The Nkvd war operations in Russia, Western Ukraine and elsewhere

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Carlus
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The Nkvd war operations in Russia, Western Ukraine and elsewhere

Post by Carlus » 13 Jun 2023 20:00

Hello
I'm not very familiar with this topic but it seems to me very scarcely known and interesting.
According to the historians T. Snyder (Bloodlands, 2010) and A. Statiev (Soviet Counterinsurgency, 2010) the Nkvd forces were engaged in a very fierce struggle against the Ukrainian Insurgent Army in Western Ukraine from 1944 onwards (maybe until 1947?). In order to pacify these large area the Nkvd was heavily involved in in anti guerrilla task, such as skirmishes, intense battles, round up, mass arrests and deportations.
In Snyder opinion's both sides were responsible of atrocities during this inside war, but I've never found anything more precise.

Have you ever found evidence of Soviet/Nkvd soldiers committing war crimes and atrocities like mass executions against local inhabitants in Ukrainian villages and towns as they did in Summer 1941 before retreating in front of the advancing German Army?

Second topic: the Nkvd operations against ethnic groups in the Caucasus and Crimea. Even in this case: ever found any evidence of local mass shootings or slaughters during the deportations of Kalmyks, Cecenians, Kabardys and Tatars?

I'm just looking for informations, books, archival sources or links.

Art
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Re: The Nkvd war operations in Russia, Western Ukraine and elsewhere

Post by Art » 13 Jun 2023 20:29

Carlus wrote:
13 Jun 2023 20:00
Have you ever found evidence of Soviet/Nkvd soldiers committing war crimes and atrocities like mass executions against local inhabitants in Ukrainian villages and towns as they did in Summer 1941 before retreating in front of the advancing German Army?
What is it about? There were shootings of inmates in prison, those who couldn't be evacuated fast enough. I'm not sure that you can count them as "inhabitants".

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Carlus
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Re: The Nkvd war operations in Russia, Western Ukraine and elsewhere

Post by Carlus » 13 Jun 2023 21:28

Yes, you're right. Indeed in summer 1941 the victims were the inmates of the Nkvd prisons. What I wondered is wether the Nkvd special forces killed people en masse as counter measures of the Partisan War staged by the Ukrainians of the UPA once the Red Army occupied again western Ukraine in 1944.
Are there documented cases of mass killings of civilians in burial graves or slaughters in villages/communities suspected to be anti Soviet?
The example could be problematic but: in 1941 and 1942 Nazis killed hundreds or several thousands of Jewish civilians in burial pits in those areas.
My question is did Nkvd do something similar in Caucasus, Crimea and Ukraine from 1944 onward, this time against citizens considered "enemies of the State" (Ukrainian partisans, Crimea Tatars, exc.) ?

ljadw
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Re: The Nkvd war operations in Russia, Western Ukraine and elsewhere

Post by ljadw » 14 Jun 2023 13:35

''Anti-Soviet resistance by the Ukrainian insurgent army '' speaks of 155000 deaths on Ukrainian side after August 1944 .

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Re: The Nkvd war operations in Russia, Western Ukraine and elsewhere

Post by Vasilyev » 27 Jun 2023 18:20

The various collections of documents on the NKVD-MVD operations against the OUN/UPA and other groups have some numbers which raise some questions. For example:

http://docs.historyrussia.org/ru/nodes/ ... e/1/zoom/4

In the operations against the OUN/UPA in the Kremenets forest from 4/21-27 the NKVD reported that they killed 2,018 “bandits” and captured 1,570 more. Losses for the NKVD troops were 11 killed and 46 wounded.

In total they captured 22 guns and mortars, 47 machine guns, and 321 small arms and AT weapons.

So the number killed substantially exceeded the number of weapons captured. There are other reports published which totaled up can approximate the number of unarmed people shot.

In total:

http://docs.historyrussia.org/ru/nodes/ ... e/1/zoom/4

From February-July, 1944 some 17,550 "bandits" in western Ukraine were killed, 17,480 captured, 4,743 arrested, and 3,795 surrendered willingly. Captured weapons totaled 99 guns and mortars, 600 MGs, and 436 pistols. Nothing stated about rifles, but even with several thousand captured it's evident that the numbers killed exceeded weapons by a significant margin. NKVD casualties were 700 killed and 562 wounded.

I believe the common statistical collections like Mozokhin’s only include cases initiated by the NKGB/UNKGB and associated bodies, not the NKVD. Mozokhin also has a good number of gaps even for the state security organs. So the common statistics on repression may not include those sentenced by the visiting sessions of the Military Collegium from December 1944 on or other quasi-judicial bodies like military tribunals if their cases originated from the NKVD.

The extrajudicial “special meeting” went through many forms, but at this point it was formally under the NKVD but included the heads/first deputies of the NKGB and GUKR “SMERSH”.

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Re: The Nkvd war operations in Russia, Western Ukraine and elsewhere

Post by ljadw » 27 Jun 2023 20:16

That there were more killed than weapons captured means that a lot , a big part, of the killed were not members of the OUN/UPA but unarmed civilians . 155000 deaths on Ukrainian side does not mean that the OUN/UPA had 155000 members .
Something that happens in all guerilla wars .

Art
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Re: The Nkvd war operations in Russia, Western Ukraine and elsewhere

Post by Art » 27 Jun 2023 21:04

The claims of killed do not equal to actual casualties. In most cases they can be safely divided by 3, if not by 10.

Statiev's book actually has an entire chapter on violence and crimes during anti-guerilla operations which cites some verified instances.

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