2./Er.P.3 in the Winter War: a War Diary

Discussions on the Winter War and Continuation War, the wars between Finland and the USSR.
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Re: 2./Er.P.3 in the Winter War: a War Diary

Post by Lotvonen » 10 Mar 2018 07:36

Date 10.3.1940

02.00hrs Company bivouacked in the terrain W of Laihalampi.
Immediately in the morning the Company started digging tent pits. Coy CO briefed the Company on the situation. The Btn had been ordered in the reserve of 5.D and they had to be in readiness for counterattack or to man ordered points of terrain. In that case the Company was to man the line Pellonpää-Vesioja-Kärstilä church.
Puhtimäki has returned from hospital and Pitkäpaasi from sickness leave, they were ordered to familiarize with the said terrain.

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Re: 2./Er.P.3 in the Winter War: a War Diary

Post by Lotvonen » 11 Mar 2018 06:10

Date 11.3.1940

Tent pits were still being dug.
13.30hrs Aerial bombing raid at the camp area. No casualties.
15.00hrs Coy CO and the Platoon leaders were in terrain reconnoitering at the line line Laihalampi – Kuuslampi- Kärstilänjärvi.
20.00hrs By the order of the Btn Commander the III Platoon (Pitkäpaasi) + 1 MG were sent to secure the waterways line fron Suokas to Kärstilänjärvi lake.
Res. 2nd Lt. Pusa was hospitalized.

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Re: 2./Er.P.3 in the Winter War: a War Diary

Post by Lotvonen » 12 Mar 2018 06:05

Date 12.3.1940

09.00hrs II Platoon (Res. Sgt. Sarlin) relieved the III Platoon in securing duty.
During the day the Company was engaged in brush clearing and hindrance building on the Laihalampi – Kuuslampi line.
19.00hrs. Alert. The Company was ordered to march on skis to the level of Taistelukoulu (“Fighting Academy”) where the rest of the Battalion shall be shifted and where new orders are to be issued.
19.20hrs The Company set out and arrived at Taistelukoulu at 19.50hrs. The Company was cantonned in the cellar of the Academy. Cartridge sleds and medical sled followed the Company.
22.00hrs The Company was ordered to move to the terrain of the Kunnalliskoti (“Poorhouse”) , receive the positions of the company there and to man them.
23.30hrs The Company arrived at the terrain of the Poorhouse and the Btn CO issued an order by telephone, the Company is to return back to reserve to the level of the shooting range W of Huusniemi, and canton in the small houses there.

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Re: 2./Er.P.3 in the Winter War: a War Diary

Post by Lotvonen » 13 Mar 2018 06:03

Date 13.3.1940

00.50hrs The Company arrived at the said terrain but since every house was in pieces the Company moved to the cellar of the Taistelukoulu where they had departed from. This was reported to the Btn. CO.
05.15hrs Company was alerted. The Company received orders to move to North of the Karjala suburb, so called Lehmäkallio (“Cow Rock”) and secure the positons of the Company there. Lehmäkallio was to be held.
05.30hrs The Company set out.
06.30hrs The Company in positions at Lehmäkallio, immediately engaged by the enemy in a firefight.
07.30hrs Btn CO order: Armistice on 13.3. at 11.00hrs, then fighting must be ended. Until that the present positions must be held.
11.00hrs Fighting ended. Company casualties just one slightly wounded NCO, despite intense enemy fire.
23.00hrs Coy CO bathed in the Taistelukoulu sauna.

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Re: 2./Er.P.3 in the Winter War: a War Diary

Post by Lotvonen » 14 Mar 2018 05:37

The war has ended. The Company withdrew daily, securing their rear, toward the new border.

The appendixes to the war diary have been found and I find them rather interesting, much varied in format and content.

Appendix no.1
Report form
Stronghold P-paasi, sent on 2.12., 01,45.
1:20000 Vammelsuu
To: Coy CO.
Carts clanking at 01.00hrs from the Vammelsuu school in the direction of the retreat route of JP, then foot soldiers moving about at the house marked in the sketch. Presumably an auto weapon is being taken into position. We keep observing constantly.
Appendix no 2
(a piece of grid paper)
Int. order no.1
At the sector of Det. Karhu the contact with the enemy has been broken. Similar info (of the enemy , overstruck) from both our wings.
Det. Karhu shall this evening and next night carry out so deep reconnoitering that a contact with the enemy is created.
Company Rave shall carry out reconnoitering on a sector right limit=Rieskjärvi -Järmilä and left limit=Kirstinsalo village-Jokisuo (I).
Appendix no.3
4/12-39 0.30hrs
Telephone message
Coy. Rave must send at once a reconnoitering patrol to sector right limit = Rieskjärvi -Järmilä and left limit = Kirstinsalo village-Jokisuo (i). Recon must be so deep that a contact with the enemy is established.
By order Res.2nd Lt. Pusa, received by Sgt. Kankainen
Appendix no.4
4/12.39 N:o 4
Map 1:20000 Sheet Halila
From Kotijärvi, 500m NE
Map word Honkamäki I, Platoon Pitkänen about 100m E of it. Platoon Puhtimäki at the Peippola crossroads, first P. Puhtimäki's runner.
Det. Puhtimäki's task for now is to take positions and secure eventual withdrawal.
Undated unnumbered piece of grid paper:
Company Rave shall withdraw using the road W of the Kirkkojärvi, crossroads Linkka, then on the U-kirkko-Viipuri road on, rallying in the terrain, the patch of forest NE of Viskola
Detailed instructions by runner.
After issuing preparatory orders the Coy Commander shall head for the Btn Command post
By order Res.2nd Lt. Pusa.
Appendix no.5
Report form (undated)
Lt. Rave
By order of Maj. Mäntylä you must find yourself in the dugout of the Div. CO at 14.30hrs
By order M. Lamppu
Off. On duty
Appendix no 6.
Piece of grid paper, no date
Lt. Rave!
All completed explosive devices must be divided equally in three lorries (or vans?) which are in the standby for AT duty. The remaining six lorries (or vans?) are in the standby to ferry the men, either with banks mounted or without them.
One Platoon shall be ferried with two lorries and the equipment needed with one lorry.
By order: Int. Off.
The following must be Appx. 7 on 9 December 1939
Sheet of grid paper, hand written
Er.P.3 order of the day no.18
1. Since the acts of war started the Battalion has been fighting on 2.12. all day on the Vammelsuujoki line. In the said battle were KIA Cadet Alpo Serola of AT det./Er.P.3 and Cpl. Tommi Tuomas Tonteri of 1./Er.P.3 having fought bravely. On 4.12 died Res. Cpl. Petter Kähönen,of 2./Er.P.3 from damages at the bridge demolition in Kirstilä, Uusikirkko. On 6.12. MIA in Summa village Res. Pvt. Toivo Lempiäinen of 1./Er.P.3
2. Res. Lt. Robert Kaukas was ordered on 8.12.to the Replacement Battalion of 5.D. Res.Lt. Lauri Välkki ordered on 4.12. to sickness leave.
3. Field post timetable for now: Outgoing mail must be delivered in the Btn HQ during forenoon from where it shall be forwarded to Field Post Office no.3. The present mail address is ER.P.3/5.D (followed by the unit number, e.g.20)and below the address “Field Post Office 3”
4. The units must daily during forenoon send muster reports to the Command bureau.
5. Supply matters on a separate order
Er.P.3 Commander Maj. L Mäntylä
Er.P3. Adjutant Res 2nd Lt. T Taskinen
Appx. no.8
Er.P.3 HQ on 9.12.39
For a certain reason it is remarked that our troops are wearing snowsuits and skiing, a mole (?) must be identified by observation and password
By order, Er.P.3 Adjutant Res 2nd Lt T. Taskinen

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Re: 2./Er.P.3 in the Winter War: a War Diary

Post by Lotvonen » 15 Mar 2018 06:25


Appx. no.9 must be the following one
Report form but header unfilled:
JR14 12.12.39, 23.45(hrs)
Order to the JP3 AT gun platoon:
Your subordination to JR14 shall be ended in the morning of 13.12.39.
You shall take the Platoon via Kattilaoja and Leipäsuo to the Lähde crossroads where you have to find yourself on 13.12.39 at 09.30hrs, when a guide shall come there.
Lähde crossroads is situated aboutP.3 and your nearest objective is defined as the terrain at Kultakumpu.
Rgt. CO Col. Polttila (signed)
(N=o 9)
Appx. no. 10
A scrap of paper: must be 17.Dec.1939

Lt. Rave
After artillery preparation inf. Attack has started at 10.30hrs. Tanks involved. I am requesting for the unit to do their task.
Appx.11 on 17 December 1939
Sheet of grid paper, hand written

Er.P.3 order of the day no.19
1. For a certain reason it is reminded that the name of the sending unit is not allowed to be written on envelopes unless the name and location are the same as in the peacetime, because the name and the mail stamp together reveal a fact that must be concealed.
The address on an envelope must comprise, in case the letter is mailed over field post, the name of the unit (Person and his outfit) and the field post office number (if known), but no geographic place.
When sending letters in common mail the envelope must be provided with the name of the person and place, but no unit ID. Therefore also government offices, businesses and persons, who are expected to respond, must be separately informed of the exact address.
2. Extra attention must be paid in covering for air threat.
3. Since there has been insecurity as to the use of passwords I order the following procedure: The sentry asks: Halt – Password! Whereby the one being asked responds with the first part of the password and the sentry says him the second part of the password in response.
4. The units must regularly send their morning and evening situation reports (by phone) by 06.30hrs and 15.00hrs Report on (?Vajailmoitus??) indispensable. The said situation reports must be added in writing to the war diary.
A report on major battles must be reported the following day in a battle report. Also the damage caused by shelling and aerial bombarding must be reported, including place, time, and the strength of the fighting unit.
Er.P3 CO Maj. L. Mäntylä
Er.P3 Adjutant Res. Lt. Harvas
Appendix 12 (must be 18.Dec)

To Detachment Rave:
Enemy preparing to attack supported more than 60 tanks. Det. Rave shall move to their task with two platoons in the Main Resistance Position where the platoons shall report to Capt. Kuiri at the road they shall cover. The stone hindrance on the support line must also be blocked with barriers.(sic!) Liaison men in my command post, report on action readiness. While moving you must take into account the heavy enemy artillery fire.

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Re: 2./Er.P.3 in the Winter War: a War Diary

Post by Lotvonen » 16 Mar 2018 06:12

Appendix 13 (19 Dec. )

Sent by: 931 location: 930 Command post
To: Detachment Rave
931 informs that we have just now an attack on the Majajoki line to the East (Main Resistance line mopping)
Appendix 14

5.Division Headquarters 21.12.1939
III Office
No. 784/III/68g sal (Stamp:Secret)
1. To make clear to which extent the troops have destroyed enemy tanks, the units are exhorted to keep a daily tally on the tanks they have destroyed and send the data together with the daily situation reports to the 5.D HQ, reporting:
-How many tanks have been destroyed
-The manner of destroying (mine, petrol bottle, satchel charge, AT gun, artillery)
-The number of the destroyed that remained in our territory
It was preferred that during the battle the troop commanders were not bothered with making statistics. However, since there is the aspect that how AT methods and devices should be specially developed basing on the experience gained, reporting is important.
2. For the said reason and to inform our troops on the general tactics of enemy tanks and the means of fighting them I am exhorting the first line commanders to observe and during breaks in fighting to write down their detailed observations which would, among other things, shed light on the following :
-Description of tank routes
-How tanks cope in different kinds of terrain
-Tank unit order of battle and battle tactics (advancing, use of fire_)
-Efficiency of tank fire
-Co-operation of tanks and infantry
-Infantry grouping and support of tanks in attack
3. As to the destroyed tanks left in our territory, they must be examined, the reason of destruction must be established as well as the degree of destruction ( extent of damage).

By order
5.D_head of staff Col. Lt. H.Hirki
III Office CO Maj A.Kuremaa (signed)

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Re: 2./Er.P.3 in the Winter War: a War Diary

Post by Lotvonen » 17 Mar 2018 06:03

Appendix 15, a rather long one

3.Division Headquarters 14.1.1940
III Office
KD.No. 36/III/21/40. sal

1. Forced reconnoitring
AS the enemy securing is becoming even tighter and the circumstances are changing more in the direction of positional warfare it has become more difficult for the patrols to penetrate in the enemy territory. Therefore when necessary forced reconnoitring must be resorted to.
As forced reconnoitring the following, among other factors, must be taken into account:
a) It is employed only when there are no other means of acquiring information (e.g. POWs) or when there is a specially important detail to be found out (exchange of troops etc.)
b) Preparation must be very careful up to the details, including among other factors
-Making a detailed plan
-Keeping it secret so that the operation can be started with a surprise
-Reserving enough time for preparations so that the leaders get a chance to get very familiar with their tasks, with the terrain of operation, circumstances etc.
-Briefing (and training, if possible) of the outfit carrying out the forced reconnoitring, and specially the complete preparation of the co-operation with other branches of arms and their weapons, (and training if possible)
c) I have to be reported on a forced reconnoitring operation well in time. The following must be made clear:
The purpose of the operation (the task and objective of the outfit)
The strength of the outfit carrying out the forced reconnoitring
The point in time of the forced reconnoitring
Artillery, mortar and MG fire support
d)Artillery ammunition to be reserved, instructions shall be provided by the 3.D Artillery CO.

2. Anti-tank warfare
SUOKANTA sector: for AT action subordinated to the II/JR8 CO the infantry cannon platoon /3. Pst.K (AT Coy) who shall report at the command post of II/JR8 by the morning of 15.1.
MERKKI sector: One Platoon of 2./Er.P3 has been posted there to be used for AT action on the said sector.
3. Fortification work
a) When planning new positions and the missing elements of the support line of the main resistance position the use of positions in the forest must be considered more, because the following benefits can be gained
-The use of observed and before all, direct (enemy) artillery fire is rendered impossible and aerial reconnoitring is made more difficult, as well as controlling artillery fire from balloons and aircraft.
-AT hindrances often are unnecessary.
-Wire hindrances can be built faster and kept hidden from the enemy ( the wire is fixed on trees).
-Strengthening and repair work can be carried out hidden from the enemy and also their artillery fire.
-The plentiful enemy MG weaponry loses a great deal of its effect.

A forest position construction may include e.g. the following:
a). Trenches and weapons nests are placed in a forest, out of view for land based and air based observation.
An about 100m deep zone in front of a trench line is cleared only of undergrowth (lowest branches and in the densest spots maybe some trees) so that the area can be under observation and fire but the positions cannot be spotted from the front side.
This slightly cleared 100m zone should be preceded by an at least 200m wide more cleared zone with positions ( detached pieces of trench, auto weapons nests , F.O.O. Places) with communications trenches leading to them. These forward positions shall repel weak attacks while securing and alerting the main resistance position. AS the main defence line wire is reaching up to in front of these forward resistance positions, it is made more difficult for the enemy to find out the real place of the main resistance position. Forest also impairs tank advancing, and observing and firing from them.
In order to be able to spot the enemy grouping in front of the positions and their moving about in general in no-man's land and to be able to shell them and fire at them with MG s and rifles narrow terrain adapted observation lines must be cleared. There must be several of them placed so that there is a network whereby the enemy grouping areas can be defined accurately and counter-preparation launched.
b.) Important stretches of road must be camouflaged with camo nets in order to hide the traffic from observation from balloons. To cover their roads the enemy has been using snow walls that can be ploughed and improved with spades.
False roads can be used to distract the enemy attention from our trafficked roads. Those must be occasionally used.
c.) Field stores (field magazines and replenishment and distribution points) must be protected against enemy air raids to decentralize them even more in the terrain. To conceal them it is essential to prolong the roads to the stores to suitable points, even though unnecessary for traffic, because a road ending to a supply point may easily reveal it
d.) The order of urgency at the main resistance position is something I want to emphasize.

The order of urgency is:
1.Main defence line set in condition
2.The depth between the main defence line and the support line and blocking lines must be built.
3. Support line fortification must be completed.

4.Runner communications
-If wire connections after a battle has broken out, the units must on every exact hour to send a report by runner to the III Office. Important incidents must be reported at once.
5.Situation reports
Independent of the situation reports provided by the unit intelligence officers to the II Office, from now on the adjutant of each unit must send by phone to the III Office of the 3.D a situation report every day at 0700 and 1600hrs. This report to the III Office must include description of incidents of tactical and operative influence, such as:
-Enemy action mode (reconnoitring and its apparent objective, attack preparations, troop relief, changes in enemy operation mode, enemy field works, movement etc.)
-Enemy weapons and branches of arms used (Inf. Strength, inf. Heavy arms, tanks, artillery, air activities with a/c or balloons etc.)
-Result of enemy activities ( damage to our defensive positions, casualties estimate etc.)
-Result of our activities (enemy losses, result of defence, strengthening of our defensive position, etc.)
-Brief conclusion by the CO.

6. Liaison
The Commanders must see to it that there is a firm liaison with the different branch of arms in their respective sectors. Special attention must be paid to:
Close co-operation of inf. and artillery must be ensured by the personal contacts of the respective CO_s
(illegible for the rest of the page)
the co-operation of inf. and sappers is fluent.

7.Use of infantry cannons
Enough replacement positions for inf.cannons must be built. Inf.guns must be used not only for AT duty but most important of all to destroy the enemy cannons that are direct-firing at our dugouts and other important objects of our defensive positions, also at awkward enemy MG nests etc. As soon as an inf.gun has done its task and there is a risk that its position has been revealed to the enemy the inf.gun must change its position quickly. Positions and protected roads between them must be built.

3.D: CO Col. P.J.Paalu
III Office CO Hannes Räikkälä (?)

Tr.rem: Quite an order. It is not likely that there were enough resources to carry out the field fortifications described. Also the instructed use of “infantry cannons” is pretty theoretical, considering the firepower of the enemy.

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Re: 2./Er.P.3 in the Winter War: a War Diary

Post by Lotvonen » 18 Mar 2018 06:05

Appendix 16

3.Division Headquarters 16.1.1940
III Office
KD.No. 39/III/21/40. sal
Enemy patrolling activity has been quite lively during the dark period, specially at midnight. Some enemy patrols, covered by darkness, have been able to penetrate near the dugouts and even in trenches. To prevent this the sector COs must see to the following:

-The near securing of dugouts and strongholds is improved
-During the dark period listening posts -2 to 3 men together - are placed so that enemy patrols cannot unobserved get through our wire, ans
-The passage of enemy patrols is prevented also by traps and mining, the drawing of which must be handed over to the stronghold CO and the placement of which must be explained to the crew of the stronghold and our patrols.
I am attaching the attention of the sector COs to my writ n:029/II/69ln 2.1.40 (underlined, in the margin: Note) “Instructions by Russians to their troops on action against Finns. How to conquer DOTs (fixed points of fire)” Specially I remark that AT mines must not be placed so that they could stop a tank in front of an embrasure, preventing the MG from firing.
Inf.cannons must be used for other targets than only for AT duty but to destroy such targets as direct-firing enemy cannons awkward enemy MG s etc. The latter mentioned missions must be carried out from replacement positons in order not to reveal the actual AT positions
Also our mortar fire must be used in a concentrated manner at suitable targets. Dividing targets between mortars and artillery must be done considering in co-operation with infantry and artillery.
To guarantee co-operation between infantry and artillery the sector CO and the sector support Art.Btn.CO (support battery CO) must have a firm preferably person-to-person liaison.

3.D. CO Col. P.J.Paalu
III Office CO Hannes Räikkälä (?)

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Re: 2./Er.P.3 in the Winter War: a War Diary

Post by Lotvonen » 19 Mar 2018 05:55

Appendix 17

Another long one piece produced by military bureaucracy, yet with interesting details

3.Division Headquarters (hand written in the margin: 7/17.1.40 T.Raup) 16.1.1940
KD.No. 54/IV/21/74. sal (secret)

3D Order no.17 on supply

I General
1. For a certain occurred reason it is reminded of the order, issued several times previously, to give cantonment receipts when leaving a cantonment.
2. Since it has been found that the troops have broken into private houses and when leaving, taken with them furniture, garments and other material it is reminded that this kind of “marauding” is out of question. If there is a compelled reason to find cantonment, a break-in is acceptable only in exceptional cases and then only in the presence of MP authorities.
All food and other material that is used must be given a receipt which together with the cantonment receipt mentioned in 1. must be handed over to the owner, and in case he is not to be seen, to the local police.
3. Since it has happened yet another time that traffic lanterns have been at personal initiative been removed from their points of placement (=stolen, tr.rem.), all traffic lanterns shall be removed on 17.Jan.1940.

II Fighting material maintenance
4. Fuze is SR-24/41 delay piece has been found to be too long in some fuzes. The fuze cap cannot be turned home, but a 1-mm gap remains. Therefore every fuze to be fired with delay must be minutely examined. If there is a gap, the fuze is good for undelayed fire only. A grommet corresponding to the gap is not allowed to be used
5. Experience has shown that fuzes containing securing fluid (is32, is33, is34, is35)may become duds due to cold weather. Yet it has been observed that fuzes protected from cold have functioned normally, whereas some of those that had not been subjected to protective measures did not explode. Therefore the mentioned fuzes must be protected from cold and not to attempt to fasten them on projectiles too soon.
6. Troops have been handed over armour piercing bullets that are to be used for AA purposes, any other use is prohibited.
7. Since it has been found that units have been very careless in handling specially mortar ammunition, including fuzes, main charges and additional charges, it is reminded that projectiles and the associated fuzes, main charges and additional charges must be stored togethger in such a manner that fuzes or other accessories are not lost, because usually there is no chance to get replacement for the lost oneswhich means that the projectiles becoe useless.
8. The Division has set up an arsenal in the Ammunition supply point, tasked to carry out weapons repairs, evacuation of useless weapons and distribution of cleaning and lubricating agents and weapons spare parts. For these matters the units can contact the store manager, Master Armourer Kolisto, tel. Honkaniemi 20
9. To carry out ammunition resupply during the darkness it must be ordered if possible before 15.00hrs from the Div. Weapons and Ammunition officer
10. Ammunition supply point has a small amount of stick grenades that are distributed for defined purposes, to equip patrols or other special units.

III Non combat material supplying
11. 3.D instructions no.1 distributed on 9.1.40

IV Medical supply
12. Wounded and sick transport from field dressing posts to field hospitals must be carried out by horse transport as much as possile. In case the units do not have horses and sled at their disposal it must be reported to the medical office so that horses and sleds can be sent from the 3.LK (Medical Coy)
13. For a certain reason the medical personnel is ordered to constantly observe the state of the tinning of the field kitchens and when necessary take action to repair the field kitchen in need of retinning.
14. Medicaments that are susceptible to cold . All to whom this may concern are exhorted to take good care of all medicaments with water content (ampoulles, liquids, serums, mixtures, vaccines etc) are both packed for transport and kept in storage so that in future there should not occur freezing.
When it is not possible to utilize warm transport the cold susceptible substances shall be wrapped separately in wood shavings or in several layers of paper and shall be placed as a separate bundle in the middle of a box or cardboard carton among other material. The container must be marked “susceptible to cold”

V.Veterinary supply
15. Every found horse must be sent to the horse depot of the 3. ELK (Vet Coy), and they as well as missing ones must immediately be reported in writing to the Vet Office of 3.D with mention where and when the horse has been found or gone missing. The report must include the horse ID no., if any, and as detailed description as possible (sex, age, height, colour, marks)
16. With reference to earlier ordres it is remarked that when evacuating a horse it must also include a referral, that in an exceptional case can be written at the Hospital Stable (S_Hev.kp.). The referral must include always the horse number, or missing that, the organization or CG district that delivered the horse. If the horse has a service record card it must be included in the referral. In case including the card would considerably delay the evacuation the horse can be evacuated even without its card, but it must absolutely be sent to 3.ELK asap.
17. When evacuating a horse with contangious disease, suspected of having one and war booty all horse gear in contact with them must be included in case it is not possible to desinfect them effectively enough in the unit.
18. When ordering a horse transport lorry from the 3.ELK the time for the pick-up must be agreed on and a guide must be set at the roadside in case the place of the horse is not totally evident. S_Hevkp:s have available also horse transport sleds that when necessary can be ordered by a runner. Any even slightly more seriously ill or wounded horse should be evacuated soonest, and then the horse must walk always when it is able to walk and its recovery would not be affected.

VI.Sapper supply
19. Sapper supply point is situated at Kämärä station hamlet at the westernmost house.

VII.Anti-gas supply
20. As wounded or sick men arrive at a military hospital, their gas mask is taken away. They shall be replaced by protective pads soon to be delivered to hospitals. As soon as a few dozen gas masks have been collected in a hospital they are to be handed over to a.var.k
21. Since the enemy has started to systematically raid with their fighter aircraft e.g. troop cantonments and single motor vehicles every commander is to pay attention to fhe following:
1)All daytime traffic that is not absolutely necessary must be ended and switch even more to night traffic. You must see to it that there is no movement in daytime on the yards of houses and cantonments and the men are not standing about out-of-doors or at doors.
2)When organizing marches the risk of air raid must always be taken into account (distances, dimmed lights etc.)
3)Blending in the terrain and camouflaging must be improved.
4)AA using the weapons of the units must be intensified (note: Digging foxholes for men)
Everyone must be informed that in case of level bombarding, a bomb when released from an aircraft has the forward speed of that of the a/c. Therefore the bomb hits the target as the a/c is overhead. An airman releases therefore a bomb with deflection, e.g. from a modern a/c in altitude of 1000m about 800m before the target. Russians have fired with machine-guns at land targets (spotted groups of men, single automobiles etc) from up to 1500m in altitude.
The falling places of unexploded aerial bombs are to be marked and a sentry to be placed there. The bombs must not be tampered with and the sentry must not be too near since a bomb can be equipped with a time delay fuze or a strike fuze may be activated when the bomb position is shifted. Unexploded aerial bombs must immediately be repoerted to telephone number Viipuri 4050 n:o42

VIII Transport vehicle supply
22. Motor vehicles
a)Since the missives on vehicles to be repaired have been arriving too late by mail at repair shops and depots, it is ordered that a missive must be included in the vehicle. An automobile sent by rail must have all the documents packeted and tied to the steering wheel axle and the ignition lock key with steel wire somewhere above the steering gear.
b)During the recent cold weather motor vehicle accumulators have had to be replaced in disproportional quantities due to cracking by freezing. It is reminded that:
Accumulators must be maintained with care
Acid density must be checked often enough
Accumulators with weak charge must be removed and stored in troop accommodation spaces when not in use
c)War booty automobiles are according to raports mostly unusable due to freezing before major overhaul. This is why the units are informed:
-If only possible the captured enemy automobiles must be drained of water in the cooling system.
-if possible the engine must be run at the same time.
-In case the automobile must be destroyed the easiest method mostly is to puncture the fuel tank e.g. with a bayonet and igniting the out-flowing fuel.
d)Units or equivalent equipped with automobiles must organize their motor transport so that some of the automobiles can be in turn sent to a service shop for complete lubricating and maintenance.
e)Units equipped with automobiles are informed that the diary of each automobile is to be filled in the column “details of missions” is to be filled in so that a third party is not able to find out anything about the mission details.
The diary column “for whom” must be left blank. The column “Mission purpose” is to include only the number of the driving order (or the name of the one who issued the order). The column “from-to “ is to be left blank.
23. Horse vehicles
3.D horse vehicle depot is situated near the Food replenishment post where the units or equivalent can replace their transport gear while getting foods.
When replacing horse gear with new ones the useless gear ( saddles, harness, harness saddles, collars, shaft bows) must absolutely be returned to the store manager who shall send them on to vehicle depots.
Weekly transport gear orders must be sent by the units each Monday to the 3.D Horse vehicle officer.
It is also reminded that only such horse gear is replaced with new ones that the units are not able to repair themselves.
Since it is very difficult to get glycerine needed in the field kitchens the units are reminded, and the commanders to monitor, that the user instructions previously provided are absolutely conformed with.
24. Fuel
2.Poltt.Os.(Fuel Detachment) at Säiniö carries out the distribution of lamp oil and the methylated spirits needed for starting the lamps. The latter is distributed in smallest possible cans. Empty cans are to be returned immediately.

3. D head of staff maj N. Nohrström
Supply commander Maj. E. Stenman (signed)

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Re: 2./Er.P.3 in the Winter War: a War Diary

Post by Lotvonen » 20 Mar 2018 05:38

Appendix 18: The secret of “Kalastus” is revealed here.

3.Division Headquarters 17.1.1940
III Office
KD.No. 42/III/21/40. sal

II/JR8 CO shall man the SUOKANTA section of the main resistance position with his troops:
-Mortar Platoon of Krh.K/JR8
-Inf. Cannon platoon of 3. Pst.K.
-Inf. Cannon platoon of Er.P3 (one gun)
-I Platoon/Pion.P3
There shall remain on the front section in AT securing one platoon/Er.P3.
The manning shall be completed on the 21.1.1940 so that the CO of SUOKANTA section is able to having received a specific order, when necessary already on the 21.1.1940 to hand over the incomplete III/JR10 back to the 4.D.
Rats.Ptri (Riding Battery) shall be detached from the SUOKANTA section by an order to be issued later, the artillery aid after this shall be informed by the Art.CO of 3.D separately.
3 Use of reserves
a)Kev.Os3 shall prepare themselves cantonment (dugouts) in the terrain S of SUOKANTA making use of the dugouts freed by II/JR8 so that when necessary they can move there and canton there. Kev.Os3 shall get ready to engage both from the present and the SUOKANTA cantonment areas both in the sections of SUOKANTA and SUMMA hamlet.
b)JP3 shall be prepared to engage in the sections of SUMMA hamlet, LÄHDE and SUOKANTA.
c)III/JR9 shall be prepared to engage in the sections of MERKKI and LÄHDE.
d)My order on the use of Er.P3 is still valid as well as my order n:o 11/III/21/8.1.1940 point 9 on the exchange of extra MG_s on the MERKKI section between JP3, Ker.Os3 and Er.P3.
Preparing for the defensive battle we must take into account the eventuality that after the section reserve has been tied the Div.reserve or part of it shall be shifted to take their place. The strong enemy artillery and aerial activities are forcing us to ever better conceal the placement of the reserves and select the deplacement roads in covered points of terrain and when necessary take special camouflaging action to foil the enemy observation (note the enemy balloon observation).
The demand to be able to mover reserves quickly to a desired location necessitates that the roads to be used are marked carefully and the commanders to be familiarized totally with the terrain of action and the conditions there.
When preparing the advancing roads for the reserves Kev.Os3 and JP3 must pay special attention to the routes from the SUOKANTA section N of VEHKALA and the RAJAMÄKI terrain via KALTSII marsh – SUURSUO marsh to the SUMMANKYLÄ section, JP3 and III/JR9 on the route along the municipality boundary to the N tip of MUNASUO marsh.
SUMMA hamlet section shall prepare themselves a new support line about 700m S of the isthmus between the marses of KALTSII and SUURSUO.
4. Preparation of relief
With reference to my order n:o 11/III/21/8.1.1040 point 9 I am ordering the section CO_s to present me by the 21.1. their plans how to relieve their troops in the front line.
When making up the plan the section CO_s must organize the relief with the troops available escept the MERKKI section where, to gain front experience for the III/JR9 they must be used for relief whereby the freed JR9 Battalion shall be deployed as my reserve in the present deployment area of III/JR9.
I shall separately order the start of the relief. The code name for the relief shall be “Kalastus” (fishing)

3.D: CO Col. P.J.Paalu
III Office CO Hannes Räikkälä (?)

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Re: 2./Er.P.3 in the Winter War: a War Diary

Post by Lotvonen » 21 Mar 2018 06:16

Appendix no. 19: It seems that the 3.D had no other AA defence but one AA MG platoon ?

Office III
KD no.49/III/46/40 sal (secret)

Due to the strong enemy air activities the fighting troops must set for AA duty AA MG_s or AA rifle platoons outside their cantonment areas so that they do not by their existence reveal neither their own nor any neighbouring units cantonment areas. The first line troops must take the outfits for this task from their reserve. The placement of these AA units must be informed to the neighbours.
Fire to be opened not until at an effective range.
30. Rask.It.kk. (Heavy AA MG) platoon shall at first take AA positions in the terrain SW of the KÄMÄRÄ station.

3.Division commander, Col P.J.Paalu
Chief of III Office Maj. Hannes Räikkälä

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Re: 2./Er.P.3 in the Winter War: a War Diary

Post by Lotvonen » 22 Mar 2018 06:25

Appendix no.20:
Did a Company Commander really know this much?

Office III
KD no.57/III/21/40

DIVISIONAL ORDER (map 1:20.000)

1. “Kalastus”
The 3.D troops in the front line shall be relieved as scheduled in the adjoined plan. I shall order separately the date of commencement. The section CO_s shall liaise with the Div.reserves to be subordinated to them and they shall manage the relief of troops on their section according to the plan. The same principles as in the relief of the 5. and 3. D shall be applied. The relief shall at first be applied initially in the following sections:
-SUOKANTA in one night
-SUMMANKYLÄ during three nights
-LÄHDE during three nights
-MERKKI during two nights

As the troops gain experience in carrying out the relief the time allotted can be cut according to the opinion of the section CO.
The deplacement and tasks of the troops moving to Div.reserve include the following:
a )From the SUOKANTA section
In the terrain S and SW of SUOKANTA , building dugouts for one Battn, led by the SUOKANTA section CO, while being ready to engage on the SUOKANTA section.
b) From the SUMMANKYLÄ section
in the present cantonment area of Kev.Os.3 continuing to build dugouts of Kev.Os.3 so that the needed quantity for the Battn shall be completed, under the command of the Battn.CO. The Battn must be ready to engage on the sections of SUMMANKYLÄ and SUOKANTA .
c) From the LÄHDE section
in the present JP3 cantonment area, continuing field fortification work on the line HUUMOLAN AUTIO-KILTEENLAMPI. The Battn shall be ready to engage to the following directions: KARHULA, SUOKANTA, SUMMA, LÄHDE, 1.D sector and MUOLAA ISTHMUS
d) From the MERKKI section
in the present III/JR9 cantonment area, being ready to engage in the sections of SUMMANKYLÄ, LÄHDE and MERKKI.

As soon as the “kalastus” starts the point 9 of my order N:o11/III/21/8.1.40 is invalidated. As “kalastus”begins JP3 and Kev.Os.3 shall get their MG_s fully in their disposal. Er.P3 shall deploy their MG_s :
-One platoon to joint the Coy behind the SUMMANKYLÄ section, yet subordinated to Kev.Os.3 while they find themselves at the support line of the SUMMANKYLÄ section.
-One MG Platoon shall relieve in the first night of “kalastus” on the LÄHDE section the six MG_s of JP3 (that is, 4 of Kev.OS.3 and 2 of Er.P3). Er.P3 CO shall see to it that this MG platoon shall be regularly relieved, liaising with the LÄHDE section CO, with their third MG Platoon. The relief of this MG platoons must not take place at the same time as the other reliefs of the section.

2. 3.D troops
3.D_has handed over on 21.1.40 back to 4.D the 4.D troops on the SUOKANTA section
Rats.Ptri has on 21.1.40 been moved away and the SUOKANTA section support battery shall be 2. /KTR3.
27_.Pion.K (motorized) has been on the 19.1.1940 subordinated to 3.D to build up positions at SUMMA .
30._ Rask.It.kk.Platoon has been on the 19.1.1940 subordinated to 3.D and placed in the LEHTOLA terrain to provide AA cover for artillery positions.
3. IIAC reserves situated on the 3.D sector
5.D_is preparing to support the defence of 3.D when necessary
-JR15 from the area between KORPELANJOKI and NÄYKKIJÄRVI on the sections of SUOKANTA and JÄRVENKYLÄ.
-JR13 from the area between NÄYKKIJÄRVI and PEROJOKI on the sections of LÄHDE and MERKKI.
JR13 and JR15 shal liaise with the corresponding 3.D section CO_s.
Fromn 1.D, the following are prepared for action on the section of 3.D

3.Pr (later 1.Pr), advancing route via KÄMÄRÄNKYLÄ to the direction of KÄMÄRÄ station or via KELLINLAMPI – p40 to the direction of KILTEE.
Det. Vuori via KELLINLAMPI – p40 – KILTEE.

Each level of command is obliged to acquire themselves on their area of action an idea of the enemy
-Expected action

SUMMANKYLÄ and LÄHDE sections must in co-operation see to it that SUMMAJÄRVI is secured.

When the sections are requesting fighter aircraft to shoot down enemy artillery spotter a/c, balloons or bombers or repelling them you must indicate the exact location of the targets and their possible fighter cover.

3.Division commander, Col P.J.Paalu
Chief of III Office Maj. Hannes Raikkäla

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Re: 2./Er.P.3 in the Winter War: a War Diary

Post by Lotvonen » 23 Mar 2018 06:37

Appendix 21

Office III
KD n:o 59/III/21/40

“Kalastus” on the sections shall commence.
Thje first night of “kalastus” shall be the 27./28.1.40 from which date the first week is counted. 2nd Week shall accordingly start on the night of 3./4.2.40, and the third on the night of 10./11.2.40. The concerned commanders shall take care of the continuous execution of “kalastus” and shall liaise with the COs of the troops at their disposal.

3.Division commander, Col P.J.Paalu
Chief of III Office Maj. Hannes Raikkäla

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Joined: 25 Jun 2007 11:17
Location: Finland

Re: 2./Er.P.3 in the Winter War: a War Diary

Post by Lotvonen » 24 Mar 2018 05:36

Appendix 22, Another flower of bureaucracy!

3.Division Headquarters 24.1.1940
KD n:o 109/IV/74

3D_order no.18 on supplying

I. General
1. The 3.D order on supply no 12/14.12.-39 included orders on sending casualty reports to IV office , and it is amended so that
a)Report on personnel shall be sent only to the I office of 3.D and
b)Report on horses shall be sent to the 3.D Veterinarian, (Tel. Säiniö 69, two rings)

2. With reference to the Geneva treaty article 4, the ID plaques or other corresponding symbols found on the KIA enemies must be taken into custody, packed and sealed. The cover must be marked with the location and moment of securing. There shall later be orders on to forward the symbols.

II. Subordination
3. 1. Km.K (Supply Coy) has on the 15.1.40 been subordinated to 3.D
27. Pion.K has been subordinated to 3.D
4. Rats.Ptri is no more subordinated to 3.D

III. Household service
5. 3.D household instruction no.2 has been distributed on 17.1.40.

IV. Veterinary service
6. Slaughtered horses, if consumable, must be bled and gutted immediately and the carcass skinned if possible. The same concerns horses KIA. The carcasses are to be sent unskinned, if there is no possibility to skin them, to the 3. ELK (Vet. Coy) to be forwarded to prisons.
7. With reference to the 6.D order no 11 on supply, point II/6.12.39 concerning writing alcohol prescriptions, it has been decided that the order concerns also military vets.

V. Signals service
8. According to the II AC writ n:o 141/V.kom/75c sal, the units included in the normal order of battle of a Div, or subordinated to it, and who have in their possession or whom belong according to instructions any signalling devices must report them every accounting period to the 3.D signalling CO. The accounting¨period is one month and the report must be on the desk of the signalling CO by the latest at 24.00hrs of the first of the month. The first report shall be written according to the template below.
The column “Material description” shall include every signalling device by its official description. Possible sub-types must be specified (e.g. field telephone set P-1-8, P-1-6, civilian telephone set etc.) Column “increase” shall include the number received as replacement during the period. Column “decrease” shall include totally destroyed devices that have not been replaced, and devices handed over out of the unit. If a device is only damaged, even badly so, it must be sent to be repaired or replaced, and it must not be considered just decrease.
This report concerns only the signals troops and units electrical torches (pocket torches). The elements and batteries taken into use are considered spent and included in “decrease”
The following signalling devices must also be reported by their number in use and by their number in storage, unused:
Field telephone sets
Other telephone sets
Field exchanges 5- 10''' ('''=line = 1/10in)
Field exchanges 20- 30''' or more
Field cable (km)
Light field cable(km)
Field wire (km)
Mild steel wire (kg)
9. The units shall report by 29.1.40 to the signals CO the amounts of electric torches used for illumination and other purposes (pocket torches), and also the immediate need. The number and need of signals troops or units are not to be included in the report. At the same time the estimated monthly consumption of batteries and lamps ( separately the different voltages of point and lens models) so far is to be reported

VI Anti-gas service
10. Ammunition replenishment points are making available straps for the face parts. Straps are to be replaced in the units. The best men to do the work are shoemakers led by anti-gas NCOs.

VII Vehicles
11. Motor vehicles
a) Motor vehicles captured as war booty must immediately upon capture be reported to the 3.D IV office.
b)Once again it is reminded that the units are not allowed to seize motor vehicles for their use. Seizure is allowed only for the CG districts by the order of the Defence Ministry. Also the units are forbidden to seize or use even temporarily evacuated motor vehicles.
c)All previously issued orders on the use of vehicle diaries must absolutely be complied with. When replacing a diary with a new one, it must be transferred from the old diary not only the ending vehicle odometer reading but also the reading that was in the odometer of the said vehicle when it was confiscated to be used by the defence force.
d)The units must make in writing motor vehicle and loading tool loss reports on the losses of the previous week by Wednesdays, 21.00hrs to the 3.D Office IV.
e) As appendix n:o 1 you shall find a copy of the Defence Ministry guideline concerning the motor vehicle cooling system care in wintertime.
12. Fuels and lubricants
Units shall report on Saturdays by 1600hrs by phone to the 3.D office IV (tel. Honkaniemi 27) their fuel and lubricant store status that they had on Saturday at noon and their consumption during the week. The report shall include also the number of the motor vehicles and the amount of kilometres driven during the week to be reported. If odometers are not usable the readings must be estimated in those cases.
The reports must be made regularly even if some figures would be missing at the moment of reporting. Figures 1 – 7 shall include the stores of the sub-units except the fuel in the vehicle fuel tank. The following codes are to be used:
A = Reporting unit
B = Number of vehicles
C = Total of driven kilometres
1=Petrol litres
2=Naphtha kg
3=Motor paraffin lt
4=SAE20-30 kg
6=Anti-freeze liquid lt
7=Kerosene lt
8=Petrol litres
9=Naphtha kg
10=Motor paraffin lt
11=SAE20-30 kg
12=SAE90 kg
13=Anti-freeze liquid lt
14=Kerosene lt
For example: A 487, B12, C459, 1=200, 2=0, 3=0, 4=10, 5=3, 6=10, 7=159, 8=83, 9=0, 10=0, 11=6, 12=4,5, 13=4, 14=31
Meaning: 3. Liik.K, 12 motor vehicles, total km driven 459km, in stores 200l petrol, 0kg naphtha , 0 l motor paraffin etc.
The orders above are to be applied starting 27.1.40
It is forbidden to use gas oil (naphtha), kerosene or other naphtha products as replacement for anti-freeze liquid.

VIII Field post
13. Units must store the mail for the wounded until they have found out the final place of care of the wounded, where the unit shall forward the mail. The mail to the dead must be returned from the unit to the sender.

3.D Chief of staff Maj. E. Nohrström
3D Chief of Supply Maj. ? (signed)

(to be continued)

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