184 Odilo Globocnik, Hitler's Man in the East
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On 2 October 1941, nine months before Heydrich was assassinated by a British-backed Czech and a Slovak agent in Prague, he outlined at a secret gathering in his Prague-based seat of power, Cernin Palace, the fate intended for the tens of millions of Slays living across what was increasingly referred to in SS circles in Berlin, and occupied Poland, simply as the East. Heydrich's candid briefing speech was delivered just four days after he took up his new position as Deputy Reich Protektor
of Bohemia and Moravia, suggesting that what he said that day was of crucial importance both to him and to his administration, and he wanted his senior personnel to be aware of it as soon as possible. Before he delivered this secret address, his state under-secretary, SA-Brigadefuhrer
von Burgsdorff, said during introductory comments that those attending were obliged to treat what they were about to hear as strictly secret information. All the points made were of crucial importance for anyone wishing to understand and appreciate what was about to unfold.
Heydrich first reminded those present that the SS was manned by the shock troops of the party "in all affairs concerning the internal political security of the region and the protection of the National Socialist idea." This was no idle statement, for Berlin's ethnic cleansing actions, at least in Poland, were exclusively planned and executed by SS men and a myriad of SS or Himmler agencies, including academic research institutes, with the help of sup-porters of the Ukrainian Nationalist Organization, and the Ukrainian Central Committee, in the case of the cleansing of the Zamosc Lands. He next went on to stress that he was undertaking the work of his superior, Heinrich Himmler, who held the position of Reichskommissar for the Strengthening of Germandom (RKFDV). Heydrich stressed that the Reich's military occupation of "enormous expanses in Europe," both Western and Eastern, was to pave the way for a permanent state of affairs, another Final Solution. His exact words on this confident proclamation were: "We will make it clear that the occupation of this space will, in any case, not be transitional but final in many regions
" (emphasis added).48
In other words, the colonizing intentions of the Reich's all-powerful Hitler-Himmler leadership group were also destined to include a Final Solution of the Slavic Problem. Clearly, men like Globocnik were therefore needed, more so in the future than in the recent past. Those invited to hear this top-secret address also learned that the Hitler-Himmler group looked favorably upon Norway, Holland, Flanders, Denmark, and Sweden, since the peoples of these nations were seen as racial or blood brothers. People of Germanic origin had in the main settled these nations, which Heydrich preferred to refer to as regions, he alleged: "...and which in some kind of manner, about this
VII. Globocnik Moves to "Re-Germanize"... 185
we must be clear here, will belong to us whether in the framework of a state federation, Gau or in some other way."49
He stressed that these so-called Germanic peoples inhabiting these north-western and northern European nations should be treated with tolerance and understanding:
It is clear that we must find an entirely different way in which to treat those people from that used for peoples of other races, Slavs and similar peoples. The Germanic race must be gripped hard, justly, but must be led in a humane manner, in a similar manner as our people, if we want to keep them permanently in the Reich and want to merge them with us.50
But the Slavs, those predominantly inhabiting the East, would, under no circumstances, be treated as mildly. Referring to the nations of the East — Poland, the Baltic States, and the various Soviet republics, he said:
These, therefore, are the regions where a German upper stratum must be established in a very clear form of leadership; following the military development deep into Russia and far up to the Urals, these regions are to serve us as a raw material base and their inhabitants as workers for great and cultural tasks, as helots, to put it very drastically. These are the regions which one actually handles as if digging dikes around new land on the coast: by drawing a defensive wall far away in the East composed of warrior farmers, so as to seal off the land against the storm floods of Asia, and then to subdivide it with cross-walls, so as to gradually win this land for us, by continuing at the fringe of Germany property, which is settled with German blood, and steadily moving forwards, one German wall after another, making it possible to advance towards the East the German settlement by Germans who are of German blood. It is from this view-point that you must see all the tasks in the East, which we now have to fulfil [emphases added.]51
The great Nazi racial divide was between East and West, between all of Europe and Western Siberia, with the Ural Mountain chain the new and great racial as well as physical or topographical divide; those seen as belonging to the former were doomed, in a variety of ways, but ultimately by wholesale dispossession of their lands, by their forcible removal, deportation, expulsion, and resettlement, as Globocnik showed on the Zamosc Lands. Those to the west were — if designated Germanic — to partake in the benefits that flowed from the Reich's victories and its colonization and exploitation of the eastern lands. They were to be settled across the newly acquired East. The Jews were also not forgotten by Heydrich. They were seen as a group whose influence simply had to be removed from all
the societies of Europe's so-called Germanic region — Norway, Holland, Flanders, Denmark, and Sweden—since they were contaminating these peoples and that entire western region. According to Heydrich, "They [the so-called Germanics] are people who as a result
186 Odilo Globocnik, Hitler's Man in the East
of bad political leadership and the influence of the Jewry
are somehow crooked and who must firstly slowly be brought back to the basic elements of present-day thinking." (Emphasis added)"
The Zamosc Lands expulsions not only fit snugly into Heydrich's eastern view; those lands became the first to see this view applied. Although nearly all the wartime documentation on Generalplan Ost
was deliberately destroyed shortly before Germany's defeat in May 1945, several researchers, including especially Czeslaw Madajczyk, have conducted protracted investigation to find evidence that gives greater insight into this plan's scale, dimensions, and details.
From Madajczyk's and a small number of others' work, we know that Himmler created in 1939 a special unit, IIIB, within his Reich Central Main Office in Berlin, to devise the broad parameters of how Slays would be removed from all the lands between Berlin and the Ural Mountain range, followed by settlement on this vast territory of Germans. This unit was headed by Dr. Hans Ehlich, who revealed the existence of Generalplan Ost
while giving evidence at Nuremberg. A Berlin-based research unit headed by Berlin geographer and SS man Konrad Meyer-Hetling largely undertook the settlement aspects. Meyer-Hetling was sub-contracted to prepare a broad plan of settlement. Ehlich's experts had drawn up a two-stage proposal, with the first called the Kleine Planung
(Little or Small Plan), and the second, or more ambitious, the Grosse Planung
(Big or Bigger Plan), looking several decades ahead. The Little Plan considered only the lands immediately adjacent Germany's eastern border, specifically, western Poland, which had been incorporated into the Reich in October 1939. The implementation of the Kleine Planung
had involved expulsions of ethnic Poles and Jews, many of whom had reached Globocnik's Lublin District during 1939—40 as expellees. Polish historians Janusz Gumkowski and Kazimierz Leszczynski have described the existence of this dual stage planning in the following way:
The ... Kleine Planung covered the immediate future. It was to be put into practice gradually as the Germans conquered the areas to the east of their pre-war borders. The individual stages of this "Little Plan" would then be worked out in greater detail. In this way the plan for Poland was drawn up at the end of November, 1939. The second part of the Plan, known as the Grosse Planung, dealt with objectives to be realized after the war was won. They were to be carried into effect gradually and relatively slowly over a period of 25 to 30 years. Generalplan Ost presented the Nazi Reich and the German people with gigantic tasks. It called for the gradual preparation of a vast area of Eastern Europe for settlement by Germans and eventual absorption into the Great 1000-Year Reich. This area covered territory stretching from the eastern borders of Germany more or less to a line running from Lake Ladoga in the north to the Black Sea into the region of the Crimea in the South. The 1000-year Reich was thus to absorb the whole of Poland, Czechoslovakia, the Baltic countries excepting
VII. Globocnik Moves to "Re-Germanize"... 187
Finland, (for the moment) and a huge chunk of the Soviet Union — most of Russia, White Russia, the Ukraine and the whole of Crimea. According to the Plan, these areas were to be "Germanised" before being incorporated into the Reich.53
Himmler and Globocnik, however, were unable to wait until the war had been won before they became ethnic cleansers and Germanic colonizers. They were impatient, which explains why they launched the Generalplan Ost in a fashion that can only be considered to have been wildly premature. One probable reason for this was the fact that Globocnik had in 1941 created his own research unit, the Forschungsstelle für Ostunterkunfte
(FfO) (Research Center for Eastern Settlement), in Lublin, whose researchers, led by SS-Hauptsturmfuehrer
Gustav Hanelt, set about devising all the necessary sub-plots of the Germanization of the East; for instance, SS and police strongpoints, from which land settlement by German farmers would spread, and settlement walls would be created.54 Precisely how the FfO, the Kleine
, and the Grosse Planung
, and all the other work carried out by Dr. Ehlich's Berlin-based researchers, and Meyer-Hetling's settlement proposals or blueprints dovetailed is unclear. The explanation may be that this is best understood by noting Globocnik's longstanding proclivity for not waiting or taking heed of anyone at any time.
Another possible reason is that all the documents and working papers of the Generalplan Ost
were deliberately destroyed just before the war ended, and that was also the fate of the FfO's working plans and papers. But once Globocnik appeared on any scene, there was the inevitable pattern: rivalry, confusion, bitterness, and recrimination. He invariably sought to become the man who gave the lead, and that could even mean acting well ahead of what Berlin's researchers and theorists may have foreseen. Himmler must also take some blame for this, since in the summer of 1941 he visited Ukraine and the Baltic region, familiarizing himself with the cities of these regions. Nevertheless, the most likely link between Berlin's Kleine Planung
and Globocnik's Lublin work was that the Kleine Planung
was simply the Germanization of western Poland. The work was conducted in large measure by Hermann Alois Krumey from his Lodz (Litzmannstadt) base.
The Grosse Planung
, on the other hand, applied all the intended SS and Pan-German demographic upheavals — expulsion of Slays and Balts eastwards and the settling in their place of Germans — on lands beyond western Poland, an operation that began with Globocnik's forced Germanization of the Zamosc Lands, with the managerial and ideological assistance of his Carinthian crony Reinhold von Mohrenschildt. There was also the case of the Baltic region, one in which Himmler took particular interest, placing it nearly on a par with the Zamosc Lands. Himmler's special interest in the Baltic region is in part explained by the fact that several of the major Baltic cities, when still only towns, had been associated with the Northern German commercial
188 Odilo Globocnik, Hitler's Man in the East
agency known as the Hanseatic League as ports or trading outposts. Moreover, Himmler visited several of these cities during 1941; seeing their architecture and central-city plans convinced him that the East had in fact once been a Germanic zone of Europe in its entirety. To Himmler it was therefore not a matter of purifying pockets of the East by removing anyone classified as "aliens"— namely, Slavs and Balts. To him the Germanization of the Baltic and Slavic Lands of the East was in fact a matter of retrieving, regaining, or reclaiming what Himmler saw as having once been Germanic. It was thus a venture of removing the racial usurpers to what Heydrich called "deep into Russia and far up to the Urals." Globocnik fits snugly into this outlook and this impatience of Himmler's.