Occupation costs Italy

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Occupation costs Italy

Post by Carl Schwamberger » 09 Jun 2019 13:41

Over the past several decades I've acquired a impression the Allied occupation of southern Italy had a high cost in supplying the civil population with food, fuel, and medical service. Are there any studies, discussions, or other information of the costs for the Allies in occupying Italy, and any similar for Germany? The numbers for comparing costs of the campaigns there in military costs, casualties, formations, equipment are only half the picture. The cost to the Allies in cargo shipping to sustain the 'liberated' population might be a key statistic here.

Thanks to anyone who can point me in the correct direction.

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Re: Occupation costs Italy

Post by DrG » 09 Jun 2019 22:27

The Allied Military Programme provided the goods listed in the following table, which is from Appendix II of C.R.S. Harris, "Allied Military Administration of Italy 1943-1945", Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1957 (it's part of the British official history of the II World War). As you can notice, the total Allied expense was of 490 million US Dollars, of which 363 million were by the USA, 95 million by UK and 32 million by Canada.
Imports.jpg

It should be noted that the expenses of the Allied troops in Italy were covered by the emission of Allied Military Liras, issued by the Allies but computed as a debt of the Italian Treasury, which had to redeem them after the War. They amounted at 86.028 billion Liras at 31 December 1945 and the total amount issued, which included the Allied expenses after this date, was of 113.896 billion Liras. The Italian Treasury had also to pay for Allied occupation expenses using Italian Liras issued by the Bank of Italy for a total of 31.245 billion Liras. Source: page 230 of Luciano Luciani, "L'economia e la finanza italiana di guerra nel secondo conflitto mondiale", Ente Editoriale per il Corpo della Guardia di Finanza, 2007.

For comparison, the aforementioned source (page 239) reports a total of 189 billion Liras paid by the Treasury of the Italian Social Republic to Germany for German troops stationing in its territory.

Given the hyperinflation in occupied Italy it is quite difficult to compare nominal amounts from different years and, even more, to convert them in US Dollars. I can only recall that in 1944 and 1945 the official USD/ITL exchange rate was 100 Liras for 1 Dollar.
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Re: Occupation costs Italy

Post by Carl Schwamberger » 09 Jun 2019 23:32

Thanks for the information. That can be compared in some rough ways to war costs elsewhere. It is difficult to translate that into tons material, or cargo shipping. Perhaps a look at a couple specific items like coal & grain/food are the best bet.

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Re: Occupation costs Italy

Post by DrG » 13 Jun 2019 18:57

Carl Schwamberger wrote:
09 Jun 2019 23:32
Thanks for the information. That can be compared in some rough ways to war costs elsewhere. It is difficult to translate that into tons material, or cargo shipping. Perhaps a look at a couple specific items like coal & grain/food are the best bet.
You are welcome, but I admit I don't understand your comment: along with the costs (which are measured by units of account, i.e. dollars) the table that I have attached provides also the amounts of material, measured in thousands of tons. Then, of course, it's extremely difficult to translate them into an equivalent amount of cargo shipping, given also that probably a part of the merchant ships tonnage was used also to supply Allied troops.

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Re: Occupation costs Italy

Post by Carl Schwamberger » 13 Jun 2019 19:56

I'm afraid the table is not very legible. I'll try examining it on another device. Thanks.

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Re: Occupation costs Italy

Post by DrG » 13 Jun 2019 22:44

I attach the pages of Appendix II of the pdf file of the book, this is the highest resolution that I can provide.
Harris - Allied Military Administration of Italy, 1943-1945. Appendix II.pdf
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Re: Occupation costs Italy

Post by Carl Schwamberger » 13 Jun 2019 23:55

Looked at it on a better device. That is most of what I was looking for. The cargo ships required are no impossible to estimate. Expect I'll have some help with that.

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Re: Occupation costs Italy

Post by OpanaPointer » 14 Jun 2019 00:27

The Army Green Book on military government may have more information.
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Re: Occupation costs Italy

Post by Carl Schwamberger » 14 Jun 2019 03:02

Thanks. Love the old Green books

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Re: Occupation costs Italy

Post by Carl Schwamberger » 17 Jul 2019 00:54

Just to do some fuzzy number calculations...

The chart provided shows a total of 5,953,700 tons delivers in 26 months. I'll assume these are long tons. This divides out to 228,988 tons per month. Or 7,633 tons per day.

Opening up Ruppenthals 'Logistics in Overlord' a couple comparisons can be found. First is the supply requirement basis for Operation OVERLORD. That was 900 tons daily for the first 90 days, per 'Division Slice'. That is the entire ground and tactical air forces ashore & support services divided by the number of division HQ. 44,000 men in the planning estimates. So, that 7,633 tons daily would be the supply basis for 8.48 division slice, or 373,120 men with all combat and support equipment. Thats is about a army of 3-4 corps groups, a army level support group, and four or more air wings. Note: this supply basis of 900 tons daily is to support full & continuous offensive action. What 21 Army Group was doing from 6th June through 30 July. Requirements for other armies will vary by date, activity, and location.

In terms of shipping a simplistic measurement can be had by the capacity of the Liberty Ship. 10,685 long tons. One Liberty ship can deliver 140% of the average daily Italian import weight. Thats hypothetically 21.43 cargo ships per month.

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Re: Occupation costs Italy

Post by DrG » 18 Jul 2019 00:11

Very interesting, thank you.
Given that the source of the table that I have provided was an Italian publication, I guess that the tons are metric, not long.

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Re: Occupation costs Italy

Post by Carl Schwamberger » 18 Jul 2019 03:36

Something to check on. Its important if I try to refine these numbers. While crude these numbers suggest the Allies could have fielded a largish army elsewhere 1944-45 had they not supplied Italy with grain and coal. I suspect had the mainland not been invaded Sicilly & Sardinia would still have been occupied, and fed, but the difference would be large.

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Re: Occupation costs Italy

Post by Sheldrake » 18 Jul 2019 10:11

Carl Schwamberger wrote:
18 Jul 2019 03:36
Something to check on. Its important if I try to refine these numbers. While crude these numbers suggest the Allies could have fielded a largish army elsewhere 1944-45 had they not supplied Italy with grain and coal. I suspect had the mainland not been invaded Sicilly & Sardinia would still have been occupied, and fed, but the difference would be large.
This looks like another argument that the Italian campaign was unproductive.

Yes the allies could have fielded a largish army elsewhere, they could not have deployed it in NW Europe any faster. Nor were there other sensible places to deploy a largish army: Italy WAS the sensible sideshow.

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Re: Occupation costs Italy

Post by Carl Schwamberger » 18 Jul 2019 11:44

Your haste in jumping to conclusions never does you credit.

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