and now for some commentary and other sources. Obviously it's difficult to track down things on every country. As more information comes in, it will be added via the edit function.
ITALY = 6291 certain deaths
5969 died in KZs, 837 survivors (= 14%)
322 killed in Italy (e.g. Ardeantine Caves)
= Benz is closest, but slightly overestimates. Everyone else overestimates. Confusion may stem from inclusion of Italian dominion of Rhodes (1,700 deported summer 1944)
from: STATISTICA GENERALE DEGLI EBREI VITTIME DELLA SHOAH IN ITALIA (1943-1945)
tratta dal volume di Liliana Picciotto: Il libro della memoria. Gli ebrei deportati dall’Italia (1943-1945). Ricerca della Fondazione Centro di Documentazione Ebraica Contemporanea, Mursia, Milano 2002. Pubblicazione posta sotto l’Alto Patronato del Presidente della Repubblica
57-67,000 range spread - 60,000 logical
Mark Mazower, Inside Hitler's Greece, pp.256-7, reckons 60-65,000
precise regional breakdowns from Jewish Historical Museum in Belgrade
Region Getötet 1941-45
Kroatien, Slavonien 20.000
= 81.74% of 82,242 prewar Jewish inhabitants of Yugoslavia
source: Geschichte und Ende der Juden in Serbien, von Wolf Oschlies, citing much recent Yugoslav research, http://www.shoa.de/content/view/218/230/
75,721 deportees, 3% survived
not including deaths in transit camps, reprisal executions
from: Livre-Memoire, via Serge Klarsfeld's exhaustive research; long nailed down, everyone barring Reitlinger agrees on ca. 75-77,000. Memorial books list almost all names.
28,000 seems more plausible than 24,000, given that Reitlinger and Hilberg were working earlier. I've seen estimates as high as 32,000 (shoa.de site).
102,000 is widely agreed on figure based on precise knowledge of deportation transports to
a) Auschwitz, b) Sobibor, c) Theresienstadt, d) Bergen-Belsen. The ferociously anal NIOD institute has definitely checked this one over. I've heard Dutch historians do statistical regression analysis of numbers of victims by province. No significant change from earlier calculations.
1,200 from Benz hits a middle range. Interestingly Reitlinger, the earliest, gives the highest estimate.
758 - I have seen a lower figure of 735 on shoa.de. Essentially the same
60 or 116 - died in holding/transit camps (Theresienstadt, Bergen-Belsen), remainder of Danish Jews saved and transported to Sweden
- slightly higher than older figures, but there are manifold names projects underway.
- this figure backed up by DoeW centre in Vienna's ongoing names projects. Higher than earlier estimates, but we have better knowledge than we did in 1960.
for both German territories, see also Gottwaldt/Schulle.
CZECH REPUBLIC (= PROTECTORATE)
77,297 named victims, maximum 80,000
from: Pavel Skorpil, ‘Jüdische Opfer Nazi-Deutschlands aus den Böhmischen Ländern 1938 – 1945. Versuch einer Bilanz’, Theresienstädter Studien und Dokumente 1994
http://www.terezinstudies.cz/deu/ITI/pu ... de/skorpil
The Terezin Institute Initiative is a ferociously expert body of researchers.
ca. 66,000 victims
- 57,628 deported in 1942, 13,000 at least in 1944-45, presume 5,000 survivors
- 1,000 executed in Slovakia during uprising
from: Eduard Nižňanský, ‚Holocaust In Der Slowakischen Historiographie Im 90. Jahren Des 20. Jahrhunderts’, http://www.goethe.de/ms/buk/archiv/material/niznan.doc
Niznansky is Slovak, not Jewish, incidentally. He wears a bow tie at conferences.
figures refer to wartime territory minus regions given to Hungary
= total approx 143,000 victims from CZECHOSLOVAKIA = Benz is closest. Earlier confusion stems from border changes on one hand (Slovakia conceded some territory to Hungary), and possible double-counting with Theresienstadt. Quite why Hilberg estimated 230,000 is beyond me.
- older estimates blurred into Soviet Union (Moldova).
The US Holocaust Memorial Museum may have higher figures (250,000 is often mentioned) and better research because they've been into the Romanian archives, and the two senior directors of the historical centre there are Romanian specialists.
- this Benz figure has been recently revised by Gerlach/Aly, Das letzte Kapitel.
- of ca. 450,000 Hungarian Jews deported to Auschwitz, 320,000
were gassed immediately upon arrival. The rest were deported onwards to KZs as slave labour.
Hungarian Jews, mostly women, out of 200,000 slave labourers, died in the camps before liberation. This includes a huge contingent sent via Austria into the Mauthausen system without ever entering Auschwitz
tens of thousands of Hungarian Jews died from 1941 onwards either during the Kamenets-Podolsk deportation or in the Hungarian labour battalions. Some small numbers died in Hungary itself.
= minimum 450,000
figures refer to wartime Hungary incl. Transylvania, parts of former Slovak territory. Exclude Yugoslav territory annexed to Hungary after 1941 (see above).
N.B. the controversial Fritjof Meyer article in Osteuropa miscounted the number of transports out of Hungary, reducing them from 141 to 60. Usual quasi-denier nonsense.
- differences in older estimates for Czechia, Slovakia, Hungary and Romania perhaps partially to do with border changes over 1938-1941. Collating them together produces a 'Habsburg' figure of 590,000+ and with Romania, at least 800,000. Older estimates were around this total or somewhat higher. But here was clearly a major concentration of victims.
Despite the best efforts of some , there is less and less controversy over the figures for the countries in northern, western, southern, central and south-eastern Europe listed above. Most estimates conform to each other reasonably closely.
There is still room to re-examine the figures and re-calculate the numbers (as I have done with especially Italy and Hungary, both reduced compared to Benz, whereas the sources I found raised it for Yugoslavia). But the Groessenordnung, as they say in German, is now essentially established.
NON-EAST EUROPEAN TOTAL = 1,370,293
(usual contradiction of adding more precise figures to estimates)
This figure of around 1.37 million makes sense, given that Romanian Jews died in situ = 250,000, and many Central European and some Western/Balkan Jews were deported to Poland or the Reichskommissariat Ostland = 100-150,000. I.e., at least 350-400,000 did not die at Auschwitz.
The calculation for Auschwitz death toll hovers around the million to 1.1 million mark, but includes a large number of Polish Jews from Ostoberschlesien and the Bialystok district, several hundred thousand.
Finally, the overall figure of 1.37 million includes at least 150,000 who died in 'ordinary' concentration camps in the last year of the war, mostly Hungarian Jewish women. To this should be added the death toll inside Theresienstadt, transit camps like Drancy or Westerbork, the shooting actions in Yugoslavia and deaths in Jasenovac.
Where difficulties start is in Poland and the Soviet Union. The rest of this is provisional until I can consult my library better.
- uncertain whether the Benz figure refers to prewar Poland or the 1941 borders
This is where more precise regional breakdowns are needed, which means consulting better sources and being as accurate as possible.
'eingegliederte Ostgebiete' (annexed territories)
Ostoberschlesien (Upper East Silesia) - transports to Auschwitz. 100,000 Jewish pop. in 1939. Many survived inside Organisation Schmelt camps/Aussenlager of KZ Gross-Rosen until 1944, only to be decimated in the chaos of the final phase.
Warthegau (Lodz) - Lodz ghetto, Chelmno - min. 150,000 killed in Chelmno from whole area
Danzig-Westpreussen - few Jews present.
Zichenau - transports to Auschwitz.
- deportations to Aktion Reinhard camps (Treblinka, Belzec, Sobibor) and to Lublin-Majdanek complex.
- 'ghetto clearances' conducted with large-scale shootings ('local resettlements')
added after 22.6.41:
Distrikt Galizien - min. 500,000; shootings and deportations to Belzec.
annexed, but added after 22.6.41 to East Prussia
- mostly contemporary Poland, parts modern-day Belarus. Shootings, ghettos, deportations to Auschwitz.
Here I must emphasise that it is not enough to engage in Zahlenspielerei with the camps; the killings 'an Ort und Stelle' inside several hundred Polish towns were every bit as bloody as what ensued in the Soviet Union; one need only remember the infamous Res.Pol.Batl. 101 at Jozefow in 1942.
Benz figure 2,100,000
Altman figure 2,800,000, including Western Belarus and Western Ukraine,
- min. 500,000 from Galicia
- 50 to 100,000 from Bialystok
will re-add figures from previous post after edit.
Benz's authors arrive at a total of 4.8 million Jews killed in Eastern Europe (Poland, Baltic States, Soviet Union)
Hilberg claims 3.7 million
Gutman and Rozett range from 4.1 million to 4.3 million
Reitlinger is the lowest with 3 million to 3.3 million
You want to split the difference? average = 3.9 to 4.025 million.
This average would place the total number of Jewish victims of the Nazi 'Final Solution' at appreciably above 5 million.
Going on the above figure for non-east European Jews and the average:
non-East European Jews 1.37 million
East European Jews 3.9 to 4.025 million
5.27 to 5.395 million
Reitlinger's estimate is definitely too low, Hilberg's is on the low side.
But I think there are ways of firming up this number. I also think that if all the recent research into the Final Solution in Poland and Soviet Union is synthesised, the number will be measurably higher.