Finns vs. partisans

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Vaeltaja
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Re: Finns vs. partisans

Post by Vaeltaja » 16 Jun 2013 18:27

Thank you, those dates make it easier to find corresponding entries from Finnish war diaries.

Of the 10 January 1942 -

From Finnish archives:

http://digi.narc.fi/digi/view.ka?kuid=3638908

Finnish estimate is that roughly a battalions worth of troops attacked.

Finnish losses from the outpost in the southern end of Klimetsk: 7 men gone, of which 3 found mutilated (term referencing the type in torture or needless violence). Of the men from the outpost from the northern end of Klimetsk: 4 men dead, 2 wounded. Enemy (i.e. Soviet) casualties estimated to be at least 50 dead. Situation of the base at Kontu still unknown.

Enemy troops used snowsuits (white camouflage), used red armbands, had average sking skill and good quality equipment.

---

http://digi.narc.fi/digi/view.ka?kuid=3638608

Of the Finnish unit sent to investigate Klimetsk:

Enemy has taken 2 prisoners from the south end of the island and 4 south of Heinälahti. Total losses of the finnish relief unit: 1 dead and 3 missing. Still no clear information of the situation at Kontu. Found 2 mutilated (as above) troops who had been part of the base's complement. Civilians at site report that some of the troops from the base had withdrawn to north while enemy would have taken 2 wounded and 2 healthy prisoners.

---

http://digi.narc.fi/digi/view.ka?kuid=3638858

Loss report of 10th Fortification Battalion (~ defensive unit):

Luostariniemi: Strength 8 men. Losses: 4 dead (bodies recovered), 4 captured, 1 machine gun and 8 rifles lost

Kontu: Strength 18 men. Losses: 2 dead (bodies recovered), 3 captured (wounded), rest missing, 4 machine guns, 4 horses, telephone. Two missing men later returned.

Voi-Navolok: Strength 25 men. Losses: 3 dead (bodies recovered), rest reached friendly troops

Heinälahti: 2 dead (bodies recovered), 2 wounded, radio lost.

---

So according to that the total Finnish dead, missing or captured losses were 29 men.



I'm not aware of any plans to launch attack in the Summer of 1942. Only real offensive action near that time was the fighting at Kriv in the spring of 1942 but that taken place already. Given that Finns were busy with demobilizing it does not seem very likely that any kind of offensive would have been planned to start at that time.


17 January 1943:
Initial report: http://digi.narc.fi/digi/view.ka?kuid=4473367
- Finnish losses 4 dead and 20 lightly wounded men.
Later report: http://digi.narc.fi/digi/view.ka?kuid=4473379
- Finnish losses 4 dead and 13 wounded
- Enemy losses 13 dead
- Captured material: 1 Suomi SMG, 1 Russian and 1 German rifle
In even later reports one additional fatality is recorded (likely one of the wounded died), so total of 5 dead. Also additional German rifle and 7 Russian rifles were found (in addition to the ones listed above). Some thermite weapons were also recovered (thermite balls x 2 and thermite tube x 1) - that is incendiary weapons. 4 buildings were blown up in Lindema and the rest were burned.

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Re: Finns vs. partisans

Post by Juha Tompuri » 16 Jun 2013 19:01

Hi Igor,

Thanks for the informations.
igor_verh wrote:From reference of combat activities of partisan det. "Krasniy onezhets" ("Красный онежец"):
... Makariev Vladimir Nikolaevich - at 17 august during fight in enemy rear by fire from his machine gun shot down finnish hydroplane...
What year?

Regards, Juha

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Re: Finns vs. partisans

Post by Vaeltaja » 16 Jun 2013 19:01

March 10-11 1943... Way up in the north, in 14th Divisions AoE. - http://digi.narc.fi/digi/view.ka?kuid=2571605 & http://digi.narc.fi/digi/view.ka?kuid=3268534

Enemy burned the garage (with 2 trucks and 1 car), cottage used by horsemen (i.e. soldiers driving horse drawn carriages), hut containing some clothes of the HQ. One end of the Ejp (food distribution site for around battalion of men) stores caught fire but fire was dealt with before it could spread - 1 cardboard hut was lost with some patrol rations + some equipment & 2 tents. No personnel losses.

At the same time another enemy unit attacked the bridge. Sentries opened fire with rifles and AT guns. Enemy was able to toss a satchel charge onto the bridge which broke the deck and bridge railing for about 3 meters length (another estimate was that 1 square meter of deck was damaged). No personnel losses. Bridge remained usable.

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Re: Finns vs. partisans

Post by igor_verh » 17 Jun 2013 19:46

Juha Tompuri wrote:
igor_verh wrote:From reference of combat activities of partisan det. "Krasniy onezhets" ("Красный онежец"):
... Makariev Vladimir Nikolaevich - at 17 august during fight in enemy rear by fire from his machine gun shot down finnish hydroplane...
What year?
1941. Seemingly, plane was shot down during fight near Muezero - I'll try to find more accurate information.

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Re: Finns vs. partisans

Post by Seppo Jyrkinen » 17 Jun 2013 21:20

I've gone through Jaakko Hyvönen's "Kohtalokkaat lennot"
igor_verh wrote:At 27 March 1942 partisans from 1st Partisan Brigade shot down a finnish plane near Shala. That fighter landed on ice of Onego Lake.
Hyvönen states two lost Blenheims on that day, but no other losses. At 10. March 1942 two Fokker D-21's were shot dawn in East-Karelia, one south of Maajärvi and the other east side of Tungutjärvi. At 24. April MS-621 didn't came back but lost somewhere south of Äänisjärvi.
igor_verh wrote:... Makariev Vladimir Nikolaevich - at 17 august during fight in enemy rear by fire from his machine gun shot down finnish hydroplane...
No losses at all at 17. August 1941 but at 21. September FO-71 was shot dawn at Rukajärvi front, on the east side of Onta-river. Fokker C.V. wasn't a hydroplane: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fokker_C.V

Hyvönen tells five hydroplans to be lost during Continuous war.
RI-152 at 4. September 1942
RI-137 at 7. Maj 1943
RI-129 at 8. June 1943
HE-115 at 4. July 1943
HE-59 at 13. August 1944
A word irony is baked into the word history.

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Re: Finns vs. partisans

Post by igor_verh » 12 Jun 2014 06:53

May be will be intresting for somebody - interrogation report of partisan Ivan Markov from detacment "Forward" ("Вперёд"), 1942. From tiedustelutoimisto of 14 Division, Rukajärvi direction. On finnish.
http://veikkohuuska.puheenvuoro.uusisuo ... ma-2491942

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Juha Tompuri
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Re: Finns vs. partisans

Post by Juha Tompuri » 12 Jun 2014 18:34

Thanks Igor

Interesting that AHF is mentioned there as origin of one source, the death of lotta Sirkka Korhonen: http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic. ... 8#p1446171

The there mentioned Viiksimo village massacre is also shortly mentioned here http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic. ... 9&t=182140

Regards, Juha

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Re: Finns vs. partisans

Post by Northwind » 13 Jun 2014 23:27

I found a report from the biography of Ltn. Olavi Alakulppi about the partisan raid on the village of Seitajärvi.
Im trying to put it shortened in english:

"The Partisans had taken out all furniture of the houses and burned them outside and taken with them all the civilian people of the village and 5 soldiers. Three of the soldiers where found wounded and one of them Auno Pulska died to his wounds soon. A local mother was very worried about hes son named Valtteri, but they couldnt find him. All they found was russian rifle shells around the house. Also one of the villages dogs was shot by the partisans. An airplane was called with radio to come and get the wounded.
With scenthounds the finns started chasing the partisans and from 150m away they found their abandoned camp remains with a horse being shot. After an hour the scout pointed something behind an clearing in the woods. Once the officers got there they where stunned! The people of the village all layed dead on the ground with painfull looks on their faces, a few had a piece of clothing covering their faces. All of the murdered where women and children and all of the bodies where naked or half-naked. Ltn Alakulppi had no doubt that the women where raped including some of the children(!). Together with Ltn. Oinonen they inspected the bodies; some where shot behind to the neck, others where stabbed with bayonet. One of the smallest children was hit with the stock of rifle. One young girl was still alive but seriously injured. The alive soldiers told they where blindfolded and brutally beaten."

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Re: Finns vs. partisans

Post by Whiskey » 08 Jul 2014 21:48

As I wrote to Wikipedia:

"Partisan operations against Finns were estimated as being highly ineffectual. Already in the autumn of 1941 the report of Komissariat of Interior Affairs was highly critical, and it became only worse, as stated in the counter-intelligence agency's report of April 1944. The main explanations given for the operations' failures were the isolated headquarters at Belomorsk which did not know what operative units were doing, personnel which had no local knowledge and were partly made up of criminals (10-20% of all personnel were conscripted from prisons) without knowledge of how to operate in harsh terrain and climate, efficient Finnish counter-partisan patrolling (more than two-thirds of the infiltrating small partisan groups were completely destroyed) and Finnish internment of the ethnic Russian civilian population in concentration camps from those regions with active partisan operations. Internees were released to secure areas, preventing partisans from receiving local supplies. In addition, many Soviet Karelians reported to the Finns the movements of the partisans and did not support the Soviet Partisans."

Text was based on Victor Stepakov's amd Dmitry Frolov's book Komandos (2004, Moscow)

It should be noted, that freed prisoners formed a much larger group in actual partisan units operating north, as partisans at south (2-3 men/women groups) were typically highly trained and speciliazed operatives. Some had estimated that more than half of the members of the northern partisans were former convicts. And you can guess that those crimes they had conducted were not the political ones.

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Re: Finns vs. partisans

Post by Lotvonen » 22 Feb 2017 06:34

igor_verh wrote:May be will be intresting for somebody - interrogation report of partisan Ivan Markov from detacment "Forward" ("Вперёд"), 1942. From tiedustelutoimisto of 14 Division, Rukajärvi direction. On finnish.
http://veikkohuuska.puheenvuoro.uusisuo ... ma-2491942
Thank you for the reference, here is the translation. Due to size, in several instalments. The geographic names are as used by Finns

Partisan raid in Kuhmo, Viiksimo village on 24.Sept.1942 (Translated from Finnish)
Preface by author, Veikko Huuska.
Ivan Markov, a SMG gunner in Soviet partisan unit “Bperyod” defected in early October 1942 to Finns and he was interrogated. (The protocol translated below in English, Tr.rem). It describes in an interesting and shocking manner the tactics and raids of Soviet partisans over the Carelian front.
The protocolwas discovered by Reijo Nikkilä in the Finnish War Archive while researching for his study on POWs. He was friendly enough to hand over a copy to me for publication. I want to thank Mr. Nikkilä for his significant archive discovery and also partisan researchers Tyyne Martikainen and Eino Viheriävaara whose texts I have used in the Viiksimo case.
Partisan Markov's later fate is excluded from this review, alas.
I have attempted to leave the protocol content as it is although I have cleared some military terms and other details.- I also added headlines.
  – Veikko Huuska -
*
5.- 7.10.1942
13 AM/Hk.
POW interrogation minutes
[original copy in Finnish: https://picasaweb.google.com/1136798014 ... Partisaani#   ]
Name: MARKOV, Ivan Feodorovitsh.
Born: 18.4.1920, Rukajärvi.
Rank: Private .
Unit: Partisan detachment /Otrjad Vperjod/Litt.B. P.P.S. 1445
Nationality: Carelian .
Civilian occupation: Tractor driver.
Education: 5 classes basic school (Finnish)
Caught when and where: 2.10.1942 at Luvajärvi.
Caught by: Aunuksen Heimosoturipataljoona AHSP

Interrogator's opinion: The POW appears to be indifferent and as if holding back something that he knows about.

The POW (=Markov) had completed his compulsory military service in Petroskoi in 1931-1934 In the Petroskoi Btn of Detached Carelian Jaeger Brigade. The Brigade included also the Aunus Btn. The POW took part in the Winter War in the ranks of Kuusinen's People's Army in the Tank Btn of 2.D as a tank driver. The POW states that he did not participate in battles because as the Tank Btn was transferred to Johannes village in the Carelian Isthmus in early March 1940 they were there only for one week before peace was made.
The POW was again enlisted on 19 June 1941 in Verhn Ided village 19 km W of Kotshkoma. He was assigned as tractor driver in the ammunition supply point of 491. Howitzer Rgt. He was working as tractor driver until the Omelia motti battle, transporting ammunition and petrol to the Rgt. After Omelia battles the POW and his tractor were posted in the Lorry Coy. of the 491.Howitzer Rgt where he served unti October 1941 as the tractors were taken away and the POW trasferred in sentry duty in the camp Verhm Idel until mid-December 1941. Being able to ski he was transferred in the partisan outfirt “Vperjod” cantonned in the village and he has served in their ranks since.
Two Finnish POWs
The detachment was transferred at about new year 1942 to Segezha where they patrolled in the directions of Seesjärvi and Ondajärvi. He did a total of four to five patrols each 10 to 16 days in duration and a fortnight of rest between each. The main purpose of patrol missions was to catch prisonsers and the POW knows of two prisoners taken. The first one the detachment caught near Kuusiniemi ferry during their first patrol from Segezha, the POW claims he does not remember the date exactly. The POW had personally spoken with the prisoner whose name was Lyytikäinen, rank Pvt., a motor vehicle driver. The prisoner had already during the initial inerrogation told about placement of troops, names of units, about his war service, life at home etc. The prisoner was at first taken to Segezha and then to Sorokka (Belomorsk). The detachment had two wounded.
The other prisoner the Partisan detachment caught in Feb/March 1942 N of Seesjärvi on a securing ski track of the Finns. The POW heard that the prisoner was a Civil Guardsman, a Pvt. He had been wounded in the head and in three spots in his body.  The POW mentions that his notes include that he was tall, blond and a handsome man, about 22 years in age and had a dog with him when caught. This man was also taken to Segazha and hospitalized. Later the POW heard that the prisoner had refused to say anything.
The POW tells that the partisan detachment Krasnyj Onezhets was also stationed in Segezha and they had joined the mission whereby the last mentioned prisoner was taken. Krasnyj Onezhets were transferred to Lehto in mid April 1942 and it arrived about on 20.Apr.1942. Before they left Segezha the POW tells that a Partisan Brigade from Puudoz arrvidd there.. The above mentioned partisan detachment “Krasnyj Onezhets” also arrived at Lehto in early May 1942

Organization, strenght and armament.
The Partisan out fit originally comprised four platoons but before the last mission the weak and the sick were weeded out and the rest were organized into three platoons.
The strength before a mission was a total of abt 100 men and after reorganization about 75 - 80 men and four female paramedics. Half of the men were Carelians, the rest Russians, Byelorussians, Ukrainians, one Mordvan, Ingermanlandians and some American Finns. The Pow says that the men are often replaced so the strenght of the detachment often varies.
As to the armament the POW lists 6 LMGs (2 lost during the latest mission_), 23- 24 SMGs (1 PPD, the rest Psh), one full auto rifle, some German and Russian rifles and the rest autoloading rifles.
The oufit is cantonned in Lehto village in a two storey building opposite to thre schoolhouse )on top of a hill) and in the houses S of it (3 to 4 houses) the “Krasnyj Onezhets.”
From the day of joining the partisan detachment to his desertion the POW estimated that the detachment had casualties as dead, wounded and missing about 60 men.

Partisan replacements and supplying

The POW knows that replacements arrived in larger lots to Segezha about 12 – 15 men and to Lehto on 15. – 16.August 1942 nine parachutists (diversants) from Moscow. Also random lots of 1 to 3 men to replace the dead, the wounded or the rejected men. The replacments came mostly from Belomorsk but sometimes from other places.
The Partisan detachment is catered directly from Belomorsk by lorries to Lehto. The oufit has three horses for their transport needs. When resting the men are given a breakfast of tea and soup, lunch of soup or gruel and dinner of soup and tea. Daily bread ration 700g, sugar ration a small coffee cupful for 10 days and mahorka 20g. No butter and meat only when the men have been hunting. The POW says the food is insufficient and there is a standing order to get more from Finnish lorries and men. Usually the partisans run out of food on their return journey, the Pow tells that in June when returning from the Repola road five men of the detachment starved to death.
Mood
The prisoner tells that a general miscontents is common among the partisans, due to ever worsening food and the ever worse news from home. Families back home with children younger than 7 years of age get a grant of 75 roubles a month but it is quite insufficient due to present price level. They do not express their miscontent due to harsh control but the POW says he is convinced that there are plenty of men willing to defect and they would do it if only possible.
When setting out to patrol the POW had heard the reading of Stalin's order decreeing that anyone retreating without order in battle or disregarding an order is allowed to be shot on the spot without being charged for that afterwards. According to the decree a simple private can shoot an officer if found guilty of the said crimes. (In practice, the POW said, it is impossible because during a battle every officer is in the rear.)
*
Officers listed by Markov
Capt. Banjuk, Co of “Vperjod” (Border guard officer, served in Roukkula barracks before the war).  [Correct spelling: Vondjuk. VH]
Comissar Patashov, detachment Comissar.  [Correct spelling: Potastsev. VH]
Lt. Gaidutshonok, CO of I Platoon .
Politruk Pivojev (karjalainen), I Platoon Politruk.
Lt. Segorov, II Platoon CO.
Politruk Injev (Carelian) II Platoon Politruk.
Lt. Levoshkin (Carelian) III Platoon CO.
Politruk Zharujev, III Platoon Politruk, MIA during the last patrol.
Lt. Makarshin, detachment logistics officer.
Lt. Gostjev, ”Krasnyi Onezhets” platoon CO.
Brigade CO Vershinin, partisan HQ CO in Belomorsk.
BrigadeComissar Kuprianov (Member of Cafelian front war soviet).  In Belomorsk in the HQ, issues orders to Vershinin.
*
Partisan detachment “Vperyod” I Platoon left Lehto for Koivuniemi by lorries on 18.8.1942 , II and III Platoon and the commanders came the following day. On the day they set out a political meeting was held whereby the ”Krasnyi Onezhets” partisan Comissar made a speech and mentioned that his detachment would soon follow them. The outfilt rested in Koivuniemi unti 23. Aug until continuing for NW. The initial leg of the mission was slow due to heavy burders and the detachment arrived at Tsirkka-Kemijoki river to the rapids about 12 km S of Jyskyjärvi on 29.8.  At the rapids the patrol rested until 31.8. leaving behind a small cache of food and ammunition. The same day they went on and the patrol arrived on 1.9. in the terrain about 5km N of Pisamalahti village. They continued to W and arrived at the border guard barracks about 22km NW of Roukkulanjärvi lake on 10. or 11.9.1942. Previous night aircraft had flown in food to the lake about 6km N of the barracks (Belaja Lambina).  The patrol leader Capt. Banjuk said that there was a food cache near the lake but despite searching it was not found. The next night after arriving at the barracks the aircraft again hauled food at about 05 to 07 hrs. The same day (11.-12.9.) the Platoons received their orders and set out at about 13-14 hrs.  Each Platoon left 2 men in the barracks and also stayed behind the patrol leader Banjuk, 1 paramedic woman, a radio operator and some sick men, a total of 14 to16 persons. All three Platoons set out direction Roukkula together for the Repola road.  As the Platoonis were underway the POW was included in a reconnaisance patrol led by Capt. Banjuk to Roukkula village. The observation revealed that there were Finns in the village and the patrol returned to the base.

Partisan raids and victims
The first to return was the III Platoon with remaining 6 men 9-10 days later. They reported that they had gone for the road and were ambushed by the Finns before they had a chance to disperse whereby most of them were either killed or went missing (Possibly the enemy men destroyed on 18.-19.8. near the national border and W of Saarenpää.) The POW tells that the returned men included the Platoon CO, the detachment HQ CO, a female paramedic and three men. Among the MIAs was the Platoon Politruk Zharujev.  Platoon losses amounted to about 20 men.  [FIN1*]
The second to return 10-11 days later was the II Platoon who had with them some weapons that they said they had taken from the automobiles they had destroyed on the Replola road (Possibly the vehicles destroyed on 14.-15.9. W of Repola).  This Platoon suffered no losses.  [FIN2*]
I Platoon returned as the last one having been out for 12-13 days, they brought one man with belly wound. They told that at first they had attacked at the road where they destroyed some automobiles and men (Obiously the vehicles destroyed W of Kolvasjärvi on 15.-16.9. ).  After the successful operation the Platoon continued their mission as ordered by Politruk Pivojev over the Finnish border. They advanced to a little village where they marauded food, foortwear and garments and killed some men, women and children. The above mentioned belly wounded man was from this village.  [FIN3*] 
When every Platoon had returned to the base it was relocated on 21.9. from border guard barracks to the isthmus between two small lakes about 6 km N (Belaja Lambina).  The next morning an aircraft landed on the said lake, bringing more food and evacuating the belly wounded man, one diversant fallen ill and war booty weapons and documents. The same day the base was relocated to a small pond near the lake where they stayed overnight.
Ambush at Roukkula
The next day the survivors of III Platoon were posted in I and II Platoons and everyone was sent to a new mission: I Platoon in Finnish territory, led by Capt.Banjuk himself and II Platoon to Roukkula village, the POW was included in the last mentioned Platoon.  The detachment Comissar,the HQ CO, the radio operator and some men remained in the base.
The II Platoon marched on the day of departure some 4 km from the base to the direction of the barracks and camped there due to rain. The next morning they went on past the barracks to the direction of Roukkula village. At a distance of about 7-8 km from the village the scout heard some noise in front of them, the Platoon CO issued an order to set up an ambush on both sides of the road (In this spot a line in the forest intersects the road).  Soon a Finnish bicycle patrol was seen approaching on the road. The patrol was allowed to get very close until they were fired at, most of them were killed and the rest escaped.   (On 24.9. at 17 hrs NW of Roukkula village in the terrain v.s. = 14 and p.s. = 88 our 10-man bicycle patrol was ambushed.) [FIN4*]
The POW said that during the ambush he was the assistant to a SMG gunner and he did not have time to observe the course of the events in any accurate degree. The firing was ended soon and the Platoon congregated on the road, they robbed the corpses and piled up the bicycles and destroyed them with a hand grenade. The booty was distributed among the men and the POW was given a backpack, an overcoat and a mackintosh that he had to surrender when back in the base.
In the base the POW hear how the politruk [II Ptn Carelian Politruk Injev. VH] tellthat there had been a total of 15 finns and only two managed to escape. The entire mission was less than two days. No losses. The POW still had the said backpack and the overcoat when he was arrested.
Destruction of Viiksimo village
I Platoon returned to the base having been out for less than 3 days and brought along 5 cows, flour, butter, sugar and other foodstuffs, garments and footwear. The POW heard from a man called Aleksandrov ( a Carelian) who participated in the mission that the patrol met a man when approaching the village. They told the man that they wanted to buy food and they do not do any harm to anybody as long as they are not resisted. The man was ordered to go to the village and assemble the people and inform them (VH comments: Most likely this the man called Aleksandrov is Dmitri Aleksandrov, born 1918 in Rukajärvi, died on 15 March 2012.)
The Finn did as ordered and assembled the men, who were all locked up in a sauna. Next the Platoon dispersed in the village and rallied all the women and children in a house before starting to plunder the village.
Having assembled all the material they wanted the patrol shot the men in the sauna and next the women and children in the house. Only two minor age children managed to escape through a window. (The POW had heard himself how the Platoon politruk Pipojev boasted in the base to the detachment Comissar, that as his SMG jammed while he was shooting the women and children, he shot the rest of them with his Nagan and it was much comfortable and “fun”).
Soon after shooting the sentry placed off the village alerted about the buzzing of an automobile on the road. The Platoon srt up an ambush at once and opened fire at the first car that stopped. Immediately the Platoon disengaged and set out for the return journey.  (These facts have been verified to have taken place in Viiksimojärvi on 24.9.1942). [VIIKSIMO*]
Markov defects
After the entire detachment had rallied in the base the cows were killed and the meat and other booty was taken along as they set out f or the return journey the same day. After one day of march there was a break of one day, then they marched for one day and rested for 2-3 days. Then they continued their journey and the POW heard from a man hailing from Luvajärvi that there was a road to the village one to one-and-a-half km off. The detachment camped overnight in the said place and next morning crossed the road. As there was a roll call after crossing the road the POW set to relieve himself and let the other men pass him. The very next thing the POW said he did was to take his pack and escape on the road and continue on it for W until he said that at a river he met some Finns and surrendered on 2.10.1942.  The POW tells that as soon as he had been arrested he had provided his information about the patrol, and the Finns had started pursuit. They had found the track but lost it later without engaging the partisan detachment.
The POW tells that in Lehto village are lodged not only the partisan detachment “Vperjod” but also the partisan detachment “ Krasnyj Onezhets”, CO being some border guard Captain whose name the POW says he does not remember. The POW also says that he does not know what the strenght of the out fit is but he estimates it as 120 -130 men. There also is the HQ of a brigade in the village ( likely 32.Er.HiihtoPr) and there are air surveillancce posts in the villages around Lehto.
In Sosnovets thr POW has seen Border guard men and heard that there is a Company of the Broder Guard detachment earlier posted at Repola (73. Rv.R) and parts of this Coy are posted in Kakhanoje village.  There is also an airfield in Sosnovets but the POW does not know how many aircraft are there and what is the unit.
”The HQ of Partisan detachments” are according to the POW situated in Belomorsk, at the end of the street that turns into the road from Uikuniemi, near the bridge. The building is a single storey wooden house situated opposite to the Carelian Communal Bank. The POW has been there once.
A Lotta was killed 
Before this mission the Partisan detachment “Vperjod” had done one patrol starting early June, duration abt. 1 ½ months. The POW tells that before the above mentioned patrol mission he was included in a patrol carried out by the Brigade stationed in Lehto as a guide. Their objective was the Kiimasjärvi road and they were ordered to catch a prisoner there. As the patrol returned with the mission failed the POW had to join his detachment in Koivuniemi for another mission.
The POW recounted that before the above mentioned patrol mission he had been included in a patrol by the Briagade in Lehto as a guide in May-June at the Kiimasjärvi road. Their task had been to catch a prisoner, and as the patrol returned from their vain journey the POW had to join his detachment in Koivuniemi and return . Partisan detachment “Bperjod” advanced by S of Nuokkijärvi across the Kiimasjärvi road to the Repola road to E of Muujärvi . Their aim was to destroy Finnish automobiles and Roukkula village. The POW says he was himself in the base having just returned from a patrol before setting out for the said mission. The POW knows this much about the results of the patrol: one of the Platoons succeeded in ambushing one Finnish lorry and destroy some of the men on it, the same Platoon had also destroyed a bridge.  [KORHO*]  - More about this incident here : http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic. ... 9&t=164268
Another Platoon had been surprised in their overnight camp whereby 8 - 10 men went missing.
The detachment advanced as far as the perimeter of Roukkula village but having spotted manning in it did not attempt to take it over but returned. The casualties of the mission were a total of some 20 men, of which 5 starved to death on return and two were shot, one for sleeping in sentry duty and the other one for stealing bread .
The POW had hearad that the Partisan detachment ”Krasnyj Onezhets ” had been about at the same time and having taken a village in Luvajärvi had acquired a lot of food (Very likely Kiimasjärvi village). The detachment had also been in the direction of the Repola road and it had suffered considerable losses. One Platoon had been surprised at their campfires and destrored entirely. Total losses for the mission about 35 men.
Partisan tactics
Partisan detachment “Vperjod” advances mostly so that one of the Platoons is advancing ahead, with scouts preceding but two other Platoons are advancing on the flanks while maintaining sight contact with the front Platoon. A rear securing group makes sure that the detachment is not surprised from behind. Dry moraine ground is crossed dispersed, every man making an individual track to complicate pursuit, in marshy soil the detachment makes one single trache and every man has to step in the same footprints to conceal the strenght of the detachment. Roads are crossed in dispersed formation and the men are counted after every road and river crossing to discourage desertion.

Overnight camps are usually situated in low-lying ground in thickets, the platoons in a triangle with the commanders in the center. At the shores of rivers and ponds one Platoon on each flank and the third Platoon in the middle, the beach is not secured and in the middle of this square are situated the commanders. Securing in the night three men from each Platoon, sentries about 25-30 m from the Platoons, in daytime 2 men per Platoon, sentries about 75-100 m from the Platoons. Campfires in summertime are made only for cooking and even then minimal, no fires are made at night. Mo huts are made in summertime and in case of rain there is a tarp for every two men.
A base is always based in a thicket and they avoid making any kind of traces, shore thickets of rivers and lakes are the most usual. A secondary base is agreed on in any eventual chance of being found out, and the location is informed to the sub-patrol leaders as they set out.
As the POW came from Segezha last spring he saw from the train a bad cart road from Vojatsu on the W side of the rail line. On bogs it was a corduroy road and very crooked. The POW says it is usable for horse carts only. There is only a railway bridge across Onda river and the road ends at the river both on the N and S bank. The POW did not see any kind of ferry.
The POW tells that on his patrol the war booty included o 1 LMG, 2-3 SMGs 1 Mauser pistol, some ten rifles and uniforms taken off the killed Finns. The men of the platoons that attacked Viiksimo village were almost everyone wearing Finnish civilian garments and footwear. The aircraft that brought food took away the war booty weapons, the rest of the booty was carried by the patrol. The POW heard an airman say that in 10 protocolthey shall land at another partisan detachment (possibly “Krasnyj Onezhets”) The aircraft headed right to N.
The POW had heard that the paper mill in Segezha was now producing SMGs but the volume was quite low. Last winter a ski brigade had camped near Segesha, the POW does not know its number.
The commanders of a partisan detachment does not wear rank badges neiter in cantonment nor in patrol. The officers, however, wear a shoulder strap. All documents have to be left behind before setting out, the partisans do not have a Red Army passport.
The POW hasbeen married with Elma NISKASEN, b. Viden kanssa (b. at Kemi in 1903), defected from Finland in 1934, whose previous husband Hannes NISKANEN was imprisoned 1937 and been lost since.
The POW says he did not belong to the Communist party because he had been sentenced twice for drunkenness and resisting the NKVD and the milice.

To certify:
Lt. A. Malinen [MALI*]
9.10.1942.
12 AM/HK.
Here is the interrogation protocol of POW   MARKOV, taken prisoner 2.10.1942 .
Appx 1 = 10 sheets.
By order of:
Os.2.CO, Maj. T. Hannila
Office II: CO, Maj. V. Wehanen
Distribution:
[11 objects, normal delivery , VH]
14.D HQ DN:o 2040/II3 a/L. 10717/sal.

References, footnotes, background in the next instalment or instalments

Lotvonen
Member
Posts: 584
Joined: 25 Jun 2007 11:17
Location: Finland

Re: Finns vs. partisans

Post by Lotvonen » 26 Feb 2017 07:55

References/background to the instalment above.
[ETEEN*]
Partisan detachment , Otrjad Vperjod, was one of the 35 Carelian front partisan detachments. (Wikipedia uses the term “detachment” for translation of “otrjad”)
”Vperjod” Partisan detachment was set up soon atter the start of the Continuation War on 19.7.1941 and it was operating at Repolan & Rukajävi areas.  The nominal strenght of the detachmen was 41persons (men and women).   The detacment COs were : V.I. Bobkov; K.V. Vondjuk starting Nov. 1941 and M.G. Titov October 1943 lähtien. The political controller or the Comissar of the detachment were toimivat: I.I. Vahramejev; V.I. Potastsev starting Nov. 1941; M.P. Pivojev starting Jan.1943 and D.b. Aleksandrov.  The detachment was active as most partisan detachments in Carelia until 15.10.1944.  - 
The other Partisan detachment mentioned in the protocol is “Krasnyj Onezhets”. It was set up on 31.7.1941 mostly of the workers of the Onega factory in Petrozavodsk, commanded by the factory manager and operating mostly in the area of Petrozavodsk. Nominal strenght 91 persons
COs included : V.V. Tiden; I.A. Kravtsenko from Nov. 1941; N.I. Malysev from 25.5.1944.  Comissar: V.I. Vasiljev; I.A. Timofejev from Nov. 1941; N.I. Besperstov from April 1942; P.A. Kirjanov from March 1943; G.A. Gerasimov fom Dec. 1943. The detachment was active until 15.10.1944.
Source: prof. A.I. Babin: ”Karelski Front 1941-1945”.  Moscow 1984.  [Quoted in Tyyne Martikainen: Partisaanisodan siviiliuhrit.  Kemi, 2002, b. 256-258.]
[LYYTIK*]
The Finnish POW: Pvt Olavi LYYTIKÄINEN, b. 14.3.1916 Valkeala, living in Lappeenranta, unmarried driver, serving inja, joka palveli 7.Tien.HK, taken POW on 8.12.1941 in Kuusiniemi, imprisoned in Oranki POW camp and died in Monetno-Losinovskij POW camp (N:o 84) on 22.6.1943, due to stomach cholera and edema according to the other returned POWs in Hanko 1944-1945 .Source: SA-Sodissa menehtyneet; Teuvo Alava-Dmitri Frolov-Reijo Nikkilä: Rukiver!
[TUNTEM*]
This wounded Finnish POW remains so far unknown.
[PPRIK*]
E of Lake Onega at Puudoz was operating the 1. Partisan brigade also known as 1. Ski Brigade renamed in 1942 as 32. Detached Ski Brigade. Thei r CO was since new year 1942 Valter Valli, born in Mullila village, Eurajoki parish in Finland and defected in 1922 to Russia where he received officer training. This information is based on his biography written by Jaakko Rugojev. Rugojev's well meaning book on his friend however describles the complexity and individuality that marked the military career of Valli not only in literature but also in reality.
(snip)
As one can see, it is an exposed position to be a CO of a partisan detachment (“Vperjod”,“Krasnyj Onezhets”, “Toivo Antikainen”) . As the CO or the Comissar – 25 men in 3 years.
“Some Partisan brigade” mentioned by Markov in the protocol is the 1. Partisan brigade that was set up in Puutoinen E fo Onega on 5.12.1941 . Their CO was V.V. Tiden and from February 1941 I.A. Gregrojev. The Political Commissar was N.P. Aristov.
Partisan detachement “Toivo Antikainen” was integrated into the 1.Partisan brigade 0n.5.12.1941. This detachement was renamed as “Toivo Antikainen” on 29.6.1942. On 20.10.1942 it started as an individual fighting unit and continued its existence until 15.10.1944 just as the 1. Partisan brigade.
Several other partisan detachment were included in this operative basic unit “1. Partisan Brigade” which included at its maximum 1140 persons, and nominal strenght corresponded an infantry battalion, 708 personb. In summer 1942 at Seesjärvi the brigade lost nearly all of the 600 men participating in the operation, and several detachements went on operating independently.

The HQ of partisans was situated in Belomorsk (Sorokka), CO Gen.Maj. Sergei Versinin.  According to Russian sources there were a total of 5.124 partisans Carelia from different nationalitieb. Women were serving as radio operators and nurses but also in fighting dutieb. (Source as previously)
[FIN1*]
KIA of this skirmish were not found in the data base “Sodissa menehtyneiden 1939-1945 –tiedosto”
[FIN2*]
According to archive data one Finn was killed on the Repola-Lieksa road on 15.9.1942 :
Pvt. Antti Eino Malinen, b. 12.10.1917 Kuhmoniemi, living in Kuhmo, unmarried worker, 18.TienHK:. KIA 15.9.1942 on the Repola-Lieksa –road, buried in the old Kuhmo cemetry. It is possible but not certain that his death is due to the II Platoon /“Vperjod” raid..
[FIN3*]
According to archive data at Kolvasjärvi on 15.-16.9.1942 were KIA three Finnish soldiers of the same Coy. Their death is assosiated with the partisan raid .
Pfc. Väinö Fredrik Ilonen, b. 29.12.1914 Keuruu, living in Tampere, unmarried metal worker, 1./VP3, KIA 16.9.1942 Kolvasjärvi, buried in Keuruu;
Pfc. Viljo Arvid Niemi, b. 18.9.1902 Suoniemi, living in Tampere, married, 3 children, attendant, 1./VP 3, KIA 15.9.1942 Kolvasjärvi, buried in Tampere, Kalevankangas cemetry;
Pfc. Eino Olavi Salonen, b. 9.12.1914 Karkku, living in Tampere, unmarried farm worker, 1./VP 3, KIA 16.9.1942 Kolvasjärvi, buried in Vammala, Salokunta cemetry.
*
Markovin mentioned that the I Platoon of detachment “Vperjod” should have at the return leg of the mission having crossed the Finnish border robbed in “a small village” food, garments and footwear and “killed some men, women, children”. There should also been a firefight since one of the partisans had wounde in the belly. They evacuated the man to the base in the old Border guard barrackb. This alleged robbery or massacre is not confirmed by Finnish research. Either this is just a piece of “normal” partisan exaggeration or then cover-up attempt of an accidental shot or something in that vein. [VH]
[FIN4*]
According to archive four Finnish soldiers were killed on the Roukkula-Miinoa road on 24.9.1942and another man from one of the Det. Kuussaari whose place of death is defined as Rukajärvi. The four men are:
Sgt. Kalle Vihtori Aarikka, b. 6.5.1901 Nakkila, living there, married, 3 children, telephone technician, 7./AHSP subjected to Det. Kuussaari, KIA on 24.9.1942 Roukkula-Miinoa, buried in Nakkila;
Pfc.Toivo Johannes Käihkö, b. 12.9.1917 Värtsilä, living there, unmarried, farmer, 6./Det.Kuussaari, KIA 24.9.1942 Roukkua-Miinoa, buried in Värtsilä;
Cpl. Arvo Aulis Ovaska, b. 15.4.1917 Rautjärvi, living in Ruokolahti, unmarried, farmer, 6./Det. Kuussaari, KIA on 24.9.1942 Roukkula, buried in Rautjärvi ;
Ssgt. Erkki Antero Tuovinen, b. 13.6.1916 Varpaisjärvi, living in Kuopio, unmarried storage clerk, 6./Det.Kuussaari, KIA on 24.9.1942 Roukkula, buried in Kuopio, Hatsala cemetry.
Also KIA:
2nd Lt. Grigori/Riku Koivuniemi, b. 5.4.1919 Salmi, place of residence Nurmijärvi, unmarrried student, 6./Det. Kuussaari, KIA on 24.9.1942 Rukajärvi, buried in Helsinki, orthodox cemetry I. 
[MONI*]
Partisan detachment ”Vperjod” was according to Markov multi-national. Most other Carelian front partisan detachments, too. Most of the personnel of the detachments had been recruited and posted in the detachments from Carelia and consequently was multinational.
(snip)
It would be interesting to research into American Finns mentioned by Markov and their share in the action of the partisan detachments and also that of the Finns or people of Finnish ancestry as guides, liaison persons or fighters.
As to Ivan Markov the defector-partisan it must be stated that he was one of the few partisans who defected during the war. According to Veikko Karhunen (“Raatteen tietä Kostamukseen”,WSOY, 1972) that the Finnish Anti-partisan units have recorded that during 1942-1944 there were 9 defections and 8 partisan POWb. Partisan war for one was a war in which few prisoners were taken and and nobody wanted to surrender.
[KORHO*]
It can be deduced that this refers to the tragedy in Muujärvi on 8.7.1942, as Lotta Sirkka Korhonen was killedn.  Link to Axis History website: http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic. ... 9&t=164268 
According to Finnish Army archives Lotta Sirkka Korhonen, civilian occupation maid, b. 20.6.1919 in Paltamo, where she was residing. She is buried in Paltamo.
*
[MALI*]
Lt. A. Malinen who signed the protocol is most likely Lt. Amos Benjamin Malinen, b. 27.12.1913 in Käkisalmi, serving in the Continuation war at first as staff officer and adjutant in JR48 and later as staff officer and staff commander in VI AC HQ. He was promoted to Capt. In 1942. He was KIA in Viipuri on 20.6.1944 as I/20.Pr CO.
Raimo Myöhänen informs us in his Blog on 7.4.2009 on Capt. A.B. Malinen:
”[Kemppi's 20.Pr] I Btn CO was Capt. Aamos Malinen, age 30 yrs.  VI AC CO Gen.Maj. Aarne Blick has posted his favourite in this task on 15.8.1943..  ”The General sent me to fix this Battalion” was the daily parole.  In the Winter War Malinen had served as a Platoon leader in 3.Pr. and participated in one battle.  Starting 17.1.1940 he was a staff officer in the Reserve Officer School.  The beginning of the Continuation War he had spent in staff duties in Nurmoila in the VI AC HQ. He had not served one single day as a Company CO in the front line. He had been decorated with three Liberty Crosses and the German Iron Cross. Indeed he was serving in the places where decorations are granted. He got his Iron Cross as two of them were given to his Battalion to be granted as the CO preferred. Ssgt Kauko Tommola received one and the second one Malinen granted to himself.”
[VIIKSIMO*]

To be continued.

Lotvonen
Member
Posts: 584
Joined: 25 Jun 2007 11:17
Location: Finland

Re: Finns vs. partisans

Post by Lotvonen » 01 Mar 2017 06:52

The following account is probably the first Finnish report on the murders committed by Partisans in Viiksimo, Kuhmo.
Source:
Eino Viheriävaara: Partisaanien jäljet 1941-1944. 
Oulun Kirjateollisuus Oy, 1981, pp 84-87.
Viiksimo village:
Viiksimo village in Kuhmo parish included seven farms.  In the promontory were situated Uutela, Välitalo and Tyvelä.  On the other side of the lake on Matilanniemi a little more than one km farther were two farms, and 5-6 km farther off Särkinen and Kohola. 
The national border is only 1,5 km from the village. The Partisans had an easy access.
Eino Viheriävaara recounts basing on interviews in 1981;
KUHMO, Viiksimo, 24.9.1942.
On 24.9.1942 at about 1400hrs a group of partisans, about ten men, arrived at Välitalo farm in Viiksimo village from the direction of Tyvelä farmhouse. The farm people were working in a potato field. The partisans, armed with SMGs, told the people to follow them. Toivo, 14 years in age, was also ordered but he stayed behind to unharness the horse. While the partisans were heading for the windmill Toivo was behind the horse and escaped to the shore meadow and hid under a haystack.
At the same time the other partisans had collected the people of Tyvelä ja Uutela farms in the same spot in the forest nearby. The arrested fifteen persons were held in the forest for about two hours guarded by Finnish speaking partisans.
_In the meanwhile the other partisans looted all the more valuable goods, foodstuffs, garments, footwear and five cowb. As soon as the loot had been collected in the forest the arrested people were ordered to enter the Uutela farmhouse
A little while later Finnish speaking partisans ordered all men out:
Välitalo farmer Mikko Heikkinen,
Tyvelä farmer Matti Heikkinen,
his son Veikko Armas Heikkinen and
Lodger Jussi Jauhonen were ordered in the Uutela sauna, and immediately one of the two SMG gunners started shooting.
Three of the men were killed, Veikko Heikkinen who had been hit three times remained under the body of his father feigning dead.
*
Uutela farmhouse:
The eleven persons left in the Uutela farmhouse were ordered to sit next to each other on the bench at the rear wall. They included:
Välitalo housewife Anni Heikkinen and sitting in her lap her daughter Helli,
Välitalo children : Vieno, Onni, Tyyne, Hilja, Tauno,
Anna Heikkinen,
Tyvelä farmer's son Eino Heikkinen , 21 years in age but small in stature pienikokoisena had been left in the farmhouse,
Uutela farmer's son Eino Oskari Heikkinen and
Lodger's wife Anni Jauhonen.
The SMG gunners clicked the safeties of their weaponb. Hilja, age 20 years, understood what the partisans were up to and attacked one of them. During the ensuing melee the SMG bursts hit the ceiling until the magazine was empty.
The other SMG gunner appeared to be stupefied and did not act fast enough. Vieno, a lad of 13 years in age, had enough presence of mind to spot the boarded over window and escaped through it. The same route was taken by Eino, 13 years of age, Anni Jauhonen who was lame, Välitalo children Onn, 7yrs, Tyyne, 8 yrs, Tauna, 6 yrs and Eino Tyvelä and finally Hilja who had been struggling with the partisan all the time needed for the escape.
Enemy bullets had lethally hit Välitalo farm housewife Anna Lyyti Heikkinen and her daughter Anna Reeta Heikkinen.  4 years old Helli Sisko had been in her mother's lap and a bullet had pierced her head, resulting loss of sight in her right eye. ( The orphaned girl lived for years I Sweden and in Switzerland, until she returned as adult to Finland and was [in 1981] living as housewife near Helsinki.) 
On the yard:
The partisans on the yard spotted the escaping people and started shooting at them. Eino Tyvelä was killed right at the window and Tauno Välitalo, 6yrs, running on the field and shouting “ Do not leave me, do not leave me” took a bullet in his head and dropped on the ground, unconscious.
Uutela farmer's wife Impi Reeta Heikkinen who had been herding cattler in the forest narbywas found next to the footpath to Miinoa, killed by two SMG bulletb. Uutela farmer Juuso Heikkinen was in the forest chopping firewood and as undetected he survived. Also his son Veikko, 16 yrs, was saved as he realised whaat was going on when coming out of the forest. He hid behind the rocks on the lakeshore about 50m from the Uutela farmhouse and was able to escape. Toivo Välitalo was watching under the haystack and survived unhurt.
Finnish soldiers
Almost at the same time as the above described was happening at 16.00hrs an army car arrived at Viiksimo from Kuhmo village.
The men in the car did not have any idea of what was going on in Viiksimo but they drove right at the village unti they were fired at by the partisans who were some 50m in the forest. As the car was hit the driver steered in the ditch and the men in it dashed out and took cover behind the car.
Capt. Penttilä, was lightly hurt as the partisans fired through the windscreen. Lt. Kemppainen, Lt. Seppänen, 2nd Lt. Koponen and the driver were unhurt despite the partisan fire. Sixty bullet holes were counted in the car.
There was a lorry following the car, the driver turned back to get the soldiers who were in Kalliojoki dismantling barrackb. The lorry returned with 22 men on board. It was stopped 400m from the positionb. The group of people that had escaped from the farmhouse was signalling: Vieno, Onni, Tyyne, and Anni Jauhonen. As a Finnish patrol reached the village the enemy had escaped but before that they had torched the Tyvelä farm sauna that burned down with all inventory. It was being used as home since the farmhouse had been torched during the Winter War
Partisans were never seen in large numbers, only 5 to 15 men at a time (two women were included) Later two partisans taken prisoners admitted that there may have been a Company of §120 ro 150 men camping about 1 km from the village behind Takajoki river.
The following civilians were killed during the partisan raid in Viiksimo on 24. Sept.1942:
Välitalo farmer Mikko Vihtori Heikkinen, b. 12.7.1893 (shot in Uutela sauna);
his wife Anni Lyyti Heikkinen, b. 18.5.1896 (shot in Uutela house bench);
their children:
Tauno Sulo Heikkinen, b. 13.5.1936 (Tauno, 6 yrs., escaped through a window to the field, was shot at and wounded. He died while being transported to a hospital
Anna Reeta Heikkinen, b. 25.4.1924 [Shot in Uutela farmhouse on top of a sack of grain; TM];
Tyvelä farmer Matti Heikkinen, b. 4.5.1888 (shot in Uutela sauna)
His son Eino Topi Heikkinen, b. 18.7.1921 (Escaped through a window but was shot immediately)
Uutela farmer's wife Impi Margareeta Heikkinen, b. 30.11.1894 [while herding cows, was shot in the botttom of a tar kiln next to the road TM];
Lodger Jussi Jauhonen, b. 18.8.1905 (Shot in Uutela sauna)
Wounded:
4 yr old Helli Saimi Heikkinen, b. 24.4.1939 (shot in her head, survived and received medical treatment in Sweden and Swizerland, married name Pöllänen, living in Vantaa, died 1989)
Veikko Armas Heikkinen, b. 18.7.1921 (In the Uutela sauna were shot Mikko Heikkinen, Jussi Jauhonen and Matti Heikkinen; Matti's son Veikko Heikkinen wasl left under the bodies. As the partisans returned to fire at the bodies Veikko was wounded in five spots but feigning dead eh survived and recovered. He died 34 yrs later on 24.4.1976; TM).
Survivors, not wounded :
Juuso Heikkinen, b. 1.5.1889 [he had been in the forest checking his bird traps and having seen the shooting and a burning house he walked all night through the forests to Pahkala, where he learned that his wife had been killed. Exhausted and cold, having got wet in the forest he could not control lhimself but burst crying: TM];
his sons
Eino Oskari Heikkinen, b. 1929 (13 yrs., escaped through a window of the Uutela farmhouse);
Kaarlo Veikko Heikkinen, b. 17.4.1925 [ He had been with his father trapping birds and he managed to hide but he saw far too many acts of terror];
Välitalo children:
Hilja Heikkinen, 22 yrs, (in an act of heroism Hilja grabbed at one partisan's SMG and managed to make the weapon muzzle point up and fire the magazine at the ceiling. This enabled six people escape through a window.);
Vieno Heikkinen/Välitalo, 16 yrs, [ Veikko Heikkinen told that his brother Eino broke off the boards and tarred paper blocking a window and Vieno assisted him in opening the escape route. TM]
Toivo Heikkinen, 14yrs, [he was hiding under a haystack and saw how his home was marauded, the family dog joined him. Beset by fear he crossed the lake with a boat to Piilojoki where he hid in the ditch of the road and observed the traffic. He did not dare to return to the village until he was sure that Finns had the upper hand. TM]
Tyyne Heikkinen, 8 yrs, (escaped through the window ) ja
Onni Heikkinen, 7 yrs and Anni Jauhonen (escaped through the window),
*
Other damage
Tyvelä farmhouse, torched by partisans.
Also Uutela farmhouse has been set to fire: paper had been placed and set alight between the oven and the wall that had been turned black but did not catch fire. This saved the girl Elli, 4yrs, who had stayed with the bodies .

Source : Eino Viheriävaara: Partisaanien jäljet 1941-1944.  Omakustanne, Oulun Kirjateollisuus Oy, 1981. – TM; “Partisaanisodan siviiliuhrit “ by Tyyne Martikainen.
* * *
To be continued.

Lotvonen
Member
Posts: 584
Joined: 25 Jun 2007 11:17
Location: Finland

Re: Finns vs. partisans

Post by Lotvonen » 05 Mar 2017 06:55

Final instalment. Much of it repeat of the above but from a different point of view.

Tyyne Martikaisen wrote and edited an account of the partisan war: ”Partisaanisodan siviiliuhrit” (Kemi, 2002) and the following is based on her book:

Veikko Heikkinen (Interviewed about 1999):
The villagers were doing their autumn tasks, harvesting potatoes or other out-of-doors tasks. Veikko's mother was herding cows in the forest nearby. Veikko and his dad were checking their bird traps . Veikko had a rifle for protection.
In the afternoon Veikko was on his way home ahead of his dad. He was rowing across the lake as he heard how the neighbour's dog was barking furiously. He arrived at the shore, disembarked and headed for the farmhouse. To his surprise the whole room was upside down and nobody was home.
He saw from the window that a group of men was coming, close. He guessed that it was Russians. He grabbed his rifle and ran, making it to the lakeshore behind a small rock.
Veikko Heikkinen:
“My heart was racing, did they spot me, do they start shooting?”
“The yard was filled with people. Commands were uttered. Some were ordered in the farmhouse, others in the sauna nearby. Some SMG gunners remained on the yard. The sound of an automobile was heard far on the road. There was some movement at Välitalo farm. The Russians had taken some cows and were coaxing them to the direction of the road. Smoke started rising: houses had been set alight. The noise of automobiles was increasing. Then sound of shooting emerged from the farmhouse. A window burst open. I saw some peoople jump out of the window and run for cover behind a brushwood fence. I heard crying and a shout: “ Do not shoot, help me Lord” The shout was cut short by shooting. Shooting went on in auto mode.”
“I saw how thre people in thre sauna were shot at from the door. I had to shift my position in order not to be seen from the sauna. I slank in the cold water and pulled my cap over my eyes. I was feeling terrible. Then I heard bursts of shooting at the road some 200m off. There was again shooting into the sauna. The shooter then went to the farmhouse at the open window and fired at the ground (the partisan killed Eino, 11yrs, lying on the ground there, VH) and then ran and disappeared in the forest to the direction of Takajoki bridge where the rest had gone.
It was totally quiet at Niemi. One automobile drove at a fast speed back to the village. Tyvelä farmhouse was in flames”.
“ I started wading for the mouth of Takajoki river, crouching. I was wet and half numb when I got there. Then I had to wade across deep water to Tulikangas side. I could not enter the brige, Russkies were going there with heavy burdens in their backs. I could see the bridge very well. I lied down on the beach and lifted my legs so that the water flowed out of my wellies. I started running for the Matilanniemi farm.”

Veikko Heikkinen interviewed by Tyyne Martikainen recounted;
”[ Veikko Heikkinen was shocked as he went to Pahkala where he met his father.  From there] he got a ride with the soldier's lorry home to Uutelaan.  A soldier with a SMG was standing near th house and challenged him. Veikko had chatted with him for a while and asked him to come and have a look in the house with him. The soldier had refused.
I entered alone and saw a terrible sight. Blood had flown into a puddle on the floor. There they were lying, white pale. My mother had also been brought in from the forest ( where the partisans had shot her). Eino (Heikkinen, 11 yrs who had been shot as he had tried to escape) had been brought in, too. Next I went to the sauna and looked through the door. The men there had mostly been shot through the head. I felt the end of the world was at hand. I took my bike and left, feeling dejected. I kept hearing in my mind the shout “Do not shoot, help me Lord!” and the barking of the Välitalo dog.
The attackers had well been aware that the village was defenceless. Only civilians were there. Two weeks before two unknown soldiers had been seen looking about. Nobody just did not guess that they were partisans. They were believed to be Finns as about at the same time Finnish officers had visited the village seeking a place for a field stronghold. Matti Tyvelä had granted permission for a barracks on his property.

”Veikko Heikkinen tells about the burden of guilt he is carrying:
”I have an eternal nightmare thinking: What difference would it have made if I had used my weapon. But I had only three cartridges and I would have been cornered against the lakeshore.”
*
Tyyne Martikainen who has written about the victims of the partisans and championed the cause of the victims tells how she paid a visit to the brave little Hilja Heikkinen, now Kinnunen:
“Hilja is living in her house at the Viiksimo road. I met her and chatted with her. She is a nice friendly lady. I told her that I was coming from Viiksimo. She askemd me: “Where are those partisans roaming now?”
I feel hounoured for having met her, the brave woman who in a dangerous situation risked herself and by grabbing at the enemy weapon saved herself and some others from certain death,”
Source: Tyyne Martikainen: Partisaanisodan siviiliuhrit.  Kemi, 2002. 
This book is a must for anyone even slightly interested in the victims of partisan war.
* * *
Annex:
From the war diary of AHSP/Prikaati K quoted by Timo Kallioniemi
13.9.1942:
It was reported that a Russki patrol had fired at a car on the road 17km from Repola to Lieksa whereby three men were badly wounded and the car burned down. The Russki patrol was being pursued as they killed one military official. Enemy patrol destroyed a lorry 9km from Kolvasjärvi to Kuhmo whereby one man was killed. The next attack at automobiles happened at Kolvasjärvi to the direction of Finland, two of ours and four enemies were killed.
(Automobiles were destroyed on 15.-16.9.1942. KIA were in the first skirmish 15.9. Pfc. Viljo Niemi and on the second 16.9. Pfc. Väinö Ilonen and Pfc. Eino Salonen. The military official has not been ID'ed. VH)
2.10.1942:
Luvajäri field stronghold reported that a prisoner had been taken. He had deserted from an outfit of 50 men heading E. [Ivan Markov. VH]  The prisoner revealed that three 50 man outfits had been on the move in the terrain of the barracks NW of Roukkula. The outfits had been supplied by air but now due to lack of food the outfits were returning. Lt. Peussa was sent to track them but the tracks were lost NE of Vonkajärvi.
Our aircraft had made a forced landing on the road at Lusinka, without getting damaged. The airman had spotted a campfire and 20 men about 5km N of the W tip of Nuokkijärvi lake.
At the bridge of the road Repola – Lieksa lights and movement had been spotted. The bridge must be guarded, the CO of Repola garrison has been informed.
A prisoner has been taken at Kiimasjärvi, he revealde that Russkies are on the move in two outfits about 20 to 40 men . The road from Tsolma to Kiimasjärvi has been mined.
7.10.1942:
Lt. Peussa reported that Lt. Lehto has engaged the enemy twice, two of his men have been wounded. Pvt. Aarre Pitkä was wounded by a mine and died. Pvt. T. Kinnari of 5.Coy was wounded and died.
*Comments

Veikko Huuska 4.7.2013 20:49
This document, “Confession of a young partisan” must be considered a remarkable discovery.
He was also a Carelian 22yrs old tractor driver, who had ended up in a Partisan outfit . He had an education comprising 5 years in Finnish school´. Also he mastered Finnish and presulmably he knew more about Finland than most of his pals in arms.
(snip)

Markov had also married a senior woman, a widow aged 39 yrs. The widow had defected to the Soviet Union in 1934 – among the last to do so. By that time defections and other immigration to Carelia had petered out and about to end. The Finnish husband had been arrested and disappeared in 1937 and without doubth he had been executed soon after interrogation. The document does not tell whether the new family had any children, neither is the ideological status of the man revealed. The fact that he was not a member of the Party was due to the fact of drunkenness and disorderly behaviour. It can be speculated would he have joined the Party if he had not committed the misdemeanours or were they an indication of an oppositional stance?

As to the assesment of the interrogator :"The POW appears to be indifferent and as if holding back something that he knows about."
In my opinion this confession is quite open and verifiable by many details, sticking to the truth in general ?
(snip)
Maybe Markov had been in Viiksimo and committed atrocities that he was regretting, therefore he deserted. Due to shame and disgust he was unable to admit everything but he relieved his soul by telling a story close to the truth?
It would be great to find out about the fate of Ivan Markov and also that of Elma (b. Viden) and Hannes Niskanen.

Veikko Huuska
Ikaalinen

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Juha Tompuri
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Re: Finns vs. partisans

Post by Juha Tompuri » 09 Mar 2017 17:14

JTV wrote:Hautajärvi village
- Attack made by "Imeni Thcapajeva" partisan unit, the civilians killed:
- Ossi Hautajärvi (family father, age 39), taken prisoner and then executed.
- Maire Hautajärvi (daughter, age 16), taken prisoner and then executed.
- Aaro Hautajärvi (son, age 12), taken prisoner and then executed.
- Svante Kangas (family summer employee, age 17), taken prisoner and then executed.
- Iisakki Hautajärvi (adult, grandfather?), shot on the spot.
- Partisan unit attacked against civilians working on the field, they shot one civilian in the field during attack, took four as prisoners and executed these later.
http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic. ... 09#p767209

Today on Finnish TV1 20:00 o'clock a documentary related to the event mentioned above:
http://yle.fi/aihe/artikkeli/2017/03/07 ... artisaanit

Image Herman Hautajärvi, the elderly man in the centre of the photo, is still trying to find the remains of his father (Ossi Hautajärvi) from the wilderness the partisans took and executed his father.

Regards, Juha

Lotvonen
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Location: Finland

Re: Finns vs. partisans

Post by Lotvonen » 16 Nov 2017 08:31

My scars
Reino Himanen (Er.P.7)
Published in journal "Kansa Taisteli"

(The September 1942 incident mentioned above is described here by a Finnish participant.)

After the war I was one of the many getting used to normal life. I had been looking for a job for a long time, finally I was promised one at a railway construction site, and I was told to provide a certificate of health. There the one that I had escaped as the war ended found me.

The doc asked his routine questions, told me to undress, he checked me, tapped on my chest, told me to turn around – a moment of silence.
- These scars do look familiar to me. Maybe you were serving at Rukajärvi during the war? The doc asked.

I admitted as much and at the very moment felt that mentioning the geographic name made anxiety rise in my mind, an odd return to the past. I felt living two separate lives at one time.

The doc said he had given first aid to these wounds. At the same time memories flashed in my mind, as if emerging from dissipating fog, as they had done many times before. The memories took me over, destroyed my peaceful existence, grabbing me with hard hands and laughing at me: There you are still, yet you should be dead!

Indeed I should have been. But the fate, or whatever, did not end my days while fifteen other men were wiped out on the same spot. I do not know whether I should thank or reproach you but I am asking you: please do not torment me with this memory any more! Let the pain and fear be left on this piece of paper so that I should not be forced to see you as the Grim Reaper mowing your best crop ever – my pals.

It was 24 Sept 1942 at Rukajärvi. Enemy had sent their patrols past our positions as deep as to Kuhmo. This is how I remember 2nd Lt. Koivuniemi described our patrol the situation, then he ordered us to check if the enemy were at the border guards barracks in Roukkula.

At 1400hrs the same day we set out on bikes, equipped with food for three days.

I fremember something of a premonition as we set out: a magpie that followed our bike convoy, laughing maliciously. However, we were experienced men, we had done more dangerous patrols led by 2nd Lt. Koivuniemi, a Mannerheim Cross knight, than this mere recon mission appeared to be.

We rode one, two, three kilometers toward our fate, with ease, being ignorant . We talked about the situation and deciced to ride our bikes for ten kilometers and then walk the rest of the route to be able to fulfill our mission unnoticed and withour risking it.

We had no fateful premonitions whatsoever, just daydreams about the next furlough, girls and fun. We forgot about the magpie that had been crowing. We had some three kilometers to go on bikes, then we would dismount, check the objective and then back to the base, and maybe then furlough - ta-ta-ta-.

Hey boys, were the last words of Lt Koivuniemi as he fell down from his bike.
Enemy fire totally surprised us in our daydreams about furlough.
I am hit in the stomach, I heard Pfc. Käyhkö say behnd me.
I found myself down on the ground and saw Käyhkö, wounded in stomach and Sr.Sgt. Tuovinen were writhing in agony on the road. Enemy weapons kept firing and my pals got the eternal furlough.

I was amazed to find that I was alive and well behind a small tussock. I grabbed my SMG, aiming it at the enemy that was some 10m off, pulling the trigger – but the burst was interrupted by a strange sound accompanying my firing. I felt how my right arm became powerless.

I made a movement to touch my right shoulder – another twitch at the same spot. I realised I was done for. The rest of us appeared to be quiet, too. I was waiting for death by bullet. The enemy camp started yelling, and they ran out of their positions screaming “uraa”. I was llying prone among my pals. They had fallen, they were dead, they were on furlough. I was the only one alive, yet dead, the right side of my body as if in fire.

I felt how the ache in my shoulder radiated widely in my muscles but I understood that now I had to feign dead, just as my pals were, still and unmoving. This idea was to save me. As the enemy had started approaching us I realised that in their eyes we all were dead.

I had to be dead – I must be dead - “whoever loses their life for my sake will find it. “ Home, religion, God – was flashing in my mind. Steps were approaching - terror. I know that my thoughts are not in the right scale compared to Jesus' words but I kept repeating in my mind: “whoever loses their life for my sake will find it. “

-Oh what a fine watch! The words, said in clear Finnish, penetrate in my mind, from the direction I knew Pfc Käyhkö had been. At the same moment there was a yank at my belt. This is the crucial moment – be dead, and you shall live ! Was hammering in my mind. My sheath knife was taken, I was pulled over violently, a stranger's hand frisked my pockets one after another. Then a break. Is it over now? Then a yank at my leg – someone is pulliong it? Am I being pulled in a grave? But it was my boot being pulled off, then my sock, then the other boot. Death means life now, something kept telling in my mind. I forgot about the pain. Chatter, keep waiting, chatting, still keep waiting.

The sounds moved farther away, I wiped blood off my eyes and looked around – seeing my fallen pals. Fear and terror grabbed me. I instinctivlely fumbled around for my SMG, but it was not there anymore. Some 40m off there was a great crowd of enemies in a circle. So close yet so far. I had to get out of here, I could not wait any longer. I would bleed dry if I would stay and wait. My left arm supported me, so start creeping! One meter, two – three – slowly – silently. Where are there trees, trees most important – cover. There, over there, forest at the edge of the swamp.

I glanced at the enemie who were still in their ring, gesticulating, apparently showing and comparing their loot. They had not noticed me, it is time to run! I srtood up and found that my legs were working.

Ta -ta- ta – the end may be at hand but run till you drop! Bullets were hitting the ground about me. The forest was close at hand – safety! I ran in the cover of trees but I could not ease up. I would be done for if they would chase me, still I kept running. Do not give up now that you have made it so far, I kept repeating myself, half crying, half laughing. There was no shooting anymore. I was not aware of the distance I was covering but kept running until I was unable to continue.

Now I realised that I would be saved if I would be able to proceed some more. I was not being chased. I rubbed my red toes and gently touched my hurting shoulder. I was feeling groggy and tired, I wanted to sleep now. -No, I had to find friends, I had to keep going.

It was as if in sleep as I found myself in our positions and saw faces around me. Their voices were like distant waves, rising and falling. I described the situation to the men around me.
- I do not think anybody else shall return, I heard my own words before everything went black. I did not care about anything, nothing mattered as long as I could fall asleep, for ever even.


It was not to be for ever. I woke up, feeling very cold, and I was told that I found myself in the field hospital in Repola. Blood transfusion had saved my life.

Three days later my Company CO, Capt. Takkinen visited the hospital and I learned what had happened. Our Battalion, Er.P.7, (ex-AHSP) sent another patrol that intercepted the enemy patrol. After a firefight four prisoners were caught. The prisoners told that they had numbered about six hundred and as we bumped on them they were having a meal break. The enemy patrol had been in Kuhmo, where they had killed several civilians, stolen foodstuffs and butchered some cows. Their commander had been born in Finland and he had been the CO of the border guards barracks in Roukkula, so the terrain was familiar for him.

My war career was interrupted for one year that I had to spend in a hospital before I was able to return to my outfit. Yet I felt that my war had been fought that autumn day and I knew that since I survived that day, I would survive anything in future. So happened but the memoirs keep flooding my mind again and again, painful and . I know that the fate has branded them in my soul and I am not able to get rid of them, but I hope that by writing this the fate would have mercy on me and remove the pain of my memories, leaving behind the deepest respect for those whom the fate sacrificed for the Fatherland

(No 2nd Lt. Koivuniemi decorated with MHR .
The author misrepresents the name of his outfit: in 1942 it was Aunuksen Heimosoturipataljoona AHSP, renamed Er.P.7 not until 1944 as it was clear where the wind blows. Tr.rem.)


Date 24.9.1942 AHSP HQ:
15.00hrs Weather windy and rainy .Temp +7deg
Patrol led by 2nd Lt. Koivuniemi strength 1+6+8 was ambushed by Russkies on the road from Roukkula to Miinoa abut 10km from Roukkula. In the ensuing patrol skirmish the following men fell: 2nd Lt. Koivuniemi R, Sr. Sgt. Tuovinen, Sgt. Aarikka and Cpl. Ovaska, missing Pfc. Käikkö. Wounded were Cpl. Heikkinen, Pfc. Himanen and Pfc. Pesu. All from 7./AHSP. The patrol had to withdraw from battle and was forced to abandon the dead on the battleground. The wounded were evacuated to Roukkula which was a temporary base for 7./AHSP and 6./AHSP. Enemy casualties unknown. Lost weapons include 2 SMGs one of which was likely to fall in enemy hands undamaged.
20.30hrs Col. Lt. Sainio again visited the command post in Virtaa to get familiar with patrolling. Other bases engaged in active patrolling.

DD 25.9.42
Weather half-cloudy with some showers of rain. Temp +10deg
06.00hrs Lt Moller's patrol strength 4+12+31 set out to the scene of yesterday's patrol skirmish and from there tracing the enemy. The body of Pfc. Käikkö, reported as MIA, was found on the battleground.
09.00hrs Patrol sent from Luvajärvi to Miinoa direction
09.50hrs Our aircraft reconnoitred the environment of the barracks situated NW of Roukkula. Spotted our patrol in the barracks.
12.05hrs The patrol sent to Miinoa from Luvajärvi on 25.9. returned, nothing to report. Weather cloudy. Temp +9deg . Usual securing patrolling from the bases.

DD 27.9.42
Weather half-cloudy temp +11deg.
Lt Moller's patrol checked the terrain of the barracks situated NW of Roukkula, and the lake isthmuses N of it. No enemies were found.
Securing patrolling.

6./AHSP war diary:
dd.24.9.42
2nd Lt. Rummukainen's patrol returned at 11.20 hrs. They had not found anything special.
At 11.45hrs a patrol led by 2nd Lt. Koivuniemi set out, including Sr. Sgt. Tuovinen, Sgt. Aarikka, Cpl s. Viinanen, Heiminen, Ovaska and Pfcs Moilanen, Käikkö, Tormanen, Rissanen, Tarasov, Pesu, Puolanne and Pvt. Karjalainen. The task of the patrol was to reconnoitre the barracks situated 23 km NW from Roukkula and the lake next to it, and to destroy any detected enemies.

At about 1500hrs lively firing was heard from the direction of Roukkula for 15 minutes, including single thumps, most likely caused by thrown hand grenades.

Therefore Capt. Takkinen ordered immediately complete alert . The men in Sormenpää set out for Roukkula village, equipped also with a heavy MG.

As they arrived at the sound at Roukkula village there arrived Pfc Moilanen of the patrol and he told that some men have certainly been killed and wounded including Cpl. Heininen and Pfc. Pesu. As the Coy had arrived at the village they took positions. Soon lads of of Koivuniemi's patrol began to return. Then it was found that the following brothers in arms had fallen for Great Finland and the freedom of Carelia: 2nd Lt. Koivuniemi, Sr. Sgt. Tuovinen , Sgt. Aarikka, pl. Ovaska and Pfc. Käikkö. In addition to the above mentioned wounded Pfc. Himanen had taken a couple of bullets in his upper body. The fallen heroes had for now been left on the battleground.

This incident was immediately reported to the Battalion and they informed that LT. Moller shall arrive at Roukkula with a patrol and Surgeon-Captain Renkonen, too. The Commander ordered the patrols to proceed in the direction of the road and destroy any detected enemy patrols there or elsewhere, and to torch the barracks buildings.

The wounded were bandaged by Surgeon-Capt. Renkonen, Paramedic Cpl. Viinanen had given them first aid. They were transported with horses to the road and from there on with lorries to the military hospital in Repola. As Lt. Molleri arrived Capt. Takkinen informed Lt. M of the future task and ordered 2nd Lt. Keskitupa as the responsible officer for the patrolling element of our Company.
Capt. Takkinen left before midnight in accordance with his orders to Sormenpää with some men.

dd.25.9.1942
At 0700hrs Lt Moller with his patrol set out from Roukkula to the barracks.

dd. 26.9.1942
At 07.00hrs 2nd Lt Rummukainen set out with his patrol to the battleground, strength 8 men and 2 horses
12.20hrs the patrol runner informed that the fallen have been found on the battleground. At the same time Lt. Moller relayed his report that the patrol is at the barracks. There are lots of smoke columns in direction 50-00, about 1km W of the observation pylon. A patrol has been sent to investigate the source of smoke. The dog had not found any traces at the battleground of the 24th.
2nd Lt. Olkinuora's patrol (1+2+6) arrived in the afternoon to Sormenpää as reinforcement.

The two following chapters are newspaper clippings glued on the war diary pages quoted above. I find them rather interesting as pieces of propaganda.

First one:

To the memory of Senior Sergeant Erkki Tuovinen
You left as a volunteer – you returned as a hero.

Willingly you heard the call to war, as a volunteer you joined the active front duty. With honour you wore the colours of the AHSP, fighting in the ranks of old experienced ethnic warriors, and proved to be equal to the veterans of Viena and Aunus expeditions in willingness and endurance, fearlessness and resourcefulness. During the trench war you stood on many a dangerous sentry post of the front line and you joined several patrol missions.
When you were on furlough at the end of last summer you said “see you later” full of hope.
Yet we shall never again see you in this world, because a treacherous bullet of an ambushing enemy has killed you, an able and fearless patrol man, thus separating us. Your warpath ended on a patrol mission, you fell showing your men that one must not give up an unfinished mission. I wonder if you did find, before your fighting ended, that you were leading men equal to yourself: Of the battle proven fearless men of your patrol several fell next to you.

Over there in the lightness you shall now see that this happened, and we know that as a good soldier you find joy in seeing the feeling of responsibility, fearlessness and faithfulness that the men you led demonstrated in their very last patrol when fighting and falling at your side without abandoning their mission.

As you joined the war as a volunteer you had chosen to win or to remain! You remained, modest but feeling your responsibility, you fell as a fearless wilderness fighter and patrol leader.

Erkki, if we are your equals, as willing and accepting our responsibility, as fearless and resourceful, we cannot lose. Fatherland needs still men like you.

May God reward you for your distinguished service with eternal rest in a free, eternally free country.

Second clipping:
“Heroes buried in Nakkila
In Nakkila there was last Sunday a burying ceremony for fallen heroes as volunteer Sergeant Kalle Vihtori Aarikka and Seaman Esko Olavi Murro, MIA, were buried in the soil of the Fatherland. After the Service the members of the Civil Guard, Lottas and the Ethnic Warriors of Satakunta with their flags arrived from the Civil Guard hall to the church where the body of fallen hero Aarikka was carried from the chapel. Followed by the flags of the CG and the Ethnic Warriors the fallen hero was carried in the church where the said flags were set up to honour. The burying ceremony was carried out by Rev. A Perheentupa who spoke memorable words of consolation to the next of kin of the fallen hero who had given a great sacrifice. After the next of kin had laid their wreaths, the common wreaths of the CG and Lottas were placed by the CG local commander P.Kares and the Speaker of Lottas Eevi Jokela, and for Aarikka the Ethnic Warrior wreath by Manager A. Kleemola and Inspector T.Salovaara. The wreath of Nakkila Telephone Co. by farmers N.Kares and U.Vappula, the last mentioned also making a speech. The wreath of “Porin Sähkö-ja Telefooniliike”
(Pori Electrics and Telephony Shop) was laid by Procurist A. Tuominen. Many others had paid their respect to Aarikka's memory by making donations to the Flower Funds of the Front men of the War for Liberty and Brothers of Arms of the War for Liberty . 57 persons provided funds for the fund set up in the memory of the deceased.

The fallen hero was carried from the church along a corridor of honour set up by Lottas to the Heroes' graves next to the church.

In the afternoon there was in the home of the deceased a meeting where Rev. A.Perheentupa made a speech, mentioning among others how faithfully the fallen hero had in his lifetime loved the Fatherland since the dawn of our Independence.”

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