Finns vs. partisans

Discussions on the Winter War and Continuation War, the wars between Finland and the USSR.
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Laurance.Robinson
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Re: Finns vs. partisans

Post by Laurance.Robinson » 31 Jan 2018 16:02

[quote="Mangrove"]Compared to their overwhelming (estimated) manpower The Finnish civilian police shot to death four desants/partisans who resisted arrest at Kiiminki in September 1942. It seems the Soviets were counting the traffic, but also raiding individual cars passing by them.

/quote]

Hey, is there a record/archive source for this?

The area this occurred in is where a friend built his house and it would be cool to show him the source. He has an idea of the story.

Regards,

Laurance

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peeved
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Re: Finns vs. partisans

Post by peeved » 31 Jan 2018 19:17

According to http://jultika.oulu.fi/files/nbnfioulu-201604141484.pdf p. 53 two of the desants were killed on 6.9.1942 on old Kuusamo road near Mannila lake [Ylikiiminki?] and the rest the next day in a small forest at Mäkikangas [East of Ylikiiminki I believe].

Markus

Edit: Metsäkangas corrected to Mäkikangas
Last edited by peeved on 31 Jan 2018 23:07, edited 1 time in total.

Seppo Koivisto
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Re: Finns vs. partisans

Post by Seppo Koivisto » 31 Jan 2018 20:38

There seems to be a memorial stone at their radio base in Mäkikangas (Yli-Kiimingin Desanttimäen muistokivi).
http://www.sotamuistomerkit.fi/sivu.php?id=470

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Re: Finns vs. partisans

Post by Lotvonen » 02 Feb 2018 07:17

[quote="peeved"]According to http://jultika.oulu.fi/files/nbnfioulu-201604141484.pdf p. 53 two of the desants were killed on 6.9.1942 on old Kuusamo road near Mannila lake [Ylikiiminki?] and the rest the next day in a small forest at Mäkikangas [East of Ylikiiminki I believe].

Markus

This reference was interesting, and for the benefit of the board members who do not yet read Finnish here is the relevant extract translated:


“Do not forget the suffering that war brings to humanity”
Finland-Soviet Union Society for peace and friendship and Finland-Soviet Union Society in Oulu during the years 1940 and 1944–1962
Oulu University

Niina Hietala

Extract: 1.4. Ylikiiminki desant incident 1942

1.4.1. Johan Koskinen as a Pärmi man and desant

Koskinen was not left in in the jail for a long time. During the Winter war he had been relieved from work and military service due to previously suffered lung inflammation. He had also been relieved from compulsory military service due to health reasons.

Yet he was considered fit enough to serve in the Pärmi battalion made up of convicts. He joined the war, but in the enemy army, because when sent in the first line at Onkamus, Koskinen defected on 18 September 1941. Valtteri Kylmänen from Oulu joined him, and Lauri Kilpeläinen who had been in the same brick factory meeting had gone two days earlier.

The Pärmi defectors were mostly mid-level party men and men enthused by them, whereas the top men of the party organization, undecided about the desirable line of action, stayed put even in these circumstances.

The Red army however received the defectors reservedly favourably. The very next day after their defection Koskinen and Kilpeläinen, together with 27 other Pärmi deserters, had signed a leaflet encouraging the men still in the Finnish ranks to follow them across the front lines.

In Soviet Carelia the employment of the defectors was under consideration for some time. After initial interrogations the Red Army front commanders sent them deeper in the rear, at first to Petrozavodsk to be glanced by Otto Ville Kuusinen himself, and then to a camp in Medvedzhegorsk. Toivo Antikainen arrived to interrogate the men and selected the Party members and others worth trust, 39 men in all. Koskinen was included in this trusted group that was sent to Belomorsk on 1. October. There they were given some sort of general political education until by 1942 the decision was made that at least the men attracted by intelligence activities would be employed in it. Lauri Kilpeläinen and a few others were not enthused and were sent to do political work in a POW camp.
The others were redistributed and Koskinen ended up in the GRU, the Red Army intelligence service, in military intelligence training in Pargolovo near Leningrad..

In early September 1941 an outfit, comprising some 300 political prisoners and 400 convicts, Er.P.21 was formed, nicknamed according to the CO, Maj. Nikke Pärmi. More than 50 men of Pärmi's battalion managed to defect before the decision to employ convicts in the firing line was recalled at the end of the month.

O.V. Kuusinen ja Toivo Antikainen were Finnish Reds (= refugees of 1918), the leaders of the Finnish Communist Party that was situated in the Soviet Union .


The HQ of the Carelian Front Partisans was situated in Belomorsk, but to support the FCP partisan activities was not considered feasible by the HQ of the Soviet military. Everything was to be concentrated in the hands of the “Central Committee”. The employment of the Pärmi men were pondered in Belomorsk by the Comintern Finns and Red Army, excluded was the Partisan HQ.


During early 1942 the underground leadership of the Leftist movement hiding in Finland, who were in competition with each other - Aimo Rikka of the Finland-Soviet Union Society and Yrjö Leino of the FCP, managed to establish a contact via Stockholm with the Soviet Union. These two men had different opinions specially on the issue if military spying was a Party activity or not. Rikka was against it, maybe by principle but also because it would risk the political work. Leino's opposite view prevailed and the established channel of communications was utilized mostly by Soviet intelligence authorities. Leino received orders, probably from Moscow, to take the Finnish “Partisan” movement (=deserters) under the Party command and use them to find out about the attitude of the people and the bases of the army infrastructure. Sabotage was allowed only against German soldiers. If Finns would be killed or wounded the authorities could turn the sabotage into a weapon of propaganda

Pärmi men trained in intelligence were soon parachuted in Finland. The first to arrive in June (1942) were the selected best men , trained in Dupki in strategic intelligence, only in Southern Finland because the summer in the North was in its lightest period. They were tasked to find support in the local FCP organisations and bring them under the control of Moscow..

The reliability of the Pärmi men in the pay of GRU were once more checked in August 1942. A “spravka” (affidavit?) was made on Koskinen, who was not a Party member. Of this group of 13 trainees only five or six were disclosed in Finland and at least five others survived the war.

They were either skilled or lucky, or then some of them were sent away as POWs.

Koskinen, for one, passed the tests. He was parachuted in a group of desants in Ylikiiminki to observe the traffic on the Kuusamo road and the attitudes of the peasants who were subjected to compulsory delivery of foodstuffs. They may have had orders to head for Oulu later. The authorities suspected that there were several desants hiding in the forests, because during the late summer flares had been seen in the area, cattle had dispersed without apparent reason and on the forest paths there were signals made up of matches. Soviet aircraft flying on the line Pudasjärvi-Oulu gave rise to several air raid alerts in Oulu.

Later people in Ylikiiminki recognised Koskinen as the “government inspector” who had arrived to inspect the harvesting, generous as to card rations and foodstuffs delivery quotas.

Koskinen and one of his comrades were caught on 26 September 1942 on the old Kuusamo road near Mannila lake as the chief of police in Kiiminki and a policemen stopped the two men in military uniforms walking on the road. The desants may have been prepared because they lost their cool as soon as the police car stopped and the witnesses confirmed that it was they who opened fire.

Koskinen shot with his weapon and his comrade threw hand grenades but the car protected the policemen. The grenade thrower was badly mauled as a grenade burst in his hand. Koskinen was hit by the bullets of the policemen or the civilians who rushed to the scene to help the police. His body was ID'ed by Matti Timonen and a detective of Valpo, alerted from Oulu. The two other members of the group were killed next day nearby in a forest at Mäkikangas as an outfit of recruits in training set in desant hunt found their camp. The hasty action of the recruits was regretted, even though the desants had thrown hand grenades at the soldiers, because it would have been preferable to catch at least the female radio operator alive for interrogation. Shooting a woman was disapproved, too, so that the boys had to excuse themselves by the fact that they had not been able to identify the radio operator as a woman. She had just been operating her gear squatting under a pine wearing a greatcoat up to her ears.

Koskinen arrived in Finland at the same time, maybe by the same airdrop as the two desant brothers caught near Kemi on 20. September, Aarne and Arvo “Jukka” Kumpumäki. “Jukka” was caught alive and as can be expected he tried to save his life by telling his story. Aarne however escaped and most likely managed to inform his masters. In one week the warning could have reached the desants in Ylikiiminki. The Kumpumäki brothers had been airdropped in Kemi from Archangelsk on 14 September 1942. (Aarne was hiding in Sweden up to the end of the war, Jukka was executed on 11 December 1942.)

Johan Koskinen has been buried in the Intiö cemetry in the communal grave of Red Army men and wartime diversants who died in Oulu or in the area. Since some of his comrades have been buried as unknown I shall briefly describe their background.

1.4.2. Koskinen's unknown comrades

The desant killed with Koskinen was not ID'ed, his forged documents are for Otto Emil Lahtinen

The man killed at Mäkikangas the next day was a Finn, Lauri ”Lasse” Emanuel Lamminen, ID'ed by his fingerprints.
Lamminen was in the 1920-s active as the organizer of FCP Viipuri district and was sentenced to four years for treason in 1928. After release he moved to the Soviet Union. There he led the FCP Petrozavodsk office until 1935 whereby he replaced for a move the vacancy left by Otto Vilmi in the Carelian district committee of the CP of SU (b)

Then he was replaced as “an organizer of counter-revolutionary activities and the initiator of spion's work” in the same case as the Carelian Finnish leadership. However Lamminen was sentenced to a labour camp only. As the Finns whop had been in political managerial positions were searched as a part of preparations of the Winter War in autumn 1939 he was fetched in Moscow. He somehow ended up in becoming a desant.

The radio operator killed at Mäkikangas was probably White Sea Carelian Olga ”Ulla” Pavlovna (or Mihailovna) Seredina. Partisan radio operator Dora Aleksejevna Tarasova caught in Juntusranta in January 1942 recognised her “sister” from a photo. The women had been acquainted the previous year in a diversant training centre in Kem (Carelia). Seredina had told Tarasova that she had been trained during the interim peace as an agent for Oulu but the outbreak of war had prevented her from becoming a resident. According to the same source Seredina had already completed two successful missions in Finland.

”Lahtinen” 's body was smashed into unrecognizable condition in the battle but according to the forged documents he was about 30 yrs in age, 179cm tall, with blue eyes and fair hair.

Otto Vilmi was a Finnish professional revolutionary who was expelled from the Carelian district committee at end of 1934, imprisoned next autumn and executed in 1938.

This last time she managed to exist in the Oulu area at least for four months because people in Ylikiiminki remembered that they had seen her in the village since the rasputitsa. The stylish Seredina spoke perfect Finnish and she was believed to be a city-dweller who had escaped air raids and shortage of food. She had made believe that she earned her living by peddling spiritual literature. Also it was known that she at times took the bus to Oulu.

The desants in Ylikiiminki had been well equipped for their mission.

Koskinen and ”Lahtinen” had not only weapons but also cash, some 9000FIM each, high quality forged ID certificates with photos, furlough certificates, bread rationing cards, delousing certificates, i.e. everything that was necessary. The documents of the two others were without flaw. The leader of the outfit must have been Lamminen who was found to carry more than 70000FIM in cash

Koskinen had forged documents for “Lauri Albert Suominen”, Seredina's alias was “ Ella
Tuulikki Hokkanen” and Lauri Lamminen's “ Väinö Niemi”. Seredina left behind communications records with series of figures, formulas and wavelengths, her radio set of British model was equipped with a receiver. Also, she and Lahtinen had recommendation letters dated 9 Sept 1942. One was addressed to someone called Jaska and the other one to Alina, both signed by Koskinen. The bearers of the letters were asked to be received as good comrades.

Koskinen's wife was Alina, so the destination of the desants must have been Oulu and there the Koskinen family domicile in Koskelankylä. There the view to the harbour in Toppila and the German cantonment area in Tuira would have been excellent. Knowing the background of Lamminen he would have tried to take over the FCP organisation in Koskelankylä if there was any surviving.

Maybe Lahtinen with his fake ID had a similar plan. Koskinen himself was probably such a marked man in his home town that he unlikely intended to settle there during the war.

On the other had a little later just in Koskelankylä there was an incident as a spouse who had vanished over the border suddenly appeared knocking the home door. The kind of their mission was obvious to everybody. The wife, who had unwillingly become a “Russian widow” was still so pissed off that instead of protection and a meal reported the visitors to the authorities.

Seredina's ID cannot be fully proven without Russian sources. Tarasova could of course lie although the authorities considered that she provided credible information. It is also in principle possible that Seredina told Tarasova wrong info about herself for the worst case, that also happened: Tarasova was caught alive in Finland and she agreed to co-operate with her captors. This lie however is lacking motive in the sense that the spies had forged Finnish ID documents that they used when in Finland. The revealing of mere the real name of a spy to Finns would have been dangerous only if she would have been in the books of the authorities. This was considered unlikely in the case of the twentyish Carelian girl Seredina

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Laurance.Robinson
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Re: Finns vs. partisans

Post by Laurance.Robinson » 03 Feb 2018 06:14

Hey, thanks guys for the information.

Especially the Muistomerkki, unfortunately the picture isn't showing and I doesn't give a precise placing, so I am not sure about finding it myself.

Regards,

Laurance

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Re: Finns vs. partisans

Post by Seppo Koivisto » 03 Feb 2018 09:56

According to Karttapaikka Mäkikangas is north of Mannisenjärvi lake by Joloksentie road.
Makikangas.jpg
Maybe the Desanttimäki memorial stone is located near the sandpits in the area.
Makikangas2.jpg
https://asiointi.maanmittauslaitos.fi/karttapaikka/
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Laurance.Robinson
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Re: Finns vs. partisans

Post by Laurance.Robinson » 05 Feb 2018 06:09

Seppo Koivisto wrote:According to Karttapaikka Mäkikangas is north of Mannisenjärvi lake by Joloksentie road.
Makikangas.jpg
Maybe the Desanttimäki memorial stone is located near the sandpits in the area.
Makikangas2.jpg
https://asiointi.maanmittauslaitos.fi/karttapaikka/
Thank Seppo

I think I know what I'm doing when the snow melts.

Regards,
Laurance

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Re: Finns vs. partisans

Post by Juha Tompuri » 06 Feb 2018 19:37

There seems to be a book(let) with pics and maps about the case.
https://www.antikvaari.fi/naytatuote.asp?id=889793
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Re: Finns vs. partisans

Post by Lotvonen » 08 Feb 2018 06:10

Long day when making hay

Henrik J. Vuokkola
Kansa Taisteli vol.11/12, 1959

When reminiscing the war often the most thrilling and dangerous incidents are told. This is understandable. Men were fighting – they had experiences.

Yet both the Winter War and the Continuation War prove that the entire nation was a participant. Everyone had to experience the total war. We remember the destruction caused by air raids. City inhabitants had to suffer from this. The peaceful people of the border zone had to live under constant threat posed by partisans. When writing the history of the war we must remember incidents that took place there

It was a Saturday on 25 July 1942 in Pirttivaara village in Suomussalmi. Paavo Juntunen, the farmer of Piilola farm arrived at the Kallosuo hayfield with his 11 year old daughter Vilma and his son Ilmari who was some years younger, to make hay. Kallosuo was so far from the farm that they had to take food for the day with them. The hay had been cut already and it had been drying there, spread on the ground. It was a beautiful day and the target was to rake the hay and carry it in the barn. They started working.

Quite soon three men in Finnish uniforms arrived to the meadow. Without ado one of them asked in Finnish – albeit using odd dialect – to see their passports! This question and odd dialect revealed the haymakers what kind of men the patrol comprised. The farmer said that they do not have any passports and they have never been needed. Then the men ordered the people to follow them. Ilmari said that he would have to get his jacket that was at the campfire, darting in a willow bush nearby. But since there was no sign of any campfire anywhere one of the soldiers guessed what the boy was doing and fired several shots after him with his pistols. Fortunately the men did not start a chase, but apparently believed that the bullets had hit. But no, Ilmari had escaped.

As the partisans repeated their order to follow them, the farmer and his daughter looked at the pistol pointed at them and considered it best to follow the men. They shouldered their rucksacks and followed the men. To deceive they at first headed West – to gain distance from the Vuonninen supply road – then they turned East for the national border. The men followed the direction of the supply road for a while then headed for NE.

In the beginning the terrain was known to the farmer but later it was all unknown. Being wilderness people the farmer and the daughter kept observing the surrounding terrain. They were able to estimate the bearing by sun, as long as it was visible, lakes and hills were good fixed points. It was important to read the terrain because the daughter was planning to escape. She had to think of something. In the afternoon she complained about chafing meet. The partisan's response was chilling: if you cannot walk we shall shoot you and leave you there. Then the partisan patted his pistol holster. The daughter well remembered how his brother had been shot at...

The march continued with brief stops until midnight. Then there was a meal. Both sides ate of their own proviant. The partisans had bread loaves, lumps of sugar and “Chai” (tea). No butter.

Having eaten two of them turned in under a piece of oilcloth. One man stayed awake as sentry, leaning firmly against a tree trunk with his SMG between his knees. The daughter was not able to get sleep, and his father was just dozing, both looking for a chance to escape. But the sentry was staying awake with annoying tenacity.

The next day the march continued still for NE. They crossed the Vuokkiniemi road and went on to NW. They spent the second night just like the previous one.

The same men slept under the oilcloth and the third man guarded, holding his gun between his legs. Could there be a chance to escape? The sentry should be getting tired due to lack of sleep? He had to fall asleep some time – even for a while. The daughter kept observing the man who seemed to be of tough stock. He may have closed his eyes for a while, but the observer did likewise and by the morning they were in a tie. The march went on in rainy weather .

The farmer estimated that they were still in Finnish territory but when would they cross the border?
He was worried about this, then their chances to escape would decrease.

How would they able to get across the wilderness even if they should succeed in shaking the partisans off? Did they have the energy since they were out of food now? The father could not know that it was the wilderness that was to save them. Neither did he know that Ilmari had informed the nearest military outfit, and Rj.P.8 has sent two platoons to patrol in the area.

The daughter was planning to escape with the enthusiasm of her young age. At some time the attentiveness of the partisans had to lag, and then they would run.

They had not yet crossed the border as the partisans at the end of the ever more rainy day turned in as they used to. Now they shared the food, the men fed their prisoners, hungry people would not be able to follow them. It was the same old routine else. The same man leaned against a tree to guard but now he appeared to be much more tired than previously.

Now,now, the daughter was thinking. Even though she was tired she must not yield now. She was sitting alert, watching the guard. She made up a ruse that she whispered to her father: she is going to say that she is going to drink from the brook nearby, the forest would there be just a few steps off. If the sentry shall not react, the father shall follow, if the partisan should wake up and spot the daughter at the brook, she would say that she had been there for a drink. They had to trust their luck.

Patiently they were sitting and watching the partisan nodding. Tension was repelling their tiredness and kept the sleep off.

The man kept getting ever slacker, his head was nodding against his chest, but he kept the weapon between his legs. But the sleep overcame him in the end. The daughter estimated now that the man was so deeply asleep that he would not be aroused by a slight rustling sound. She decided that it was time to act and calmly started walking to the brook. His father hesitated and kept watching the man, but he was asleep and nothing happened.

The daughter kept beckoning the old man who was dragging his feet when taking his rucksack and heading for the brook. If anybody should wake up now, everything would be lost, they would not be spared. The father crossed the brook calmly but extremely nervous, his daughter was waiting on the other side.

It was a tense moment, they did not talk but they sensed how they mutually felt safer, although they found themselves in an unknown piece of wilderness. They had managed to survive so far, and as soon as they would get rid of the partisans the father would find the way home. A few steps took them in the cover of the forest and a few hurried steps more took them out of range of any bullets.

The return route was easy. There was a line in the forest that they had followed when coming, there is the river that they had crossed with the partisans. Now the wide wilderness area gave them security: the partisans would never find them. Finally they reached a road and soon met a lorry that was patrolling there just for them.

The soaking wet refugees were taken to Vuokkiniemi where they were kept as guests for one week.

The pursuing Platoons were delighted in receiving the good news; many a man was thinking – it could be my dad or my sister. Border guards were aware of the dangers threatening their homes.

The tenacity of the young girl were universally admired. She had been able to hike a trek of almost 70km without eating, she was able to keep a cool head and fulfil her pan, even to persuade his hesitant dad. That haymaking was a long journey for all the participants, they shall never forget it. The result of a failed escape, is easy to guess.

(1453 words)

Rj.P.8 war diary on this period is of no help, and the available war diaries of the companies do not cover the period.

Seppo Koivisto
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Re: Finns vs. partisans

Post by Seppo Koivisto » 31 Mar 2018 09:50

Partisan memorial just outside Kärsämäki graveyard in Turku. The memorial has 14 names executed as spies and buried here. Photo taken in 2016.
http://montlai.blogspot.fi/2015/03/kars ... hauta.html

Edit: Checked what information the book Viholliset keskellämme (Enemies among us) by Atso Haapanen has of the names on the memorial.
Asejev K. P.
Bogdan V. V.
Vanhanen R. (Reino Simonpoika Vanhanen) executed 7.2.1942 (p. 432)
Gerasimenko I. P.
Gosstrem E. (Elis Georg Gåsström) parachuted in Turku area, executed 12.11.1942 (p. 333,335)
Kaatonen S.
Kirs M. I. (Meinhard Kirs) stabbed prison pastor
Lang B.
Oserov V. D.
Paramonova A. T.
Petterson U.
Pyykenen I. (Ilmari Pietarinpoika Pyykkönen) parachuted near Salo in Finnish uniform, executed 21.10.1943 (p.387)
Sarin O. (Otto Ludviginpoika Sarvi) parachuted near Salo in Finnish uniform, executed 21.10.1943 (p.387)
Ustinov I. N.
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knokkelmann1
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Re: Finns vs. partisans

Post by knokkelmann1 » 18 Mar 2019 08:27

what an amazing thread! I spent the whole night reading it!

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igor_verh
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Re: Finns vs. partisans

Post by igor_verh » 23 Jun 2019 19:54

Hi to all! I need some help: members of one russian search group looking for a place of death of partisan Heliy Fomin from detachment "Red flag" ("Красное знамя", in Finnish "Punaisen sotalipun"?), his niece wants to visit that place. Fomin was killed in action at 2 February 1943 near Logovaarka village, Kestenga area. Comrades left Fomin's body on battlefield near swamp. After war his father tried to find Heliy's remains, but unsuccessfully. Can somebody help with any information about finnish forces at that area, about skirmish near Shoppi-jarvi at 2.2.1942, may be link to war diary, reports of HQ?
I have a map of approximate path of partisans.

Thanks in advance!
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Re: Finns vs. partisans

Post by Mangrove » 24 Jun 2019 10:09

igor_verh wrote:
23 Jun 2019 19:54
Can somebody help with any information about finnish forces at that area, about skirmish near Shoppi-jarvi at 2.2.1942, may be link to war diary, reports of HQ?
The sector between Röhö/Regozero and Tuoppajärvi/Topozero was guarded by the Germans from late 1942 until August 1943. The only Finnish unit in the sector was Linnoituspataljoona 15. The war diary mentions a Soviet patrol having crossed the front line south of Tuoppalampi on 1 February 1943.

I assume the location of the bases was the same when Rajajääkäripataljoona 7 took them over from the Germans.

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Re: Finns vs. partisans

Post by Mangrove » 11 Jul 2019 13:41

Continuation War era Finnish traffic signs for entering and leaving partisan danger zone.
LK.jpg
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