The 100 Most Important Women in World History

Discussions on other historical eras.
User avatar
Kim Sung
Member
Posts: 5037
Joined: 28 May 2005 13:36
Location: The Last Confucian State

The 100 Most Important Women in World History

Postby Kim Sung » 12 Feb 2009 02:22

sylvieK4 wrote:Exactly what do you mean by that remark? It is only accurate if "many Spanish and other western members of this forum" encourage others to view all sides of a given situation and refrain from bias and uninformed favoritism, because that is the only message of my post.


So far, I've seen just a few western members who regret western atrocities in the non-western world including today's Latin America. My impression is that European imperialist oppression and exploitation in Asia, Africa and Latin America is still not fully regretted in today's western world. I don't think that today's western world is taking a frank, balanced approach to their history of conquest. How do Spanish school textbooks describe Spanish atrocities in the Americas? How do British school textbooks describe the Opium War? How do French school textbooks describe French atrocities in their colonies?


sylvieK4 wrote:From your last post, it appears you are hoping for an argument where one party will try to defend the actions of the Spaniards so that you can criticize them for promoting some pro-Western elitism or partisanism. There has been no attempt to justify the actions of the Spanish or to rehabilitate their image in public opinion and, until your last post, there was no discussion of Social Darwinism - actual or implied. I am sorry to disappoint you, but no such discussion is being promoted here.


Your view is nothing new. It is a typical view which obscures European atrocities committed in the non-western world. Your view seems to be a theory that "You were wrong. I was also wrong. We were both wrong. So I don't need to apologize to you."


sylvieK4 wrote:There is an inherent dualism in all cultures, just as there is in all individuals. Portraying one side of the Spanish-Aztec conflict as rapists, murderers or conquerors and the other merely as victims is apologia and it is misleading.


My focus here is on Spanish atrocities to indigenous peoples in the Americas, not specifically the Aztec-Spanish conflict. I don't think that the Aztecs represent the Indigenous peoles in the Americas. You didn't answer my questions. Were the Spanish conquerors more generous to those weaker Indian tribes liberated from the yoke of the Aztec rule? Were the Spaniards gentle towards indigenous peoples in other parts of Latin America that were beyond reach of oppressive rule of the Aztecs and the Incas?


sylvieK4 wrote:Obviously a very biased depiction, showing a beaten people, lying dead or now bowing to Spanish cruelty and might. No doubt it is accurate, but to be truly balanced, why not include an image of a captured conquistidor bleeding to death atop an Aztec pyramid and his Aztec murderer standing over him with a knife in his hands?


How many cases of Aztecs torturing captured conquistadors existed? If such cases had existed, it was a minor incident compared to Spanish atrocities or would have been a retaliatory action to Spanish atrocities. If we need a so-called balanced approach on the Holocaust, why not always include an image of a Jewish guard torturing Volga German inmates in a Soviet Gulag or an image of a Jewish Soviet soldiers raping a German woman in East Prussia? The Germans were brutal and the Jewish element within the Soviets were brutal. Then, would it be a biased approach if we basically regard the Nazis as murderers and the Jews as victims?

Jewish atrocities against the Volga Germans
viewtopic.php?f=6&t=95313

James A Pratt III
Member
Posts: 609
Joined: 30 Apr 2006 00:08
Location: Texas

Re: The 100 Most Important Women in World History

Postby James A Pratt III » 23 Feb 2009 23:54

In Lady Antonia Fraser's books "The Warrior Queens" and "The Weaker Vessel" there plenty of great, mid-level, and not so great women in history. In "Giant of the Grand Siecle: The French Army 1610-1715" by John A Lynn. Mentions a couple of women warriors:
Mde De St-Baslemont 1639-39 lead gentlemen, peasants and locals against bandits.
Philis De La Tour leads her vassals and peasants against the Duke of Savoy during the 9 years war.
One hopes this is of some interest.

sylvieK4
Member
Posts: 2737
Joined: 13 Mar 2002 17:29

Re: The 100 Most Important Women in World History

Postby sylvieK4 » 25 Feb 2009 21:24

Kim Sung wrote:....If we need a so-called balanced approach on the Holocaust, why not always include an image of a Jewish guard torturing Volga German inmates in a Soviet Gulag or an image of a Jewish Soviet soldiers raping a German woman in East Prussia? ...


Exactly! Or Volga Germans or East Prussians beating and raping Jews. We could go on all day, every day, ad infinitum, giving example after example of negative events that illustrate the violent and predatory side of humanity, and that is precisely the point of those earlier posts! There is duality in all people; there is good and bad in every group. Can you understand? Every group. The world is not divided into (to use your infered analogy) good East, bad West. There is no "we"/"they", and no purely, inately good human group, nor any purely evil. Pointing out the flaws in one group does not negate flaws exhibited by another. Similarly, to acknowledge that one group committed atrocities does not negate atrocities committed by another. That there has been no justification for atrocities on any "side" has been repeatedly addressed in my earlier posts, but acknowledging this clearly does not fit with your agenda.

To return to the actual topic - 100 Most Important Women in World History (and the crux of that matter you have repeatedly dodged): By elevating of a rape victim to "most important" status because she may or may not have been raped by Spaniards you have, perhaps unwittingly, elevated the Spaniards themselves. According to your own thesis, the rape victim is wholly defined by her rapists, for without her victimization she no longer represents the brutal clash of Spaniard and American native you emphasized in nominating her.

Your view is nothing new. It is a typical view which obscures European atrocities committed in the non-western world. Your view seems to be a theory that "You were wrong. I was also wrong. We were both wrong. So I don't need to apologize to you."


That is your interpretation. It is not accurate, but through it, you are revealing more about your own misplaced anger, your own resentment, and your own Western-phobic prejudices. But it is gratifying that you now feel comfortable enough on the forum to finally drop your guise of pseudo-compassion and share your true feelings with us. Thank you.

User avatar
Kim Sung
Member
Posts: 5037
Joined: 28 May 2005 13:36
Location: The Last Confucian State

The 100 Most Important Women in World History

Postby Kim Sung » 26 Feb 2009 05:51

sylvieK4 wrote:Exactly! Or Volga Germans or East Prussians beating and raping Jews. We could go on all day, every day, ad infinitum, giving example after example of negative events that illustrate the violent and predatory side of humanity, and that is precisely the point of those earlier posts! There is duality in all people; there is good and bad in every group. Can you understand? Every group. The world is not divided into (to use your infered analogy) good East, bad West. There is no "we"/"they", and no purely, inately good human group, nor any purely evil. Pointing out the flaws in one group does not negate flaws exhibited by another. Similarly, to acknowledge that one group committed atrocities does not negate atrocities committed by another. That there has been no justification for atrocities on any "side" has been repeatedly addressed in my earlier posts, but acknowledging this clearly does not fit with your agenda.


I can't find anything new in your logic which is frequently used in the western world in justifying western atrocities committed in the non-western world. What your intention would be, your logic leads to justification of European wrongdoings in the non-western world. Your view is valid only if western people aknowledge their wrongdoings of the past. Can you imagine that the Germans stress the brutality of the Jewish element among the Soviets whereas they are strongly denying that they committed the genocide against the Jews?

My point here is not a black or white theory like good East & bad West, but 'remorselessness' of the western world on its colonial past filled with bloody conquest and exploitation on a global level.

And you're still avoiding answering my questions. How do Spanish school textbooks depict Spanish atrocities in the Americas? How do British school textbooks depict the Opium War? How do French school textbooks depict French atrocities in their colonies? Are these school textbooks depicting those incidents of the past on the basis that colonialism and imperialism are systems of oppression and exploitation? Except some purely academic debates, serious and frank discussion on the past of European exploitation of Africa, Asia and Latin America is hard to find in today's western world. For example, the western view puts an excessive emphasis on the influence of infectious diseases in annihilation of indigenous peoples in the Americas, obscuring the fact that it was also a result of European conquests.

And were the Spanish conquerors more generous to those weaker Indian tribes liberated from the yoke of the Aztec rule? Were the Spaniards gentle towards indigenous peoples in other parts of Latin America that were beyond reach of oppressive rule of the Aztecs and the Incas? Spanish ambition on the New World (El Nuevo Mundo) was aggressive and expolitative since when Columbus' fleet first landed on Caribean islands. In their second expedition to the New world, Columbus' men kidnapped some Taino people as slaves to Spain. In their first contact with Europeans in 1492, Taino people were friendly to European visitors and gave some help when Columbus men faced some difficulties.


sylvieK4 wrote:To return to the actual topic - 100 Most Important Women in World History (and the crux of that matter you have repeatedly dodged): By elevating of a rape victim to "most important" status because she may or may not have been raped by Spaniards you have, perhaps unwittingly, elevated the Spaniards themselves. According to your own thesis, the rape victim is wholly defined by her rapists, for without her victimization she no longer represents the brutal clash of Spaniard and American native you emphasized in nominating her.


Whether Tecuichpotzin is a rape victim or not is unclear. But she can be included to the list of 100 Most Important Women in World History in the meaning that she was the first native American woman who gave birth a new race thereby symbolizing subordination of Native American womanhood to European manhood. Not because she is a rape victim.


sylvieK4 wrote:That is your interpretation. It is not accurate, but through it, you are revealing more about your own misplaced anger, your own resentment, and your own Western-phobic prejudices. But it is gratifying that you now feel comfortable enough on the forum to finally drop your guise of pseudo-compassion and share your true feelings with us.


That is also your interpretation which is very Eurocentric. I just wanted to keep a moral balance in the forum where more than 95% of the posters are from Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand, which means that this forum is overrepresented by western views. There are so few posters from non-western world because they are given much less access to the internet in addition to language barrier. If the official language of this forum would have been Arabic or Chinese, you could have seen not only Eurocentric views but also much more diverse views here. And I don't have Western-phobic prejudices. I live in one of the few non-western countries that didn't experience European or American colonialism, so there is no reason for me to have anti-western sentiment. I think that I'm in a more neutral position than you.

User avatar
Kim Sung
Member
Posts: 5037
Joined: 28 May 2005 13:36
Location: The Last Confucian State

The 100 Most Important Women in World History

Postby Kim Sung » 01 Mar 2009 10:11

Back on topic, today is the 90th annversary of the March 1st Movement (삼일운동), the Korean people's uprising against Japanese imperialism. At the age of 16, Yoo Gwan-Soon (유관순, 1902~1920) led the uprising in her hometown and struggled to the end of her short life. Now she is eulogized as a national heroine in Korea.

Image

http://www.d7.dion.ne.jp/~sekai/yoogwan2.jpg

Since the Japanese invasion of 1910, Korea had been under the control of Japan. The Japanese banned the formation of any kind of political organization or assembly with guns and swords, and many who resisted the Japanese occupation met an untimely death, usually after severe torture. Therefore, most movements towards independence were formed in secret.

However, as the First World War came to an end in 1919, a new phase of independence movements in Korea began to emerge. After the war, the president of the United States, Woodrow Wilson, declared the Fourteen Points including a principle of humanism, and respect for the right of national self-determination. Korean nationalists, who yearned for independence, were motivated by Wilson and thought that respect for nation’s self-determination could act as a good foundation for Korea’s independence. So they went on with the plan to form a national demonstration. The death of the former emperor Kojong on January 22, 1919, provided them with a suitable occasion to advance with their plan. Since many people would be gathering for the King’s funeral and the death has fuelled Korean’s hatred up towards Japan, it was determined to be the best time for the Korean nationalists to hold the first public independent movement.

The date of the demonstrations was advanced to March 1 from March 3, which was the King’s funeral, in order to avoid police discovery. Student intermediaries had been enlisted to organize demonstrations in provincial cities. On March 1, thirty-three “national representatives”-signers of the Declaration of Independence-gathered at a restaurant dispatching copies of Declaration of Independence to people, and notified the police of their intentions. Simultaneously, the declaration was announced by students who supported the independence movement at Tapgol Park.

From that day until May, the 3.1 Independence movement spread all over the country. Thousands of Koreans went out of their houses and shouted Daehan dongnip manse which means, “Independent Korea will last forever” in Korean. Because the 3.1 Independence movement was planned to be unarmed, many Koreans who cried for the independence were injured or killed by the armed Japanese police. Yoo Gwan-soon, an 18 year-old (according to the Korean age system) young woman attending Ewha hakdang (the former name of Ewha Woman’s university) bravely demonstrated for independence. However, she was taken to a jail and died as a result of severe torture. During her incarceration, she continued her rebellion against Japanese rule of Korea.

Even though the 3.1 Independence movement failed to entirely rid Korea from the hated Japanese rule, the movement provided a catalyst for the expansion of the nationalist movement to the whole nation. Korea’s strong zeal for independence became widely known to other neighboring countries and triggered their independence movements as well.

http://evoice.ewha.ac.kr/news/articleVi ... idxno=1450

Ruling on Freedom Fighter Yu Gwan-sun Unveiled
http://english.chosun.com/w21data/html/ ... 70003.html

The Proclamation of Korean Independence on March 1st, 1919
viewtopic.php?p=1226256#p1226256


* It was King Kojong(고종)'s mysterous death that triggered the March 1st Movement. However, the rumor that the Japanese authorities were involved in poisoing King Kojong had not been substantiated so far except Empress Myeongsung(명성황후)'s cousin Min Young-Dal(민영달)'s account. Recently, an evidence has been found that proves Japanese authorities' deliberate poisoning of King Kojong.

http://news.chosun.com/site/data/html_d ... 01131.html

South
Financial supporter
Posts: 1968
Joined: 06 Sep 2007 09:01
Location: USA

Re: The 100 Most Important Women in World History

Postby South » 02 Mar 2009 10:28

Good morning Kim Sung,

Re: the posted article's [Yoo Gwan-soon,an 18 year old] "according to the Korean age system",

Can you amplify on this system?

I've run into different systems such as when studying Daniel Boone, a Virginia politican and explorer. He was born when the Julian calender changed over to the Georgorian calender. Thus, must ask about the referenced Korean age system.

Thanks in advance.

Warm regards,

Bob

User avatar
Kim Sung
Member
Posts: 5037
Joined: 28 May 2005 13:36
Location: The Last Confucian State

The 100 Most Important Women in World History

Postby Kim Sung » 02 Mar 2009 16:41

South wrote:Good morning Kim Sung,

Re: the posted article's [Yoo Gwan-soon,an 18 year old] "according to the Korean age system",

Can you amplify on this system?

I've run into different systems such as when studying Daniel Boone, a Virginia politican and explorer. He was born when the Julian calender changed over to the Georgorian calender. Thus, must ask about the referenced Korean age system.

Thanks in advance.

Warm regards,

Bob


These links would be helpful.

Koreans generally refer to their age in units called sal (살), using Korean numerals in ordinal form. Thus, a person is one sal during the first calendar year of life, and ten sal during the tenth calendar year.

The 100th day anniversary (named baegil (백일), literally, a hundred days) and the first anniversary of birth (named dol (돌)), call for large celebrations, and Koreans celebrate their birthdays, even though every Korean gains one year on New Year's Day. Because the first year comes at birth and the second on New Year's Day, a child born, for example, on December 29 will reach two years of age on January 1, when they are only three days old in western reckoning.

In modern Korea, the Western age system is widely known and referred to as man nai (만 나이, 만(滿) meaning "full", 나이 meaning "age"), although the traditional system is most often used. For example, man yeol sal means "full ten years", or "ten years old" in English. The Korean word dol means "years elapsed", identical to the English "years old," but is only used to refer to the first few birthdays. Cheotdol or simply dol refers to the first Western-equivalent birthday, dudol refers to the second, and so on.

In some countries, some people use the Western system and some use the East Asian system. Most Koreans, especially of the generation before the 1960s, consider themselves to be one sal older on New Year’s Day by the Gregorian calendar and celebrate their birthday by the lunar calendar instead of the Gregorian calendar. The birthday by the lunar calendar is called eumnyeok saeng-il (음력 생일, 陰曆生日) and yangnyeok saeng-il (양력 생일, 陽曆生日) is the birthday by Gregorian calendar.

For official government uses, documents, and legal procedures, the western age system is always used. Regulations regarding age limits on alcohol and tobacco use, as well as the age of consent, are all based on the western system (man nai).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_age#Korean


This is a somewhat messy issue. As far as I know, (except Turkey) South Korea is one and only country in the world in which three different age systems coexist chaotically. ( Even North Korea uses only "WESTERN AGE".) Here's a simple explanation with formulae. When a South Korean says his current age without specification in normal life, it is assumed to be a "KOREAN AGE(URI NAI)". ( Formula: "That year" - "The year of the birth" plus 1 ). However, in biographical documents, "YEAR AGE(YEON NAI)" is mostly used without specification. ( Formula: "That year" - "The year of the birth". ).

In offical and legal documents, both "WESTERN AGE(MAN NAI)" and "YEAR AGE" have been used with specification. Recently the usage of "YEAR AGE" is a tendency to increase in the law. ( As you know, "WESTERN AGE" is one year less than "YEAR AGE" if the birthday is not passed yet. )

Morever, about 1/3 of the population still celebrate their birthdays according to the lunar calendar, so only God may know how "OLD" they are. In daily life, "YEAR AGE" is often used as the substitute of "WESTERN AGE" because of the simple math. In media, there is no consensus at all on the age representation. They often use "KOREAN AGE" - 1 or 2 while specifying it as "WESTERN AGE". They even gave up the verification of the age according to the date of the birth long time ago...

viewtopic.php?p=1052627#p1052627

* It's originally based on the Chinese age reckoning system. In the past, Korea, China, Vietnam and Japan (the four countries belonging to the Chinese cultural sphere) used the same system. Today only the South Koreans are using this system. This system almost disappeared in China, North Korea, Vietnam and Japan. The Korean age system often makes people depressed because it makes people feel one or two years older than his or her real age. :roll:

South
Financial supporter
Posts: 1968
Joined: 06 Sep 2007 09:01
Location: USA

Re: The 100 Most Important Women in World History

Postby South » 11 Mar 2009 08:37

Good morning Kim Sung,

Thank you for the material. It clarified the matter.

Warm regards,

Bob

User avatar
The_Enigma
Member
Posts: 2270
Joined: 14 Oct 2007 14:59
Location: Cheshire, England

Re: The 100 Most Important Women in World History

Postby The_Enigma » 11 Mar 2009 16:12

So far, I've seen just a few western members who regret western atrocities in the non-western world including today's Latin America. My impression is that European imperialist oppression and exploitation in Asia, Africa and Latin America is still not fully regretted in today's western world. I don't think that today's western world is taking a frank, balanced approach to their history of conquest. How do Spanish school textbooks describe Spanish atrocities in the Americas? How do British school textbooks describe the Opium War? How do French school textbooks describe French atrocities in their colonies?


Why should we regret it? We didnt personnaly do it.
I dont agree that the Prime Minster applogised, a couple of years back, for the countires behaviour and involement in the slave trade.

Does Italy have to regret the atrocities commited by Rome or the modern day Germany have to regret her actions during WW2?

There is a differeance between regretting past actions and being taught about them, this latter i have no objection to. To answer your question i had never heard of the opium wars until after i left school however i was taugh about the slave trade and taken to the Maratime Museam in Liverpool as a child, by the school, to see the slave trade exhbit.
The year before last when i visited the houses of parliment there was also an exhibt set up to highlight the slave trade and our countires part in it although am unsure if it is still there.

User avatar
Galahad
Member
Posts: 861
Joined: 30 Mar 2002 00:31
Location: Las Vegas

Re: The 100 Most Important Women in World History

Postby Galahad » 19 Mar 2009 17:57

--Add the Empress Irene Serantapechaina, aka as Irene of Athens. She was consort to Byzantine (Later Roman) Emperor Leo IV and the mother of Emperor Constantine VI. When Leo died, she became Regent for her minor son. She liked the taste of power so much that she had her son blinded to prevent him from ruling (which worked; he died a bit later from the injuries), and assumed for herself the title of Emperor--Basileus Autokrator. She then ruled in her own right for 5 years. She was the only woman to rule the Roman Empire as Caesar. Further, her assumption of the throne caused, effectively, a revolution in Europe and changed the course of Western History.
--The man known to history as Charlemagne, King of the Franks, was working on a marriage with her, to strengthen both their positions. It would have united his empire with hers--which could have made a BIG change in history. Before the marriage could happen, Irene was overthrown and sent into exile.
--It was the fact that Irene occupied the throne of the Caesars that allowed the Pope--citing the Salic Law that banned women from succession--to declare that the throne was empty. He then crowned Charlemagne Emperor of the Romans. This founded the concept that the Papacy was superior to the Crown, causing no end of trouble and death for the next 800 or so years.
--Also, add Egypt's Maatkare, better known as Hatshepsut. She was wife and senior queen to Pharaoh Thutmose II, and became regent for the his minor son, the future Pharaoh Thutmose III, Egypt's greatest warrior Pharaoh, known as the Napoleon of Egypt.
--As with Irene, she promoted herself from Queen/Regent to Pharaoh (though without offing Thutmose) and ruled in her own name for some 15 to 20 years.....complete with false beard. She is even recorded as leading the Egyptian Army into battle.
--You can guess Thutmoses' opinion of all this by what happened when she died and he took over. He had her name erased from every monuument in Egypt, including her own temple.

User avatar
princeliberty10311517
Member
Posts: 621
Joined: 05 Jun 2009 21:26
Location: Alexandria Virginia - DC area

Re: The 100 Most Important Women in World History

Postby princeliberty10311517 » 09 Jun 2009 00:56

Potsdamerplatz wrote:I was thinking the other day just how important women are in the role of history, yet they seldom receive the credit they deserve. I thought it might be fun to compile a list of the Top 100 most important women in world history. Here are 14 to get us started and their contribution and importance to history should need no introduction.

* Cleopatra (69 BC - 30 BC)

* Joan of Arc (1412-1431)

* Queen Isabella I of Spain (1451-1504)

* Queen Elizabeth I of England (1533-1603)

* Mary, Queen of Scots (1542-1587)

* Catherine The Great (1729-1796)

* Marie Antoinette (1755-1793)

* Jane Austen (1775-1817)

* Queen Victoria of England (1819-1901)

* Florence Nightingale (1820-1910)

* Emmeline Pankhurst (1858-1928)

* Marie Curie (1867-1934)

* Eva Peron (1919-1952)

* Margaret Thatcher (1925- )


A list of another 86 choices might be a little harder to compile although I look forward to seeing nominess from other members.

Best regards.



1. The Virgin Mary! Even if you don't believe the impact on history is boundless.
2. Eve! Of course this depends on your faith. But the mother of mankind got to be the list (and somebody was the first!)
3. Sarah wife of Abraham!
4. Queen Elizabeth I of England.

I will have to think a lot more to decide who to put in the rest. It gets hard to say going over all history.

User avatar
Kim Sung
Member
Posts: 5037
Joined: 28 May 2005 13:36
Location: The Last Confucian State

The 100 Most Important Women in World History

Postby Kim Sung » 29 Jul 2010 10:34

I'd like to add Ecaterina Teodoroiu into the list in terms of woman's role as a combatant. She is a more impressive figure than Soviet woman aces of WWII, in stark contrast to the disastrous defeat during the Romanian Debacle.

A 1979 movie 'Ecaterina Teodoroiu' (Stela Furcovici as Ecaterina Teodoroiu)


Sid Guttridge
Member
Posts: 5378
Joined: 12 Jun 2008 11:19

Re: The 100 Most Important Women in World History

Postby Sid Guttridge » 29 Jul 2010 14:16

The feminist ceramic exhibition "The Dinner Party" offers 39 major and 999 miore minor candidates:

Wing I: From Prehistory to the Roman Empire
1. Primordial Goddess
2. Fertility goddess
3. Ishtar
4. Kali
5. Snake Goddess
6. Sophia
7. Amazon
8. Hatshepsut
9. Judith
10. Sappho
11. Aspasia
12. Boudica
13. Hypatia

Wing II: From the Beginnings of Christianity to the Reformation
14. Marcella
15. Saint Bridget
16. Theodora of Byzantium
17. Hrosvitha
18. Trotula of Salerno
19. Eleanor of Aquitaine
20. Hildegard of Bingen
21. Petronilla de Meath
22. Christine de Pisan
23. Isabella d'Este
24. Elizabeth I of England
25. Artemisia Gentileschi
26. Anna van Schurman

Wing III: From the American to the Women's Revolution
27. Anne Hutchinson
28. Sacajawea
29. Caroline Herschel
30. Mary Wollstonecraft
31. Sojourner Truth
32. Susan B. Anthony
33. Elizabeth Blackwell
34. Emily Dickinson
35. Ethel Smyth
36. Margaret Sanger
37. Natalie Barney
38. Virginia Woolf
39. Georgia O'Keeffe

[edit] Women represented on the ceramic floor tiles
The names of 999 more women are represented on the floor tiles (the names are spelled here as they appear on the tiles):

Abella of Salerno, Abigail Adams, Abigail, Adela of Blois, Adela Zambudia-Ribero (sic), Adelaide Labille-Guiard, Adelaide of Susa, Adelperga, Adelheid Popp, Aemilia, Æthelburg of Kent, Aethelflaed, Agatha, Ageltrude Benevento, Aglaonice, Agnes of Bohemia, Agnes of Poitou, Agnes Smedley, Agnes Waterhouse, Agnodice, Aisha, Ajysyt, Albertine Necker de Saussure, Alexandra Kollontai, Alessandra Giliani, Aletta Jacobs, Alexandra of Jerusalem, Alexandra van Grippenberg, Alfonsina Storni, Alice Paul, Alice Pike Barney, Alice Samuel, Alice Stone Blackwell, Aliénor de Poitiers, Alison Rutherford, Almucs De Castelnau (sic), Aloara, Althea Gibson, Alukah, Amat-Mamu, Amelia Earhart, Amelia Villa, Amy Beach, Amyte, Ana Betancourt, Anacaona, Anahita, Anaïs Nin, Anasandra (sic), Anastasia (in the Christine de Pisan group), Anastasia (in the Marcella group), Anath, Andres Villareal (sic), Angela Merici, Angelberga, Angéle de la Barthe, Angelica Balbanoff, Angelica Kauffmann, Angelina Grimké, Angelique de Coudray, Ann Lee, Anna Comnena, Anna Dalassena Comnena, Anna Karsch, Anna Manzolini, Anna Pavlova, Anna Schabanoff (sic), Anna Sophia, Anna, Anne Askew, Anne Bacon, Anne Baynard, Anne Bonney, Anne Bradstreet, Anne Clough, Anne Dacier, Anne Ella Carroll, Anne Halkett, Anne of Beaujeu, Anne of Brittany, Anne Redfearne, Annie Jump Cannon, Annie Kenney, Annie Smith Peck, Annie Wood Besant, Antigone, Antiope, Antonia Bembo, Antonia Brico, Aphra Behn, Aphrodite, Arachne, Aretaphilia of Cyrene, Arete of Cyrene, Ariadne, Arianhrod, Arinitti, Aristoclea, Arsinoe II, Artemis, Artemisia I, Artemisia II, Aruru, Asherah, Ashtoreth, Aspasia of Athens, Astarte, Atalanta, Athaliah, Athanarsa (sic), Athene, Atira, Augusta Fickert, Augusta Savage, Augusta Schmidt, Augustina Saragossa, Awashonks, Axiothea, Baba Petkova, Babe Didrikson, Balthilde, Baptista Malatesta, Baranamtarra, Barbara Bodichon, Barbara Hepworth, Barbara Strozzi, Barbara, Barbe De Verrue, Baroness de Beausaleil, Baroness of Adlersparre, Basilea, Basine, Bathsua Makin, Baudonivia, Beatrice de Die, Beatrice Webb, Beatrix Galindo, Begga, Bel-Shalti-Narrar, Belva Lockwood, Berenguela, Bernarda de la Cerda, Bertha Lutz, Bertha of England, Bertha of Sulzbach, Bertha von Suttner, Bertha, Berthe Morisot, Berthildis, Bertille (sic), Beruriah, Bessie Smith, Betsy Kjelsberg (sic), Bettina von Arnim, Bettisia Gozzadini, Birgitta, Blanche of Castile, Blandina, Blodeuwedd, Bona Dea, Bourgot, Bridget Bevan, Brigh Brigaid, Brigid, Britomartis, Brunhilde, Brynhild, Buto, Cambra, Camilla, Candelaria Figueredo, Capillana, Carcas, Cardea, Carlota Matienzo, Carlotta Ferrari, Carmenta, Caroline Schlegel, Carrie Chapman Catt, Cartismandua, Cassandra Fidelis, Cassandra, Caterina Van Hemessen, Catherine Adorni (sic), Catherine de Rambouillet, Catherine Deshayes, Catherine Fisher, Catherine Greene, Catherine II, Catherine of Aragon, Catherine of Siena, Catherine Pavlovna, Catherine, Celia Fiennes, Cerridwen, Charitas Pirckheimer, Charlotte Brontë, Charlotte Corday, Charlotte Guest, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Chicomecoatl, Chiomara, Christabel Pankhurst, Christina of Sweden, Christina Rossetti, Circe, Clara Schumann, Clara Zetkin, Clare of Assisi, Claricia, Claudine de Tencin, Clemence Royer, Cleobuline, Cleopatra, Clodia, Clotilda, Clytemnestra, Coatlicue, Cobhlair Mor, Colette, Constance Lytton, Constantia, Cordelia Gracchi, Corinna of Tanagro, Cresilla, Cristina Trivulzio, Cunegund, Cybele, Cynane, Cynisca, Damelis, Damo, Danu, Daphne, Deborah Sampson, Deborah, Demeter, Dervorguilla, Dhuoda, Dido, Diemud, Diotima, Djuna Barnes, Dolores Ibarruri, Dorcas, Doris Lessing, Dorotea Bucca, Dorothea Dix, Dorothea Lange, Dorothea Leporin-Erxleben, Dorothea von Rodde, Dorothy Richardson, Dorothy Wordsworth, Douceline, Eachtach, Eadburga, Eanswith, Ebba, Edith Cavell, Edith Evans, Edith Sitwell, Edith Wharton, Edith, Edmonia Lewis, Edna St. Vincent Millay, Egee, Ehyophsta, Eileen Gray, Eleanor Butler, Eleanor Duse, Elfrida Andrée, Elin Kallio, Eliska Krasnohorska, Eliza Lucas Pinckney, Elizabeth Anderson, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Elizabeth Bekker, Elizabeth Carter, Elizabeth Cheron, Elizabeth Danviers (sic), Elizabeth de la Guerre, Elizabeth Druzbacka (sic), Elizabeth Farren, Elizabeth Fry, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Elizabeth Hamilton, Elizabeth Hoby, Elizabeth Lucar, Elizabeth Montagu, Elizabeth of Schonau, Elizabeth Petrovna, Elizabeth Southern, Elizabeth Talbot, Elizabeth Vesey, Elizabeth Vigeé-Lebrun, Elizabeth, Elizabetta Gonzaga, Elizabette Sirani, Ellen Richards, Elpinice, Emilia Pardo-Bazán, Émilie du Châtelet, Emilie Snethlage, Emily Brontë, Emily Carr, Emily Carr, Emily Faithful, Emma Goldman, Emma Paterson, Emmeline Pankhurst, Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence, Encheduanna, Ende, Engleberga, Epicharis, Ereshkigal, Erinna, Esther, Ethelberga, Etheldreda, Ethylwyn, Eudocia, Eudoxia, Eugenia, Europa, Eurpyle, Euryleon (sic), Eurynome, Eustochium, Eve, Fabiola, Failge, Fanny Burney, Faustina Bordoni, Fede Galizia, Federica Montseny, Fibors (sic), Florence Nightingale, Fortuna, Frances Brooke, Frances Harper, Frances Perkins, Frances Power Cobbe, Frances Wright, Francesca Caccini, Francesca of Salerno, Françoise de Maintenon, Frau Cramer, Fredegund, Frederika Bremer, Freya, Frida Kahlo, Frija, Gabriela Mistral, Gabriele Münter, Gabrielle Petit, Gaea, Gaspara Stampa, Gebjon, Genevieve D'Arconville, Genevieve, George Eliot, George Sand, Germaine de Staël, Gertrude Kasebier, Gertrude of Nivelles, Gertrude Stein, Gertrude Svensen, Gisela, Glueckel von Hameln, Golda Meir, Gormlaith, Grace O'Malley, Gracia Mendesa, Guda, Guillemine, Gunda Beeg, Hannah Adams, Hannah Arendt, Hannah Crocker, Hannah Hoch, Hannah More, Hannah Senesh, Hannah Woolley, Hannahanna, Hardlind, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Harriet Hosmer, Harriet Martineau, Harriet Tubman, Hashop, Hasta Hansteen, Hathor, Hawisa, Hecate, Hecuba, Hedwig Nordenflycht, Hedwig, Hel, Helen Blavatsky, Helen Cornaro, Helen Diner, Helen Keller, Helena, Helene Kottauer, Heloise, Henrietta Johnston, Henrietta Szold, Hera, Hermine Veres, Herrad of Lansberg, Hersend, Hersilia, Hester Stanhope, Hestiaea, Hiera, Hipparchia, Hippo, Hippolyte, Honorata Rodiana, Hortense Lepaut (sic), Hortensia von Moos, Hortensia, Huldah, Hygeburg, Ida B. Wells, Ida Kaminska, Ida Pfieffer, Ilmatar, Iltani, Inanna, Inesse Armand, Ingrida, Irène Joliot-Curie, Irene, Irkalla, Isabel de Guevara, Isabel of France, Isabel Pinochet, Isabela Czartoryska, Isabella Andreini, Isabella Bishop, Isabella de Joya Roseres, Isabella Losa, Isadora Duncan, Isak Dinesen, Isis, Isotta Nogarola, Jacobe Felicie, Jadwiga, Jane Austen, Jane Harrison, Jane of Sutherland, Jane Weston, Jeanne Campan, Jeanne D'Albret, Jeanne de Montfort, Jeanne de Pompodour, Jeanne Dumeè, Jeanne Louis Farrenc, Jeanne Mance, Jeanne Manon Roland, Jeanne Marie Guyon, Jeanne of Navarre, Jeanne Recamier, Jeannette Rankin, Jezebel, Joan of Arc, Joanna Koerton, Joanna, Joanne Baillie, Josefa Amar, Josefa de Dominguez, Josephine Baker, Josephine Kablick, Juana Inés de la Cruz, Judith Leyster, Judith Murray, Julia Cameron, Julia Domna, Julia Maesa, Julia Mamaea, Julia Morgan, Julie de Lespinasse, Juno, Justine Dietrich, Jutta, Kaahumanu, Kallirhoe Parren, Karen Horney, Karoline Pichler, Kate Campbell Hurd-Mead, Katharine Hepburn, Käthe Kollwitz, Kathe Schirmacher, Katherine Bethlen (sic), Katherine Sheppard, Katti Moeler, Khuwyt, Kora, Kore, Kubaba, La Malinche, Lady Beatrix, Lady Uallach, Lalla, Lamia, Lampedo, Las Huelgas, Laura Ammanati, Laura Bassi, Laura Cereta, Laura Torres, Lavinia Fontana, Laya, Leah, Leela of Granada, Leonor D'Almeida, Leonora Baroni, Leontium, Leoparda, Levina Teerling, Liadain, Libana, Lili Boulanger, Lilith, Lilliard, Lioba, Lioba, Loretta, Lorraine Hansberry, Lou Andreas Salomé, Louise Labé, Louise le Gras, Louise Michel, Louise Nevelson, Louyse Bourgeois, Lucretia Marinelli, Lucretia, Lucrezia Tournabuoni, Lucy, Luisa de Carvajal, Luisa Roldain, Luise Gottsched, Luise Otto-Peter, Luiza Todi, Lydia, Lysistrata, Maacah, Mabel, Macha of the Red Tresses, Macha, Macrina, Madame A. Milliat, Maddalena Buonsignori, Madderakka, Madeleine de Sable, Madeleine de Scudéry, Magda Portal, Mahaut of Artois, Makeda, Manto, Marcellina, Margaret (Eleanor of Aquitaine group), Margaret Beaufort, Margaret Brent, Margaret Cavendish, Margaret Fell Fox, Margaret Fuller, Margaret Mead, Margaret Murray Washington, Margaret Murray, Margaret O'Connor, Margaret of Austria, Margaret of Desmond (sic), Margaret of Navarre, Margaret of Scandinavia, Margaret Paston, Margaret Philipse, Margaret Roper, Margarete Forchhammer, Margarethe Dessoff, Margery Jourdemain, Marguerite Gerard, Marguerite of Bourgogne, Marguerite-Antoinette Couperin, Marguerite-Louise Couperin, Maria Agnesi, Maria Alphaizuli, Maria Antonia Walpurgis of Bavaria, Maria Bartola, Maria Cunitz, Maria de Abarca, María de Ágreda, Maria de Coste Blanche, Maria de Ventadorn, Maria del Refugio Garcia, Maria Edgeworth, Maria Kirch, Maria Luisa Sanchez, Maria Mitchell, Maria Montessori, Maria Montoya Martinez, Maria Sibylla Merian, Maria Stewart, Maria Theresa, Maria Theresia von Paradis, Maria-Christine de Lalaing, Marian Anderson, Marianna Alcoforado, Marianne Beth, Marie Bashkirtsev, Marie Bovin, Marie Champmeslé, Marie Colinet, Marie Curie, Marie de France, Marie de Lafayette, Marie de l'Incarnation, Marie de Medici, Marie de Miramion, Marie de Sévigné, Marie du Deffand, Marie Duges, Marie Durocher, Marie Geoffrin, Marie Heim-Vögtlin, Marie Iowa (sic), Marie la Chapelle, Marie Laurencin, Marie le Jars de Gournay, Marie of Champagne, Marie Popelin, Marie Sallé, Marie Stopes, Marie Tussaud, Marie Venier, Martesia, Martha Baretskaya, Martha Graham, Martha Mears, Martha of Bethany, Martia Proba, Mary "Mother" Jones, Mary Alexander, Mary Ann Shad Cary, Mary Astell, Mary Baker Eddy, Mary Bonaventure, Mary Cassatt, Mary Church Terrell, Mary Dyer, Mary Esther Karding, Mary Goddard, Mary Hays, Mary Lamb, Mary Lavoisier, Mary Lee, Mary Livermore, Mary Lou Williams, Mary Louise McLaughlin, Mary Manley, Mary McLeod Bethune, Mary Monckton, Mary Mueller, Mary of Bethany, Mary of Hungary, Mary Radcliffe, Mary Read, Mary Shelley, Mary Sidney, Mary Somerville, Mary Wortley Montague, Maryann, Mata Hari, Mathilda, Mathilde of Tuscany, Matilda of Flanders, Matilda, Maude, Maximilla, Maya Deren, Maeve, Mechthild of Hackeborn, Medusa, Megalostrata, Melisande, Mentuhetop, Mercy Otis Warren, Metrodora, Milla Granson, Millicent Fawcett, Minna Canth, Minna Cauer, Miranda Stuart, Miriam, Modesta Pozzo, Moero of Byzantium, Molly Pitcher, Morrigan, Mother Hutton, Mrs. Cellier, Muirgel, Myrine, Myrtis of Anthedon, Nadezhda Krupskaya, Nadia Boulanger, Nammu, Nancy Ward, Nanno, Naomi, Naqi'a, Natalia Goncharova, Nathalie Zand, Nefertiti, Neith, Nell Gwyn, Nelly Sachs, Neobule, Nephthys, Nerthus, Nicaula, Nicobule, Ninhursaga, Ninon de L'Enclos, Ninti, Nitocris, Nofret, Nossis, Novella D'Andrea, Nut, Octavia, Odilla, Ojelia Uribe de Acosta, Olga, Oliva Sabuco, Olive Schreiner, Olympe de Gouges, Olympia Morata, Olympias, Omeciuatl, Orinthya, Pamphile, Pandora, Pasiphae, Paula Modersohn-Becker, Paula, Penelope Barker, Penette de Guillet, Penthelia, Penthesilia, Perictyone, Phantasia, Phile, Philippa of Hainault, Phillipe Auguste, Phillis Wheatley, Philotis, Phoebe, Pierrone, Plotina, Pocahontas, Porcia, Praxagora, Praxilla, Priscilla, Properzia de Rossi, Prudence Crandall, Puduchepa, Pulcheria, Pythia, Python, Rachel (Trotula group), Rachel Katznelson, Rachel Ruysch, Rachel Varnhagen, Radclyffe Hall, Radegund, Rahonem, Rebecca Lee, Rebecca West, Rebekah, Reinhild, Renee Vivien, Renier Michiel, Rhea, Rhiannon, Romaine Brooks, Rosa Bonheur, Rosa Chouteau, Rosa Luxemburg, Rosalba Carriera, Rosalia of Palermo, Rose de Burford, Rose Mooney, Ruth Benedict, Ruth, Saaredra Villanueva, Sabina Von Steinbach, Salomée Halpir, Salpe, Sarah Bernhardt, Sarah Grimke, Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, Sarah of St. Gilles, Sarah Peale, Sarah Ponsonby, Sarah Siddons, Sarah, Scholastica, Selin Hastings, Selma Lagerlof, Semiramis, Shalom, Shibtu, Shub-Ad of Ur, Sigrid Undset, Simone de Beauvoir, Simone Weil, Siva, Sobeya, Sofia Kovalevskaya, Sofia Perovskaya, Sonia Delaunay, Sonja Henie, Sophia Heath, Sophia of Mechlenberg, Sophie Blanchard, Sophie de Condorcet, Sophie Germain, Sophie Taeuber-Arp, Sophonisba Anguisciola (sic), Stephanie de Genlis, Stephanie De Montaneis, Sulpicia, Susan la Flesche Piccotte, Susanna Lorantffy, Susanna Rowson, Susanna Wesley, Suzanne Langer, Suzanne Necker, Suzanne Valadon, Sylvia Pankhurst, Sylvia Plath, Tanaquil, Tanith, Tarquinia Molza, Tefnut, Telesilla, Teresa de Cartagena, Teresa Villareal, Tetisheri, Thalestris, The Norns, The Valkyries, Theano, Thecla, Theoclea, Theodelinda, Theodora II, Theodora III, Theodora the Senatrix, Teresa of Avila, Théroigne de Mericourt, Thoma, Tiamat, Timarete, Tituba, Tiy, Tomyris, Tuchulcha, Tullia d'Aragona, Urraca, Ursley Kempe, Valada (sic), Vashti, Veleda, Vera Figner, Vera Zasulich, Veronica Gambara, Vesta, Victoria Woodhull, Violante, Virgin Mary, Virginia, Vita Sackville West, Vittoria Colonna, Walpurgis, Wanda Landowska, Wanda, Wetamoo, Willa Cather, Xochitl, Yekaterina Breshkovskaya, Yekaterina Dashkova, Yvette of Huy, Zenobia, Zipporah, Zoé, Zora Neale Hurston.


Return to “Other eras”

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: CommonCrawl [Bot]