Balkans in WW2

Discussions on WW2 in Eastern Europe.
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Mait
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Balkans in WW2

Post by Mait » 25 Jun 2002 14:10

Hello.

Can someone tell me what became of Montenegro after Italian armistice?
Was it formally an independent kingdom afterwards?

Best Regards,

Mait.

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Pzkpfw6/E
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Post by Pzkpfw6/E » 26 Jun 2002 04:49

Montenegro is a small country in south-eastern Europe.
It has population of about 620,000.
Its territory of 13,812 square kilometers is approximately the size of the U.S. state of Connecticut.
The population consists of a majority of Montenegrins (62%) along with Serbs (9%), Albanians (7%), Muslims (15%), Croats (1%) and others (based on the 1991 census).
The majority of the population belongs to the Orthodox Christian tradition (Montenegrins and Serbs); there is also a large Muslim population and smaller numbers of Roman Catholics.

The Political Structure

The official name: Republic of Montenegro

The form of government: Democratic Republic

The form of legislature: unicameral

The main political parties: Democratic Party of Socialists (president: Milo Djukanovic, new president of the Republic), People's Party (president: Novak Kilibarda), Liberal Alliance (president: Slavko Perovic), Social Democratic Party (president: Zarko Rakcevic), Albanian Democratic League (president: Mehmed Bardhi), and Albanian Democratic Union (president: Fermat Dinosa).

Recent Political Developments

Montenegro was one of the six republics of the former Yugoslavia. In 1992, following the disintegration of the former Yugoslavia, Montenegro entered a new federation with Serbia, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. This controversial decision (the Montenegrin liberal opposition boycotted the referendum under conditions of near war) is increasingly questioned and reassessed in Montenegro today. The federation with Serbia is not recognized by the United States nor by many other countries.

I hope this is helpful to you.

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Csaba Becze
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Post by Csaba Becze » 26 Jun 2002 09:33

Montenegro was an independent kingdom just till 1915. In this year, the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy defeated their army and invaded this country. After the first world war it was a part of Yugoslavia.

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Mait
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about montenegro

Post by Mait » 26 Jun 2002 13:22

Yes, I know where and what Montenegro is.

My question was, what was Montenegro formally after the Italian Armistice with Allies in 1943. To be more precise - how was Montenegro administrated in 1943-45. If I remember correctly, after the fall of Yugoslavia in 1941 Montenegro was "independent kingdom" under the control of Italy. I presume, it was occupied by Germans after september 1943. But how was it administrated? Did it have some sort of autonomy? Some sort of self-defense forces? Was it united with Albania? etc.

Best Regards,

Mait.

Octavianus
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Montenegro 1941-1943

Post by Octavianus » 26 Jun 2002 14:23

Ave Mait,

As it seems no else is going to bit this these, I will try to answer you my best.

Montenegro was taken in April 1941 by Italian troops from Albania, after they break through Yugoslav attack line around Northern Albania. The civil authority in Montenegro and Sandzak (15,000 square miles with some 380,000 inhabitants) was at the beginning enthrusted to the Temporary Montenegrian Administrative Commitee with 13 members, which was, naturally, subordinated to the Italian Military Administration. On 28 April 1941 the Royal Italian Civilian Commissiriat of Montenegro was formed with Italian civilian commissar in charge. From 22 May 1941 onwards the Montenegro was ruled by the High Civilian Commissiriat with high civilian commissionar, which was directly subordinated to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and who held in its hands the state administration authory. The competence of the Administrative Committee was reduced on 5 May to the Advising Council of Montenegrians. In small towns and municipials the old state apparatus was kept, while in a bit larger counties the delegates of the High Civilian Commissar were nominated as the heads of civilian administration. The ex-Gendarmerie as well as the Finance Guard were kept in field, in addition to the Carabinieri stations that were formed in all larger towns.
There also existed a Central National Committee for Liberation and the Independence of Montenegro, which, in cohesion with the Italian authorities, was making the arrangements for the declaration of the Montenegrian independence, and for the safe return of the Montenegrian Royal Family PETROVIC.

The areas of Western Macedonia and Kosovo (13,000 square miles with some 850,000 inhabitants) were also occupied by the Italians in the April War 1941. On 2 August 1941 the High Civilian Commissiriat for Kosovo, Debar and Struga was formed. ten days later, on 12 August, by the order of the Italian vice-king, the areas were annexed to Albania. Local prefectures were formed in Debar, Prizren, Pristina and Pec. The Italian occupation troops consisted of some units of Italian 9th Army plus some police, guardia di'finanza, customs and border guard troops.

After the capitulation of Italy in September 1943, the Italian occupation zones were taken by the Germans, id est came under the hurisdiction of the Command "Südost", and the military administration was introduced in Kosovo as well as in Montenegro.

At the beginning, the following field military-administration commands, each consisting of two to three Platzkommandaturen - Feldkommandatur STRUGA (FK-1041), Feldkommandatur PRIZREN (FK-1042) and Feldkommandatur CETINJE (FK-1040) were subordinated to the "Deutscher bevollmächtiger General in Albanien und Montenegro", Generalleutnant Theodor Geib; while the port of Ulcinj and some Montenegrian areas near the Lake of Skutari were under the Feldkommandatur SKADAR.

In December 1943, the Montenegro was taken out of jurisdiction of the Command "Südost".

The FK-1040 was renamed into the "Oberfeldkommandatur Montenegro" under the Generalleutnant Wilhelm Keiper, who became the "Deutscher bevollmächtiger General in Montenegro". In addition, the number of Feldkommandaturen was slightly increased.

Well, this is how the German military administration in Montenegro looked like when the German troops departed the country in spring 1944 after some harsh battles.

I hope my answer has helped you in any way.

Octavianus

Post Scriptum:
Why do you need these information? Estonia is far away from Montenegro:-)

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Mait
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Post by Mait » 26 Jun 2002 14:52

Thank You, this really helped. I am fascinated with WW2 history and most interested about the geographical places and countries that are less written about. So Balkans, East-Asia and Italy are my personal favourites.
Besides I am trying to make a little analysis (just for fun) about 3rd Reich political, economical and military situation at the time around Kursk battle.

Best Regards,

Mait.

Momo
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Montenegro

Post by Momo » 27 Jun 2002 05:34

After the Italian surrender, many of the Italian units in Montenegro went over to the Partisans as allied units. The Venezia Division was taken by a Cetnik force, but then given it's freedom on orders of British officers with the Cetniks.
When the Italians attemped to make Montenegro a kingdom by returning the Petrovic dynasty in unity with the Italian house, a mass revolt took place where only three cities/towns were held by Italian forces. The plan to return the Petrovic's failed and most Montnegrins either joined the Cetniks or Partisans.
The Partisans also had a hell of a time taking Montenegro, because in the winter of 1944, Colonel Pavle Djurisic reorginazied his Cetnik troops into the Montenegrin/Serbian Volunter Corps of two regiments. After being armed by General Nedic in Serbia they were able to push around the Partisans, and together with a battalian of the Serbian Volunteer Corps won some great victories.
General Nedic attemped to bring Montenegro into his Serbian state, but this was regected by Berlin after protests from Zagreb and some anti-Serbian Nazi officals.

Momo

PS-In the April War of 1941, the Italians only entered Montnegro after the other Yugoslav fronts surrendered, the Italian army in northern Albania was on the verge of defeat.

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Mait
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What happened to Albania after Italian surrender?

Post by Mait » 29 Jun 2002 11:46

To Octavianus and Momo.

You seem to be well informed about the history of the region, so could You give me same kind of information about Albania?

Also, could someone post some general information about Cetniks (I must look like an ignorant fool, but I know nothing about them :) )?


Best Regards,

Mait.

Momo
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Cetniks

Post by Momo » 02 Jul 2002 03:17

Mait
The Cetniks had a complicated history during WW II. They were anti-Axis but some units did enter into accomidations with the Axis, and some stayed totally anti-Axis. British officers were attached to the Cetniks until early 1944, and Americans until December 1944.
Some books you should try are:
The Rape of Serbia, M. Lees.
Web of Disinformation, David Martin.
Britian, Miahalovic and the Chetniks 1941-42, Dr. Simon Trew.

I understand the son of a British officers who fought with the Cetniks in southern Serbia is writing a book about the Kopaonik and Kosovo Cetniks and there fight against Germans, Bulgarians and Albanians.
This web site has good pics of Cetniks, many in British battle dress:
http://www.pogledi.co.yu/
http://www.pogledi.co.yu/galerija.html
It's in Serbian, but to the left are other pics, just click around.

Momo

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Mait
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Post by Mait » 12 Jul 2002 17:38

I found a web-site that has some information about Albania during WW2 after Italian surrender. So if anyone interested, here it is:

http://www.decani.yunet.com/albnazi.html

Best Regards,

Mait.

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Illion
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..

Post by Illion » 09 Aug 2002 18:45

Mait.. the link doesn't seem to work..
Are there any mirrors or backdoors to this site?

//Illion

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