and Tschernyschkow."

User avatar
Aida1
Member
Posts: 2426
Joined: 04 Aug 2019 08:46
Location: Brussels

Re: Logistical data 6 th Army Fall Blau

Post by Aida1 » 26 Nov 2022 08:33

" From Armeekommando 6 OQu
to OKH Gen.Qu

Day report for 18.8.1942

1)General supply situation

See special report

2) a) volume of fire ammo 250 to
b) fuel consumption : 750 cbm Otto 150 cbm Diesel

3) Stocks of the troop(18.8 morning)

a)ammo :

s.Inf.W 80-85% at XVII AK 55%
le.F.H. 80%
s.F.H. 45% at at XI AK 45% , at XVII AK 30%

b) fuel : see special report to command center B on fuel situation

c) rations

On average troop is supplied for 3-4 days. While the supply situation for the man improves , the fodder situation creates difficulties which in no way can be remedied by means from the land, because besides steppe grass there is no other fodder replacement.

4) Stocks in army depots

V.St.P Manoilin :
660 to ammo of which
65 to s.J.W.
230 to l.F.H.
no s.F.H.
110 to rations
no fuel

V.St.P Bokowskaja
980 to ammo from which
210to s.J.W.
360 to l.F.H.
no s.F.H.

390 to rations of which
90 to flour
no fuel

Rear depots

Transshipment position Kupjansk
1690 to ammo of which
200 to s.J.W.
100 to l.F.H.
210 s.F.H.

5330 to rations

900 cm Otto 100 cbm Diesel

A.M.L. Starowerowka
2430 to ammo


Vst.P. Charkow
2140 to ammo
7650 to rations


5) Range of the army stocks

vegetables 25 days of which in forward depots 2
canned meat 10 days of which in forward depots nothing
live cattle 23 days
evening food 17 days of which in forward depots 1
fat 18 days of which in forward depots 1
marmelade 12 days of which in forward depots 1
flour 22 days of which in forward depots 1/2
oats and canned fodder 6 days of which in forward depots nothing

6) Delivery by train

in Millerowo
F.Nr 794593 22 waggons fuel
F.Nr 479385 12 waggons rations
no further reports
......."

to be continued.

User avatar
Aida1
Member
Posts: 2426
Joined: 04 Aug 2019 08:46
Location: Brussels

Re: Logistical data 6 th Army Fall Blau

Post by Aida1 » 26 Nov 2022 08:47

" Telex
From AOK6/OQu to 1)OKH /Gen.OQu
2) Command center B OKH/Gen.Qu
3) chief of staff AOK 6

Point 1 of day report 18.8.1942

General supply situation

Moderate volume of ammo fired.
Deficiency in ammo for s.F.H. and 15 cm Nebelwerfer persists as before as the announced train did not arrive yet.
The filling up with fuel for the impending operations could not be done as the delivery was too low.
No rations at all arrived on 18.8.
The column capacity of the Army that was today available in Millerowo could not be used for a large part as the railways did not deliver enough supply goods.
Urgently needed is the fast delivery of hard fodder for the horses because their decline of forces is increasing dangerously "

User avatar
Aida1
Member
Posts: 2426
Joined: 04 Aug 2019 08:46
Location: Brussels

Re: Logistical data 6 th Army Fall Blau

Post by Aida1 » 26 Nov 2022 09:06

" From Armeekommando 6 OQu
to OKH Gen.Qu

Day report for 19.8.1942

1)General supply situation

See special report

2) a) volume of fire ammo 410 to
b) fuel consumption : 471 cbm Otto 86 cbm Diesel

3) Stocks of the troop(18.8 morning)

a)ammo :

s.Inf.W 75-80% at XVII AK 50%
le.F.H. 75%
s.F.H. 30-35% at at XI AK 45% , at XVII AK 30%

b) fuel : see special report to command center B on fuel situation

c) rations

Troop is on average supplied for 4 days. VIII AK and XIV Pz AK for 2 days.
Otherwise, supply situation as on earlier days; fodder situation remains especially difficult as before.

4) Stocks in army depots

V.St.P Manoilin :
740 to ammo of which
70 to s.J.W.
240 to l.F.H.
no s.F.H.
150 to rations
no fuel

V.St.P Bokowskaja
650 to ammo of which
135 to s.J.W.
315 to l.F.H.
no s.F.H.

315 to rations
No fuel

Rear depots

Transshipment position Kupjansk
1690 to ammo
5330 to rations
900 cm Otto 100 cbm Diesel

A.M.L. Starowerowka
2430 to ammo


Vst.P. Charkow
2140 to ammo
7650 to rations


5) Range of the army stocks

vegetables 24 days
canned meat 10 days
live cattle 24 days
evening food 16 days
fat 17 days
marmelade 11 days
flour 22 days
oats and canned fodder 11 days

These quantities are for the largest part in rear depots

6) Delivery by train

in Millerowo
after report for 18.8
F.Nr. 793769 18 waggons bridge building gear
on 19.8:
F.Nr 479385 22 waggons rations
F.Nr 493068 14 waggons ammo
F.Nr 793053 14 waggons ammo
F.Nr 794592 16 waggons fuel
F.Nr 474442 12 waggons fuel
F.Nr 793054 13 waggons ammo


......."

to be continued.

User avatar
Aida1
Member
Posts: 2426
Joined: 04 Aug 2019 08:46
Location: Brussels

Re: Logistical data 6 th Army Fall Blau

Post by Aida1 » 26 Nov 2022 09:26

" Telex
From AOK6/OQu to 1)OKH /Gen.OQu
2) Command center B OKH/Gen.Qu
3) chief of staff AOK 6

Point 1 of day report 19.8.1942

General supply situation

Somewhat higher volume of fire than on earlier days.Higher fuel consumption
The railway delivery in Millerowo on 19.8 was again insufficient.
The breakdown of the transshipment in Ostrogoshsk through rainfall has had such an effect on the fuel delivery that the XIV Pz AK will only be filled up from 1,5 to 2,5 VS. on 22.8 .
The supply of the forces advancing over the Don will be secured by the establishment of a supply base at Kissljakow from 20.8 ..... "

User avatar
Aida1
Member
Posts: 2426
Joined: 04 Aug 2019 08:46
Location: Brussels

Re: Logistical data 6 th Army Fall Blau

Post by Aida1 » 26 Nov 2022 19:00

" From Armeekommando 6 OQu
to OKH Gen.Qu

Day report for 20.8.1942

1)General supply situation

See special report

2) a) volume of fire ammo 430 to
b) fuel consumption : 417 cbm Otto 56 cbm Diesel
c) 1 VS of the Army : 1848 cbm Otto 444 cbm Diesel
3) Stocks of the troop

a)ammo :

s.Inf.W 75-80%
le.F.H. 80%
s.F.H. 40-45% at at XI AK 45% , at XIV Pz AK 65%

b) fuel : see special report to command center B on fuel situation

c) rations

Troop is on average supplied for 4 days. Fodder situation as before insufficient

4) Stocks in army depots
V.St.P Kissljakow supply goods in delivery

V.St.P Manoilin :
440 to ammo of which
20 to s.J.W.
40 to l.F.H.
no s.F.H.
310 to rations of which
100 to flour
no fuel

V.St.P Bokowskaja
210 to ammo of which
25 to s.J.W.
5 to l.F.H.
no s.F.H.

450 to rations
No fuel

Rear depots

Transshipment position Kupjansk
1690 to ammo
4900 to rations
450 cm Otto 50 cbm Diesel

A.M.L. Starowerowka
2430 to ammo


Vst.P. Charkow
2140 to ammo
8760 to rations


5) Range of the army stocks

vegetables 25 days
canned meat 9 days
live cattle 24 days
evening food 17 days
fat 18 days
marmelade 11 days
flour 22 days
oats and canned fodder 14 days

These quantities are for the largest part in rear depots

6) Delivery by train

in Millerowo
after report for 19.8
F.Nr. 418523 28 waggons fuel
on 20.8:
F.Nr 794860 17 waggons weapons and gear
F.Nr 418523 9 waggons fuel
F.Nr 470316 1 waggon fuel
F.Nr 435611 29 waggons rations

whether rations are for AOK 6 is still unclear

......."

to be continued.

Return to “WW2 in Eastern Europe”