Inchon Landing Operation and Liberation of Seoul

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Kim Sung
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Post by Kim Sung » 18 Dec 2006 16:45

Peter H wrote:37 of the 47 LSTs used in the Inchon invasion were manned by Japanese crews.The Japanese LSTs were former US ships from WW2 transferred to the Japanese merchant service after the war
There was a special TV documentary five years ago about Japanese involvement in the Korean War. Three Japanese intelligence officers landed on Inchon and conducted operations in Korea.

In Wonsan (원산) operations, 1,200 Japanese troops participated with 25 vessels. And some casualties were also reported.

In July 1950 McCarthur even devised a plan to attack mainland China using two million Japanese forces on the condition that Taiwan's sovereignty be tranferred to Japan. However, this plan was cancelled thanks to the success of Inchon landing operation.

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Post by Kim Sung » 18 Dec 2006 17:02

Peter H wrote:The defenders of Seoul were the NKPA 25th Brigade.
The defenders of Seoul were
The NKPA 25th Brigade (4,000~5,000)

The 43rd Tank Regiment (500)

The 19th Anti-Aircraft Regiment (1,200)

The 76th Regiment of the 42nd Division (3,000)

The 78th Independent Regiment (2,000)

The 513 Artillery Regiment (1,500)

The 18th Division (8,000~10,000)

The 10th Railway Guards' Regiment (900)

The 31st Regiment of the 31st Division (3,600)

The 36th Battalion of the 111st Guards' Regiment (750)

The 75th Independent Regiment (2,000)

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Kim Sung
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Post by Kim Sung » 18 Dec 2006 17:08

Peter H wrote:Sung,

Do you have troop numbers at Kimpo?
The 1st Air Division was hastily organized and included survivors of the 107th Security Regiment and the 226th Army Regiment. Exact numbers of this unit is still unknown.

The original 107th Security Regiment had 2,500 soldiers and and 226th Army Regiment had 2,000 soldiers. And the 877th Air Unit had 700 soldiers.

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Post by Peter H » 19 Dec 2006 13:32

US 1st Marine Division losses Inchon-Seoul--421 dead,2029 wounded.

Estimated NPKA losses-13,666 casualties,4692 captured,44 tanks


US Medal of Honor recipients:

Baldomero Lopez
http://www.medalofhonor.com/BaldomeroLopez.htm

Stanley Christianson
http://www.medalofhonor.com/StanleyChristianson.htm

Henry Commiskey
http://www.medalofhonor.com/HenryCommiskey.htm

Walter Monegan
http://www.medalofhonor.com/WalterMonegan.htm

Eugene Obregon
http://www.medalofhonor.com/EugeneObregon.htm

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Kim Sung
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Post by Kim Sung » 20 Dec 2006 04:36

As a result of Inchon landing operation, a long corridor from Taegu to Seoul was formed. Tens of thousands of North Korean forces got isolated in Choongchung and Cholla regions and started partisan warfare against South Korean forces. The last partisan Jung Soon-Duk (정순덕, 1933~2004) was captured in 1963. She fought for 13 years in forest areas of southern Korea. She was not released from prison until 1985. She didn't abandon her loyalty to Kim Il-Sung until she died in 2004.

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Post by Peter H » 20 Dec 2006 08:42

Its estimated that there were 40,000 or so Communist guerillas in the south after Inchon.Many South Korean 'volunteers' also joined their NKPA brethern.However on source I have states that the UN listed 67,228 guerillas killed in anti-guerilla operations.

UN and ROK forces conducted anti-guerilla operations until 1953.

10 Security Battalions manned by the National Police also existed.


Operation Rat Killer was one of the biggest of these operations:

http://www.usm.edu/armyrotc/militaryhis ... killer.ppt
The slowing down of maneuver allowed the UN to turn its attention to counterguerrilla operations.Behind the lines in South Korea there were over 8,000 guerrillas and bandits, 5,400 of whom were reported armed.Concentrated mainly in the mountains of the rugged Chiri-san area of southwestern Korea Although they were chiefly of nuisance value, there was always the chance that in the event of a major offensive, they could pose a real and dangerous threat to supply and communication lines and to rear areas.

During November 1951 there was an upsurge in raiding operations as the guerrillas launched well-coordinated attacks upon rail lines and installations.In mid-November Van Fleet ordered the ROK Army to set up a task force composed of the ROK Capital and ROK 8th Divisions, both minus their artillery units.Van Fleet wanted the group organized and ready to stamp out guerrilla activity by the first of December. Since the Chiri-san held the core of guerrilla resistance, Van Fleet directed that the first phase of the task force operations cover this mountainous stretch some twenty miles northwest of Chinju.

On 1 December the ROK Government declared martial law in southwestern Korea.Restricted the movement of civilians, established a curfew, and severed telephone connections between villages.On the following day Task Force Paik initiated its antiguerrilla campaign, Operation RAT KILLER.

Operation Ratkiller: Phase One
Encirclement Moving in from a 163-mile perimeter, Task Force Paik closed on the Chiri-san.
The ROK 8th Division pushed southward toward the crest of the mountains and the Capital Division edged northward to meet it.Blocking forces, composed of National Police, youth regiments, and security forces located in the area, were stationed at strategic positions to cut off escape routes.As the net was drawn tighter, groups of from ten to five hundred guerrillas were flushed, but only light opposition developed.After twelve days, Task Force Paik ended the first phase on 14 December with a total of 1,612 reported killed and 1,842 prisoners.


Operation Ratkiller: Phase Two
The hunt shifted north to Cholla Pukto Province for Phase II with the mountains around Chonju the chief objectives.
From 19 December to 4 January the ROK 8th and Capital Divisions ranged the hills and sought to trap the guerrillas and bandits hiding in the rough terrain.By the end of December it was estimated that over 4,000 men had been killed and another 4,000 had been captured.


Operation Ratkiller: Phase Three
When Phase III opened on 6 January, the task force returned to the Chiri-san to catch the guerrillas who had filtered back into the area after Phase I.On 19 January, the Capital Division carried out the most significant action of the campaign.While the ROK 26th Regiment took up blocking positions north of the mountains, the ROK 1st and Cavalry Regiments attacked from the south, in two consecutive rings.Although one small group broke through the inner ring, it was caught by the outer circle of troops.

Operation Ratkiller: Results
What was believed to be the core of the resistance forces in South Korea perished or was taken prisoner during this drive.When Phase III ended at the close of January, over 19,000 guerrillas and bandits had been killed or captured in the RATKILLER operation.The last phase became a mopping-up effort against light and scattered resistance.RATKILLER officially terminated on 15 March, when the local authorities took over the task.

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Post by Kim Sung » 20 Dec 2006 09:02

Choi Kyoung-Rok (최경록) also started to build his brilliant career in anti-partisan operations.

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Post by Kim Sung » 20 Dec 2006 09:07


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Post by Peter H » 21 Dec 2006 01:29

The US Army contribution to Inchon should also be mentioned.
The U.S. X Corps, at its embarkation, numbered slightly less than 70,000 men. Included as its major units were the 1st Marine Division, the 7th Division, the 92d and 96th Field Artillery Battalions, the 56th Amphibious Tank and Tractor Battalion, the 19th Engineer Combat Group, and the 2d Engineer Special Brigade.


US 7th infantry Division

Beefed up to around 23,000 men with 8,000 ROK members,including the ROK 17th Regiment.

http://www.army.mil/cmh/books/pd-c-09.htm
Compensating, numerically at least, for this slight understrength of the 7th Division, MacArthur, after conceiving the idea that South Korea might be called on to provide soldiers for American units, attached more than 8,000 Koreans to the division. On 11 August he directed General Walker to procure, screen, and ship to Japan for use in augmenting the 7th Division approximately 7,000 able-bodied male Koreans. Fortunately the ROK Government cooperated since no American commander had authority beyond merely requesting these men. As a commentary on the desperation out of which this measure was born, General Wright on 17 August talked to the chief of staff, GHQ, by telephone from Korea. He told him that about 7,000 Koreans were being shipped out of Pusan that day. "They are right out of the rice paddies," he said, "and have nothing but shorts and straw hats. I understand they have been inoculated, given a physical examination and have some kind of paper. I believe we should get busy on equipment." These Korean men were brought to Japan, equipped and trained briefly, and then attached to the 7th Division.

187th Airborne RCT

The 187th was airlifted into Kimpo airport:

http://www.armyhistory.org/armyhistoric ... xCompID=32
With the outbreak of the Korean War in June 1950, the 187th, now a parachute unit, was called up for duty. Under the command of COL Frank S. Bowen, the 187th was paired up with the 674th Field Artillery Battalion and supporting units to form the 187th Airborne Regimental Combat Team (RCT).

The RCT left Camp Stoneman, CA, on 6 September 1950 and arrived in Japan on 20 September. Four days later, it was airlifted to Kimpo Airfield near Seoul, where it successfully cleared the Kimpo Peninsula.

The story of the McGovern brothers who both served with the 187th and died in Korea:

http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/rmmcgove.htm

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Post by Peter H » 21 Dec 2006 03:58

The award winning photos of the Inchon landing done by the British photographer Bert Hardy.

From Picture Post,7th October 1950.

http://photography.about.com/library/we ... 112299.htm
Bert Hardy was among the many who went to Korea. One of many stories he used to tell was that of the Inchon landing, which started as light was failing in the evening. On the approach to the landing he was shooting at around 1/25 at f2 on fast black and white film. When they reached the beach there was a concrete wall in their way, with hostile fire coming over the top of it, and none of the assault party was keen to go over it. Eventually Hardy climbed over the wall and led the assault because he realised the light was going fast and he couldn't afford to wait! When they saw he was still alive the others followed.

He kept shooting with his Leica loaded with fast black and white film until the light was down to 1/8 at f4, then made it back to the landing craft, only to be told they had actually landed on the wrong beach and were coming under fire from their own side. Hardy was however the only photographer to get pictures of the initial landing as the American press photographers present were all using Speed Graphics with f4.5 lenses and had to wait for the light to come up the next day to take pictures.
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Post by Peter H » 24 Dec 2006 09:27

"How armor was employed in the urban battle of Seoul"

http://www.korean-war.com/Archives/2002 ... 00045.html

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Post by Peter H » 24 Dec 2006 09:33

Kim Sung wrote: In July 1950 McCarthur even devised a plan to attack mainland China using two million Japanese forces on the condition that Taiwan's sovereignty be tranferred to Japan. However, this plan was cancelled thanks to the success of Inchon landing operation.
Actually MacArthur flew to Taiwan in July 1950 for talks with Chiang.His ultimate plan was to use Nationalist Chinese troops in a two prong pincer amphibious assault,one on the east coast of Korea,one on the west.At the same time nuclear bombs were to be dropped along the Yalu River,sealing off the Chinese border with a radiation belt.

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Post by Peter H » 24 Dec 2006 13:04

The NKPA 10th Division was also cut off and turned to guerilla war in January 1951.Ridgeway organised Operation Champion to wipe it out.

Subsequently the 10th Division lost around 7,000 of its members but around a thousand fighters and the divisional HQ did manage to breakout and return to NK lines in April 1951.

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Post by Kim Sung » 24 Dec 2006 14:05

Peter H wrote:The NKPA 10th Division was also cut off and turned to guerilla war in January 1951.Ridgeway organised Operation Champion to wipe it out.

Subsequently the 10th Division lost around 7,000 of its members but around a thousand fighters and the divisional HQ did manage to breakout and return to NK lines in April 1951.
The NKPA 10th Division was so notorius a unit to the American forces that Americans call it the unit of walking paratroopers. The US 10th corps overwhelmed the NKPA 10th Division in number and equipments but was defeated by it. Irritated by North Korean troops' exploits, 10th Corps commander Almond ordered indiscriminate bombings of South orean villages. Hundreds of South Korean civilians were sacrificed by indiscriminate US bombings. One example was the bombing of Sansung-ri (산성리) on January 10, 1951. Thirty-four residents were killed by US bombing and 30 missing and 72 wounded. This is one of the nororious war crimes committed by the Americans during the war.

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The NKPA 10th Division became a legend in North Korea. Even Park Jung-Hee's South Korean 9th division was nearly surrounded by the NKPA 10th Division.

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Post by Peter H » 25 Dec 2006 11:49

This is one of the nororious war crimes committed by the Americans during the war.
Do South Koreans also acknowledge that Korean civilians were shot by ROK and the National Police?

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