GUPVI (USSR POW camp's)

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Xserx
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GUPVI (USSR POW camp's)

Post by Xserx » 04 May 2003 11:07

To me would like to mention interesting, on my sight, theme: a situation German (and not only German) POW’s and Displaced Persons (DP) in the Soviet camps during and after war. Below I bring a line of interesting statistical details.
The POW's and DP were in conducting General Management of POW's and DP (further - GUPVI) at NKVD USSR. GUPVI camps was the detached system and did not enter in GULAG. GUPVI was created directly ambassador of a beginning of the second world war. After input of the Soviet armies in Poland L. Beria has signed the order #0308 (19.09.39) "About organization of camps for POW's". Originally, these of camp intended for Polish and Baltian militarians, and the general number of camps was small. After the German intrusion the system GUPVI was shipped in chaos. However, after a defeat of German armies under Moscow and occurrence of a plenty of German POW's, the system GUPVI began to extend quickly. According to the decision of State Committee of a Defense (GKO) USSR #1069 (27.12.41) was provided creation 26 camps. Up to middle 1942 GUPVI systems consist from:
1. Front camps (reception items for POW's)
2. Of camps in rear, which were subdivided on camp for POW's both DP and camp for the former soldier of the Soviet army.
Since one summer 1942 to a network of front camps the receptions of distributive camps, former intermediate link between reception items and stationary camps were added.
On February 25 1943 in system GUPVI 256918 POW's were registered, from which on the patients or wounded were registered 57828. Depending on a condition of health and military rank the POW's were distributed on different camps, for the officers existed special camps (in Suzdal, Elabuga etc.). On January 1 1943 in system GUPVI 40 camps:9 for the former soldier of the Soviet army and 31 for POW's (4 - for the officers, 18 - for the soldier, 4 - receptions of distributive camps) worked.
Statistics of quantity of camps on years here is how looks (is resulted on the archival data):

Camp’s type.........1943......1944.....1945.......1946
1.POW’s camps (all).....31........52..........156........267
From them:
for the officers...............4.........6..............6..........11
- for the soldiers.........18........34...........138........199
- for Japan’s.................0.........0...............0..........49
- mixed........................0.........0...............0............8
- receptions of
distributive camps.........9.......12..............12..........12
2.Receptions camps.....44.......66..............72............0
3.Modular camps............0.......20..............43............0
4.Operative objects........0.........4................4............6
5.Special camps............9.......14................0............0

Below I bring the data on POW's in the Soviet camps and prisons on 30.11.56. This statistics is based only on given about POW's registered in stationary camps GUPVI, special hospitals, working bataillon and prisons. Certainly, it not absolutely complete statistics, but it gives representation about general scales.

Nation......All..........Repatriated.....Died......Death rate, %

Germany....2388443...2031743.......356687.........14,9
Hungarian...513766......459011.........54753.........10,7
Romanian...187367......132755..........54602.........29,1
Austrian......156681......145790..........10891...........7,0
Czech...........69977........65954...........4023............5,7
Poland..........60272........57149............3127...........5,2
Italian...........48957.......21274...........27683.........56,5
France..........23136......212811.............1325..........5,7
Serbian.........21830.......20354.............1468..........6,2
Holland..........4730..........4530...............199..........4,2
Finland..........2377...........1974...............403........17,0
Belgian..........2014..........1833................177.........8,8
Luxembrg......1653..........1560..................92.........5,6
Dutch..............456............421..................35.........7,7
Spain..............452............382..................70........15,5
Norge..............101.............83...................18........17,8
Others............3989.........1062................2927........73,4
Total.......3486206...2967686.............518480........14,9
If this theme will cause interest, I am ready to an exchange of opinions. I can recommend the excellent book on the given subjects of the Austrian historian Stefan Karner "Im Archipel GUPVI. Kriegsgefangenshaft und internierung in der Sowjetunion 1941-1956" Besides it would be interesting to me to learn about system of camps of POW's in Germany and countries of the Allies.
P.S.: I'm sorry, but tables incorrectly displayed on a forum
Regards.
Last edited by Xserx on 21 May 2003 16:03, edited 1 time in total.

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Post by David Thompson » 04 May 2003 12:02

Xserx -- Thank you for a very interesting post! I, for one, would like to see more on this subject.

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Post by Xserx » 04 May 2003 12:17

David Thompson wrote:Xserx -- Thank you for a very interesting post! I, for one, would like to see more on this subject.

O'k, David. I have more information on this question. In 2-3 days I shall lay out the following part.

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Post by Xserx » 05 May 2003 12:56

So, still information on system of camps of POW's in USSR (GUPVI) and about a legal situation of POW's and DP in the Soviet Union within war.
The stages of captivity in the Soviet Union last months of war looked as follows:
1. Reception item of POW's (20-30 kilometers from a line of front)
2. Modular item of POW's (50-70 kilometers from a line of front)
3. Receptions of distributive camps (100-150 kilometers from a line of front)
Here of POW's distributed or in stationary camps in territory USSR, or in working bataillons; wounded and patients of POW's placed in special hospitals for POW's. It is necessary to note, that at a stage of transportation of POW's in camps the death rate was very high. These data are not taken into account in the table, which I have placed in the previous message.
As is known, the Soviet Union has not signed Geneva agreements (27.07.29). The legal rule of POW's and DP was defined by the decision of Council National Kommisars USSR (further - SNK) issued 01.07.41 "About the statement of a situation about POW's". As POW's any militarians, taken in captivity, of any armed forces which are taking place with USSR in a condition of war, and also DP in territory USSR the citizens of these countries were considered. Besides the members of the armed connections were ranked as them which do not belong to the armed forces of the opponent, however is open carry the weapon, and civil persons, which accompany with enemy armies (military journalists etc.), and also other persons, which were taken in captivity during battle actions.
Besides POW's, in GUPVI of camp 2 significant groups of the persons got:
- Part repatriated in USSR "osterbaiters", violence taken out by a Reich from territory USSR within war; the repatriated Soviet POW's which are taking place in German captivity; the political refugees from USSR; a part of the armies, which have acted against USSR, of the general Vlassov and Cossaks.
- Mobilized and DP volksdeutche.
The opportunity of use of work of DP and mobilized volksdeutche was fixed at a Conference of the Allies in Yalta (04-11.02.45). For March 1946 mobilized and the DP volksdeutche on the citizenship were distributed so:
1. Germany - 38681 (from them 11527 women)
2. Hungary - 24443 (from them 9109 women)
3. Romania - 53946 (from them 27680 women)
4. Yugoslavia - 8976 (from them 6093 women)
5. Poland - 2465 (from them 417 women)
6. Czechoslovakia - 722 (from them 138 women)
7. Austria - 98 (from them 16 women)
The working bataillons were formed of these people and were directed on restoration of a national economy USSR (first of all to coal obtaining areas USSR).
The work of POW's and DP was widely applied in restoration of economy USSR. In 1946 the working POW's were distributed on branches of economy so:
Branches of economy POW’s % from total
Construction 645532 35,2
Fuel and power industry 410793 22,4
Military industry 319098 17,4
Manufacture of building materials 247576 13,5
Metallurgy and mechanical engineering 143044 7,8
Other kinds of an industry and agriculture 67822 3,7
Total: 1833865 100

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Post by PeterH » 26 Feb 2007 16:47

Regarding the number of POW-camps: It's the number of the Upravlenija lagerej without branch camps, labor camps etc.?
Regarding the death rate: I assume the treatment of the POW from all nations was nearly the same, it seems the Italian's had a nearly unbelievable fate.

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Re: GUPVI (USSR POW camp's)

Post by PeterH » 26 Feb 2007 17:06

Xserx wrote:Nation......All..........Repatriated.....Died......Death rate, %

Germany....2388443...2031743.......356687.........14,9
Hungarian...513766......459011.........54753.........10,7
Romanian...187367......132755..........54602.........29,1
Austrian......156681......145790..........10891...........7,0
Czech...........69977........65954...........4023............5,7
Poland..........60272........57149............3127...........5,2
Italian...........48957.......21274...........27683.........56,5
France..........23136......212811.............1325..........5,7
Serbian.........21830.......20354.............1468..........6,2
Holland..........4730..........4530...............199..........4,2
Finland..........2377...........1974...............403........17,0
Belgian..........2014..........1833................177.........8,8
Luxembrg......1653..........1560..................92.........5,6
Dutch..............456............421..................35.........7,7
Spain..............452............382..................70........15,5
Norge..............101.............83...................18........17,8
Others............3989.........1062................2927........73,4
Total.......3486206...2967686.............518480........14,9


B.t.w.: Is there someone out here to explain the difference between Holland and Dutch?

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Re: GUPVI (USSR POW camp's)

Post by Yuri » 26 Feb 2007 18:00

PeterH wrote:
Xserx wrote:Nation......All..........Repatriated.....Died......Death rate, %

Germany....2388443...2031743.......356687.........14,9
Hungarian...513766......459011.........54753.........10,7
Romanian...187367......132755..........54602.........29,1
Austrian......156681......145790..........10891...........7,0
Czech...........69977........65954...........4023............5,7
Poland..........60272........57149............3127...........5,2
Italian...........48957.......21274...........27683.........56,5
France..........23136......212811.............1325..........5,7
Serbian.........21830.......20354.............1468..........6,2
Holland..........4730..........4530...............199..........4,2
Finland..........2377...........1974...............403........17,0
Belgian..........2014..........1833................177.........8,8
Luxembrg......1653..........1560..................92.........5,6
Dutch..............456............421..................35.........7,7
Spain..............452............382..................70........15,5
Norge..............101.............83...................18........17,8
Others............3989.........1062................2927........73,4
Total.......3486206...2967686.............518480........14,9


B.t.w.: Is there someone out here to explain the difference between Holland and Dutch?


In this table it is necessary to read so:
.....
Holland.... 4730....4530...200
....
The Dane:.... 436....421...35
......

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Post by Yuri » 26 Feb 2007 18:11

PeterH wrote:Regarding the number of POW-camps: It's the number of the Upravlenija lagerej without branch camps, labor camps etc.?
Regarding the death rate: I assume the treatment of the POW from all nations was nearly the same, it seems the Italian's had a nearly unbelievable fate.

Enormous part captured the Italian have grasped in January and February, 1943. For all time of war these months were the frostiest time - then the frost reached up to a minus 30-35-40. Italians, natives from the south of Italy, have not got used to such frosts froze. Only captured from the Alpine divisions have remained alive..

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Re: GUPVI (USSR POW camp's)

Post by Rauli » 26 Feb 2007 18:33

PeterH wrote:B.t.w.: Is there someone out here to explain the difference between Holland and Dutch?


Dutch = Flemish

Belgian = Wallon

... I guess.

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Re: GUPVI (USSR POW camp's)

Post by PeterH » 26 Feb 2007 19:24

Yuri wrote:In this table it is necessary to read so:
.....
Holland.... 4730....4530...200
....
The Dane:.... 436....421...35
......

Seems you own the same source as Xserx. Are there any futher faults we should know about?

Enormous part captured the Italian have grasped in January and February, 1943. For all time of war these months were the frostiest time - then the frost reached up to a minus 30-35-40. Italians, natives from the south of Italy, have not got used to such frosts froze. Only captured from the Alpine divisions have remained alive..

Thanks.

1.POW’s camps (all).....31........52..........156........267

All camps?!?

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Post by Xserx » 26 Feb 2007 19:30

Sorry, Dutch=Denmark. It's my mistake....

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Xserx/

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Post by Xserx » 26 Feb 2007 20:02

PeterH wrote:Regarding the number of POW-camps: It's the number of the Upravlenija lagerej without branch camps, labor camps etc.?


It is not necessary to confuse two different systems - GUPVI and GULAG. From 1945 these Managements borrowed identical rules in system of hierarchy NKVD. In camps GULAG almost not was a POW's (may be some hundreds). In too time many DP got in GULAG system. As far as I can know, in the given table all types of camps GUPVI are listed. For work from camps selected those who was in a normal physical condition. Per the first years of war (can be up to 1944), the number of these people was not so large - many POW's were in a bad physical condition because of famine and illnesses. After selection them threw on object of construction, where frequently they worked together with GULAG arrested persons.

Best.
Xserx/

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Post by TISO » 26 Feb 2007 20:27

HMMMM.
Serbian?????
Serbian.........21830.......20354.............1468..........6,2

Does that mean Yugoslav ( Slovenes forcibly mobilised into wehrmacht and Croatian NDH legion)?

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Post by Xserx » 26 Feb 2007 20:55

TISO wrote:HMMMM.
Serbian?????
Serbian.........21830.......20354.............1468..........6,2

Does that mean Yugoslav ( Slovenes forcibly mobilised into wehrmacht and Croatian NDH legion)?

Yes, I think, all Yugoslav nation. But not only wermacht. I think, in this number many anti-Tito's soldiers.

Best.
Xserx.

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Post by Yuri » 26 Feb 2007 22:28

Xserx wrote:
TISO wrote:HMMMM.
Serbian?????
Serbian.........21830.......20354.............1468..........6,2

Does that mean Yugoslav ( Slovenes forcibly mobilised into wehrmacht and Croatian NDH legion)?

Yes, I think, all Yugoslav nation. But not only wermacht. I think, in this number many anti-Tito's soldiers.

Best.
Xserx.

It would be desirable to learn - these your assumptions are based on what bases? I, for example, am sure, that among them there were only those who carried the Wermacht's form.
In documents of Red Army’s units Slovenes meet since autumn of 1941.

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