Gerlach's death toll for Malaryta is 4,038, but he puts the date of the operation as 22-26 September 1942 (Gerlach: Kalkulierte Morde, pages 898ff.)The third area, a kilometer northwest of the settlement of Malorita, contained nine mass graves. The committee opened two and determined that most of the victims were shot; some were buried alive. The number of "peaceful Soviet citizens" killed here was also estimated at 3,000.
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The Brest Litowsk ghetto was liquidated in October 1942. The first schuma unit became more or less Polish in spring 1943.Carnaro wrote:On need, non-german units also were involved as reinforcement: usually ukrainische Schuma-Einzeldienst, taken from little gendarmerie posts (and - following Gerlach, a polish schuma unit also was involved in destruction of Brest Litowsk ghetto).
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I don't really know. I never met him, but he was from Ratno. He has two brother's JANKIEL/YANKIEL and BERKO and one sister MELTZE.
Hi moved to France on 1945 and he issue the Polish passport on Paris.
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"In July and August, a German military administration governed the town, and from September 1941, power was transferred to a German civil administration. Ratno was a Rayon center in Gebiet Kowel, within Generalkommisariat Wolhynien und Podolien. The Gebietskommisar in Kowel until June 1942 was Regierungsrat Arno Kämpf, and the Gendarmerie-Gebietsführer was Leutnant der Gendarmerie Philipp Rapp. In June 1942, Kämpf was arrested for taking bribes from Jews, and Erich Kassner took over...
During the brief power vacuum after the Soviet forces had retreated, but before the German administration had been established, there was some looting of Jewish property by local Ukrainians from the villages, during which one Jew who resisted was killed. On July 6, 1941, local Ukrainian peasants organised a pogrom in Ratno, again looting property and killing several more Jews. However, on July 7, a platoon of German soldiers arrived from Kowel. Local Ukrainians initially mistook the Germans for armed Jews and opened fire. The Germans, returning fire, killed 10 Ukrainians. The German forces then conducted a reprisal Aktion, alleging that the Jews had fired on them. The Jews were made to parade on the square near the monastery, and about 30 Jews were selected and shot. The Germans shot roughly the same number of Soviet prisoners of war (POWs) at the same time 2).
A variety of dates are given in the sources for the liquidation of the ghetto in Ratno, but it probably took place in July or August 1942, when approximately 1,500 Jews were shot in the village of Prokhod 5).
The shooting was carried out by a squad of the Security Police and the SD, with the assistance of the German Gendarmerie and the Ukrainian police, who searched the attics and cellars for several days, looking for Jews in hiding. A few hundred Jews were able to escape initially, but many of them were betrayed to the Germans by local peasants and also shot. Some managed to join those Jews who had fled to the forest earlier 6).
When Ratno was liberated on March 22, 1944, 14 survivors initially returned to the town, but most left for other countries shortly afterwards.
On August 11, 1942, the Security Police shot several Jews in the Ratno district, in the villages of Staroscin and Koniszcze 8), and the 9th Company of the 15th Police Regiment shot 74 Jews in the village of Samary on the border with Rayon Dywin on October 13, 1942; one Ukrainian family (six people) was shot together with the Jews, for hiding a Jewish woman 9)."
2). Botoshanski and Yanasovitsh, Yitzkor-bukh Ratne, pp. 519-533, 581. See also T. Denysiuk and I.O. Denysiuk Ratnivshchyna: Istoryko-kraieznavchyi narys (Lutsk 1998), p.66. According to Spector there was another Aktion by the German Security Police in which they shot 280 Jews as Soviet activists; see Spector, The Holocaust of Volhynian Jews, p.73, but he gives no precise date for this, so it may be the same Aktion.
5) Denysiuk and Denysiuk, Ratnivshchyna: Istoryko-kraieznavchyi narys, pp. 68-69, gives the date of July 14, 1942. A memorial was erected at the site of the shooting of the Jews in 1995. According to Botoshanski and Yanasovitsh, Yizkor-bukh Ratne, pp. 581-583, the shooting took place on August 26, 1942: of 1,500 Jews, 1,000 were shot and 500 initially managed to escape.
6) Gil', Krov' ikh I segodnia govorit, pp. 80-81, testimony of Leon Ginzburg, mentions that 30 Jews fled to the forest before the creation of the ghetto, and 50 more escaped just prior to the Aktion.
8) BA-BL, R 58/222, Meldungen aus den besetzten Ostgebieten, no. 19, September 4, 1942.
9) GARF, 7021-148-2, pp. 346-347, Report of the 9th Company, Police Regiment 15, November 1, 1942.
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All of his older sisters and brothers were murdered in Ratne, Ukraine.