Beheadings in the Third Reich

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history1
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Re: Beheadings in the Third Reich

Post by history1 » 26 Oct 2020 14:05

Pete26 wrote:
23 Oct 2020 05:47
[...] From total of 2883 persons executed in Ploetzensee prison between 1933 and 1945, 1574 were WiderstandsKampfer, i.e. resistance fighters.
Now one need to specify who/what is a "resistance fighter"? Random people not belonging to any resistance group got beheaded eg. for listening foreign radio broadcasts what was not allowed under Nazi laws.
I assume/think that they also got counted as resistance fighters for doing something what the Nazis considered a crime. Correct?

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Re: Beheadings in the Third Reich

Post by Pete26 » 26 Oct 2020 21:59

marko10 wrote:
26 Oct 2020 09:01
Were the rituals for the condemned still the same? or death cell next to the execution room? were the condemned led before the bare-chested fallbell? Did the attendants take the condemned man up and spread him out on the guillotine table?
Executioners used assistants as before to lead the condemned to the fallbeil and place him on the bench under the raised blade, once the prosecutor read the verdict for the last time and turned over the condemned to the executioner. I believe the condemned were wearing their prison clothes for these executions which were done on a much smaller scale in the post war period.

I do not know if the condemned were placed in a special death cell just prior to the execution. It probably depended on how many executions were to be done that day and whether such cells were available in the execution location. And because only one or two people were usually executed at a time, such measures were most likely not used.
Last edited by Pete26 on 27 Oct 2020 11:29, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Beheadings in the Third Reich

Post by Pete26 » 26 Oct 2020 22:04

history1 wrote:
26 Oct 2020 14:05
Pete26 wrote:
23 Oct 2020 05:47
[...] From total of 2883 persons executed in Ploetzensee prison between 1933 and 1945, 1574 were WiderstandsKampfer, i.e. resistance fighters.
Now one need to specify who/what is a "resistance fighter"? Random people not belonging to any resistance group got beheaded eg. for listening foreign radio broadcasts what was not allowed under Nazi laws.
I assume/think that they also got counted as resistance fighters for doing something what the Nazis considered a crime. Correct?
I think they considered resistance fighters to be individuals who belonged to a resistance organization involving several people who were active in conducting resistance activities. There were others as you say who were executed for political reasons (e.g. defeatism or expressing doubt in German Army being able to win the war, listening to forbidden radio stations, publicly expressing approval of assassination attempt on Hitler, etc.)

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A list of people guillotined in Frankfurt Preungesheim prison

Post by Pete26 » 27 Oct 2020 02:40

Executed

1904

November 12, 1904: Bruno Groß (* 1876) and Fritz Stafforst (* 1879) were sentenced to death by the Frankfurt jury court on May 15, 1904 for joint robbery and murder of the piano dealer Lichtenstein , and were executed by guillotine on November 12, 1904. [13]

1914

March 23, 1914: Karl Hopf , businessman and fencing teacher (born March 26, 1863 in Frankfurt am Main) sentenced to death by the jury court of Frankfurt on January 17, 1914 for multiple murder and multiple attempted murder and executed by guillotine [14]

1942

February 5, 1942: Louwe Smilde (born August 23, 1942 in Muntendam), Dutch
February 28, 1942: Martin Rost (* 1919)
July 3, 1942: Heinrich Maas (born August 27, 1903), lathe operator, communist, employee of Frankfurter Maschinenbau AG, as head of a group of former social democrats and communists in his company who passed on foreign radio stations and their messages directed against the Nazi regime , arrested for "subversive word of mouth", sentenced to death for preparation for high treason
July 8, 1942: August Halicki (* 1915), Polish forced laborer, sentenced to death by the Darmstadt Special Court for escaping from a prison camp and for two crimes in connection with the risk of flying in connection with serious theft on the basis of the Polish Criminal Law Ordinance
July 28, 1942: Johann Bamberger (* 1919)
August 19, 1942: Karl Göttig (born August 13, 1914 in Klein Werden), communist, arrested after writing on a cardboard sign in the closet of the tax office in Nordshausen: “Long live the Communist Party of Germany. Hitler, the pig, go crazy, because he alone is to blame for the war. This mass murderer ", for this reason (and for listening to foreign radio stations) sentenced to death on May 20, 1942 by the Higher Regional Court in Kassel for preparation for high treason and radio crimes
August 28, 1942: Andreas Hoevel (born February 24, 1900 in Pallien), arrested in Koblenz on November 30, 1941 for anti-Nazi activity (distribution of foreign radio reports), on June 26, 1942 by the Kassel Higher Regional Court for preparation for high treason and radio crimes for Sentenced to death
August 28, 1942: Anneliese Hoevel (born October 3, 1898 in Cologne), arrested on November 30, 1941 in Koblenz, sentenced to death on June 26, 1942 by the Kassel Higher Regional Court for preparation for high treason and broadcast crimes
September 17, 1942: Anton Breitinger (born June 19, 1898), varnisher, communist, arrested for anti-Nazi activity, sentenced to death by the People's Court on June 24, 1942
September 17, 1942: Edmund Germann, communist, arrested in summer 1941 for anti-Nazi activity, sentenced to death by the People's Court on June 24, 1942 for high treason
September 17, 1942: Otto Häuslein (born January 3, 1911), plumber, communist, arrested in the summer of 1941 for anti-Nazi activity, charged with preparing for high treason and degradation of military strength, and sentenced to death by the People's Court on June 26, 1942
September 17, 1942: Wilhelm Hugo (born July 18, 1906), post office worker, communist, arrested in the summer of 1941 for anti-Nazi activities, sentenced to death by the People's Court on June 24, 1942 for high treason
September 17, 1942: Wilhelm Klöppinger (born October 8, 1910 in Pfungstadt), post office worker from Wiesbaden, communist, obliged to work in a Frankfurt post office, arrested in the summer of 1941 for working in the communist underground, by the 2nd Senate of the People's Court on 25. Sentenced to death in June 1942
September 17, 1942: Julius Nees (born September 28, 1898 in Pfaffenwiesbach), communist, arrested in summer 1941 for anti-Nazi activity, sentenced to death by the People's Court on June 24, 1942 for high treason

1943

January 7, 1943: Marceau Jumeau (* 1909), French
January 11, 1943: Mieczyklaw Nowak (* 1919), Pole
February 10, 1943: Josef Klobas (* 1913), Czech citizen
February 10, 1943: Josef Krska (born February 15, 1904 in Brno-Husovice), Czech citizen
February 10, 1943: Frantisek Rysanek (* 1899), Czech citizen
January 11, 1943: Philipp Theodor Auerbach (born March 25, 1904 in Wiesbaden), commercial clerk, communist, denounced for his political views, arrested on August 20, 1942, on November 24, 1942 by the Kassel Higher Regional Court for preparation for high treason to death convicted and executed with the guillotine in Frankfurt-Preungesheim prison (8:10 p.m.)
February 10, 1943: Jan Martinek (* 1901), Czech citizen
January 23, 1943: Albrecht Ege (born January 31, 1878 in Frankfurt am Main), carpenter, sentenced to death
February 10, 1943: Josef Benes (born February 3, 1906 in Olomouc-Hejcin), Czech citizen, sentenced to death
February 10, 1943: Josef Psikal (* 1902), Czech citizen
February 10, 1943: Antonin Strand (* 1907), Czech citizen
February 19, 1943: Otokar Doukounil (born January 21, 1895 in Warsaw), Czech citizen
February 19, 1943: Josef Pomp (born October 25, 1898 in Opava), Czech citizen
February 19, 1943: Milan Matuska (born October 6, 1898 in Blanz), Czech citizen
February 19, 1943: Heinrich Will (born August 27, 1895 in Treis / Lumda), painter, arrested on February 6, 1942 for taking part in discussions critical of the regime and for listening to foreign radio broadcasts, on July 21, 1942 by the People's Court in Darmstadt Preparing for treason and eavesdropping on enemy broadcasters, sentenced to death and executed by guillotine in the Frankfurt-Preungesheim prison.
February 19, 1943: Jaroslaw Golda (* 1893), Czech citizen
March 3, 1943: Vladislaw Podsenik (* 1898), Czech citizen
March 3, 1943: Milos Prosek (born May 8, 1913 in Brno), Czech citizen
March 3, 1943: Karel Svoboda (* 1913), Czech citizen
March 13, 1943: Kasimir Kukula (born September 1, 1906 in Papianice), sentenced to death by the Special Court for the Higher Regional Court District of Kassel on February 10, 1943 for offenses against the Polish Criminal Law Ordinance
March 18, 1943: Jan Bezdek (* 1907), Czech citizen, arrested for resistance against the German occupation in 1940, sentenced to death on October 22, 1942
March 18, 1943: Wenzel Cerny (* 1902), Czech citizen, arrested for resistance against the German occupation in 1940, sentenced to death on October 22, 1942
March 18, 1943: Vratislav Ladislav Elsner (born June 16, 1917), Czech citizen, arrested for resistance against the German occupation in 1940, sentenced to death on October 22, 1942
March 18, 1943: Oldrich Fictum (born July 3, 1907), Czech citizen, arrested for resistance against the German occupation in 1940, sentenced to death on October 22, 1942
March 18, 1943: Zdenek Koznarek (born December 7, 1910), Czech citizen, arrested for resistance against the German occupation in 1940, sentenced to death on October 22, 1942
March 18, 1943: Stanislav Prybil (* 1907), Czech citizen, arrested for working in the resistance against the German occupation in 1940, sentenced to death on October 22, 1942
March 18, 1943: Anton Smutny (* 1898), Czech citizen, sentenced to death
March 18, 1943: Rudolf Vlk (born February 17, 1908)
March 18, 1943: Oldřich Wilka, (born January 22, 1899 in Brno), Czech citizen
April 7, 1943: Friedrich Haring (born July 20, 1917 in Kohlberg near Arnsfeld), son of a German farmer's daughter and a Russian prisoner of war of the First World War, enlisted in the Wehrmacht in 1939, joined the Waffen-SS in 1940, was, after After learning of his transfer to the Eastern Front, deliberately shot in the hand because he did not want to fight his Russian compatriots, arrested and sentenced to death by the court martial in Frankfurt for self-mutilation
May 4, 1943: Jan Chury (* 1910), Czech citizen
May 4, 1943: Eugen Hajek (* 1913), Czech citizen
May 4, 1943: Jan Tomasek (* 1890), Czech citizen
June 4, 1943: Robert Stuhlmann (* 1921)
June 22, 1943: Josef Bohonek (* 1910), Czech citizen
July 26, 1943: Karl Taberski (* 1922)
August 22, 1943: Valentina Archipowa (* 1918)
August 25, 1943: Ernst Emil Offhaus (* August 23, 1891), head of the Frankfurt Food Office, NSDAP member, arrested on July 3, 1943 for listening to foreign radio stations and distributing their "hostile" news as well as for defeatist statements regarding the war situation Sentenced to death by the Kassel Higher Regional Court for undermining military strength and executed with the guillotine in the Frankfurt-Preungesheim prison.

1944

1944: Georg Holz, arrested for listening to foreign radio broadcasts and distributing their reports, sentenced to death by the People's Court for degrading military strength and favoring the enemy
1944: Philipp Mann, arrested for listening to foreign radio broadcasts and distributing their reports, sentenced to death by the People's Court for undermining military strength and favoring the enemy
March 8, 1944: Helmut Böhmer (* 1915), Czech citizen
March 28, 1944: Heinrich Dolde, employee in the dental laboratory of the Schwerzmann company in Frankfurt, arrested on May 31, 1943 after repeatedly expressing himself critical of the regime, refusing the Hitler salute and describing the Wehrmacht reports as a hoax and allegedly doing pro-Soviet propaganda against French prisoners of war was sentenced to death by the Higher Regional Court on February 11, 1944
May 21, 1944: Rudolf Malter (* 1896)
May 23, 1944: Fernand Fandel (born December 4, 1924), Luxembourger
May 23, 1944: Denis Stoffel (born June 14, 1921), Luxembourger
May 23, 1944: Johannes Volz (* 1912), denounced for listening to foreign radio stations, arrested, sentenced to death for undermining military strength
May 23, 1944: Francois Wehr (born March 30, 1923), Luxembourger
May 30, 1944: Pierre Jungblut (* 1923), Luxembourger
June 6, 1944: Heinrich Wilhelm Schäfer (born January 2, 1902), electrician and stoker, arrested on September 30, 1943 for saying that Germany would not win the Second World War, and on April 27, 1944 for high treason and degradation of the military Sentenced to death
August 29, 1944: Paul Kroll (* 1884), communist, because of statements directed against the Nazi regime, which he dropped to two employees in a health resort in Bad Pyrmont in the summer of 1943 (he declared Germany would lose the war, the capitalist , beginning with Hitler and Mussolini, the head was soon cut off and an employee was recommended to write a letter to her father at the front telling him to desert), sentenced to death on July 7, 1944 by the Higher Regional Court for preparation for high treason and degradation of military strength
July 11, 1944: Marcel Bour (* 1923), Luxembourger, sentenced to death
July 11, 1944: Pierre Eischen (born June 18, 1923), Luxembourger
July 11, 1944: Arthur Rauth (* 1920), Luxembourger
July 11, 1944: Jean Schroeder (* 1921), Luxembourger
August 29, 1944: Georges Michel (* 1925), Luxembourger
September 26, 1944: Max Mährlein (* 1896), worker at the marshalling yard in Würzburg, arrested on the basis of statements critical of the war, sentenced to death for degrading military strength
October 27, 1944: Hermann Düllgen (born December 26, 1899 in Düsseldorf), construction worker, communist, former city councilor in Neuss, as a concentration camp prisoner in the Kalkum concentration camp for writing an anti-Nazi leaflet (from Stalingrad to Kiev) before the Darmstadt court accused, sentenced to death for preparing for high treason, degrading military strength and favoring the enemy
October 27, 1944: Georg Fröba (born November 27, 1896 in Bayreuth), tailor, communist, arrested in 1943 for anti-Nazi activities, sentenced to death on September 6, 1944 by the 2nd Senate of the People's Court for preparing high treason and favoring the enemy [15]
October 27, 1944: Karl Kemptner (born August 2, 1898), machinist at the Mannheim power station, social democrat, arrested on March 28, 1944 for speeches critical of the war, sentenced to death by the People's Court in September 1944 for preparation for high treason and degradation of military strength
November 21, 1944: Willi Schütte (* 1895), sentenced to death on December 14, 1942
November 22, 1944: Ernst Schmidtseifer (* 1918), sentenced to death on October 7, 1944
December 12, 1944: Raymond Dombret (* 1889), foreman, Belgian, NSDAP member, local group training leader, entrusted with the task of driving dairy cattle inward in the face of the Allied advance in autumn 1944, on September 25, 1944 while stealing valuables Arrested from the luggage of a refugee family in Aachen, sentenced to death on October 10, 1944 by the Aachen Special Court in Düren for looting and executed in Frankfurt-Preungesheim

1945

January 30, 1945: Marcel van Holder (* 1921), car painter, Belgian (Flame), arrested in Wiesbaden in July 1944 after he had said that he would fight as a partisan against foreign workers in Germany in the event of an American weapon drop, as well as Due to the dissemination of reports from foreign news channels, sentenced to death on December 13, 1944 by the 3rd Senate of the People's Court for undermining military strength
March 6, 1945: Jakob Nester (* 1905), communist, arrested in July 1944 for listening to foreign radio stations and distributing their reports, sentenced to death on December 13, 1944 for high treason, undermining military strength and radio crimes

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strafgef% ... eungesheim

Note: The day of birth of Louwe Smilde, the first person on the 1942 list, is obviously wrong. He was born on 23 August 1923.

https://www.genealogiekruizinga.nl/louwe-smilde/

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Moabit prison guillotine execution

Post by Pete26 » 09 Nov 2020 04:30

https://www.welt.de/geschichte/article1 ... oabit.html

An interesting article about Berlin Moabit prison executions between 1945 and 1949. They mentioned that the last execution, that of Berthold Wehmeyer on 11 May 1949 was botched and that a second attempt to drop the blade was required. This is another incident which shows that post war fallbeil executions did not always go smoothly. This is why Berlin post war executioner Gustav Volpel preferred to behead with a hand axe, which he called "safer". The Moabit fallbeil execution room was set up in the lunatic ward of the prison.
Allegedly, the guillotine did not immediately separate the delinquent's head from the body. An alleged witness whispered that a second attempt was needed - the cutting edge has probably become a bit blunt. There is nothing about this in the official report of the execution.
https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berthold_Wehmeyer

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Life and Death of Marianne Golz

Post by Pete26 » 11 Nov 2020 02:27

http://www.rgolz.de/BUCH_auf_DEUTSCH.pdf

Story of Marianne Golz, guillotined by executioner Alois Weiss in Pankrac prison on 8 October 1943.


https://translate.google.com/translate? ... ch&pto=aue
She was executed on October 8, 1943 at 4:44 p.m. by the executioner Alois Weiss using a guillotine in the Prague Gestapo prison in Pankrác.
The following can be read in the prison book under entry 219:
Goltzova Marianne geb. 30.01.1895 Vienna 8 Kls 90/43 25.5.43 8.10.43 04.44 p.m.
At 04.44 p.m. the executioner Alois Weiss brought the legal case file number 8 Kls 90/43 to the special court at the German regional court in Prague.
Prague III, October 8th, 1943
To the attorney general at the German Higher Regional Court in Prague
Subject: Criminal case against Zapotecky and others
The judgment against Marianne Golz-Goldlust was carried out on October 8, 1943 at 4:44 p.m.
It passed:
1.) From the presentation of the condemned to the handover to the executioner 3 seconds.
2.) 6 seconds from handover to execution.
This happened without incident.
signed iV Rehder-Knöspel, First Public Prosecutor.

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Re: Beheadings in the Third Reich

Post by David Thompson » 12 Nov 2020 00:40

An off-topic post from Hans1906 about his personal experiences was removed pursuant to forum rules.

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Re: Beheadings in the Third Reich

Post by tomh » 13 Nov 2020 19:02

A very interesting drawing of Carl Gröpler and the execution of two women in Plötzensee, from Der Morgen,Wiener Montagblatt, 25 February 1935.
Apparently the executed women are Benita von Falkenhayn and Renate von Natzmer.
annoshow.jpg
http://anno.onb.ac.at/cgi-content/anno? ... 25&zoom=33
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Pete26
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Carl Groppler drawing

Post by Pete26 » 15 Nov 2020 04:21

Thanks for posting this. This is the best drawing I have seen to date of this executioner. Groppler is taking off his bloody white gloves and one of them is already on the ground. The case being carried by one of his assistants obviously contains the execution axe. In the background you can see the body of one of the executed women being placed in a coffin.

It is important to note that Carl Groppler was already 67 years old when he performed this execution. In 1937 he was forced into retirement due to his age. He was replaced by his assistant Ernst Reindel.

Groppler was arrested by Russian military forces in 1945 and died in prison in 1946. Ernst Reindel too was arrested in 1945 by Russians, was tried for war crimes, sentenced to death and most likely shot sometime in 1945 or early in 1946.

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Gröpler retired in 1934?

Post by tomh » 16 Nov 2020 01:08

According to several Austrian newspaper sources from January 1934, executioner Gröpler had a mental breakdown after beheading 3 young workers, after which he quit his job as executioner, and this is one reason why van der Lubbe was not executed by Gröpler, but by Engelhardt from Leipzig. After Gröplers mental breakdown he was, according to one newspaper article, replaced by a butcher's assistant, named Bollmann.
http://anno.onb.ac.at/cgi-content/anno? ... nno-search
http://anno.onb.ac.at/cgi-content/anno? ... nno-search
http://anno.onb.ac.at/cgi-content/anno? ... nno-search
http://anno.onb.ac.at/cgi-content/anno? ... nno-search
http://anno.onb.ac.at/cgi-content/anno? ... nno-search
http://anno.onb.ac.at/cgi-content/anno? ... nno-search

What do we know about this Bollmann? Apparently Gröpler was hired again and worked as executioner until 1937, or was he, actually?

history1
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Re: Gröpler retired in 1934?

Post by history1 » 16 Nov 2020 08:47

tomh wrote:
16 Nov 2020 01:08
[...] according to one newspaper article, replaced by a butcher's assistant, named Bollmann.
http://anno.onb.ac.at/cgi-content/anno? ... nno-search
[...]
What do we know about this Bollmann? Apparently Gröpler was hired again and worked as executioner until 1937, or was he, actually?
That´s possibly wrong. From your first link we learn that Gröppler (spelling?) was the owner of a laundry and in side job executioner. And we learn that Bollmann jun. was a horse butcher from Magdeburg and replaced him.

history1
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Re: Beheadings in the Third Reich

Post by history1 » 16 Nov 2020 09:25

Interesting that the 2nd link, an article posted 11 days later in a different newspaper, states that Gröppler had a breakdown only after 59 executions and thus was forced to hand over the 49 upcoming executions to his fellow and successor Engelhardt.

In the article in link #3, published already on Jan. 18th 1934,it´s again Engelhardt who replaced "Gröpler" but the executions "only" 51. No other differents to #2.

Link #4 provides the same informations as link#3, posted at the same time by a Carinthian newspaper.

The article in #5 tells (from Jan.13th 1934) us about the execution of the three young men which allegedly caused the resignation of Gröpler/Gröppler. They behaved such desperate and screamed so pitiful for help that all prisoners whose cells where located next to the yard and execution place became hysterical crying and screaming.
It also explains that G.´s successor became a butcher´s aid with the name Bollmann who worked since years in a horse butchery.

And finaly #6 which explains that G. suffered a mental breakdown and that this is the reason why van der Lubbe was executed by Engelhardt. And that the case of the mental breakdown was the execution of the three young men.

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Re: Beheadings in the Third Reich

Post by Pete26 » 16 Nov 2020 19:06

Whatever the case may be here, Carl Gröpler got over his mental breakdown and resumed his executioner's duties after 1934. That he beheaded Benita von Falkenhayn and Renate von Natzmer in February 1935 is well documented. Also, on 6 June 1935 he beheaded Fritz "Fiete" Schulze in Hamburg Holstenglacis prison. Here is the execution report which I posted some time ago and which clearly states that Gröpler was the executioner:

viewtopic.php?f=6&t=35191&p=2089156&hil ... r#p2089156

Carl Gröpler also beheaded Etkar Andre on 4 November 1936:
It is November 4, 1936, shortly before six in the morning. The 42-year-old Etkar André, sentenced to death, is taken to the prison yard in handcuffs. There is a scaffold there, on which is the Magdeburg executioner Carl Gröpler. André walks the twelve meters to the execution block alone, humming to himself. Guards tie his ankles and strap him upright to a board. The board is brought into a horizontal position. Andrés head peeks out over one end of the board. A basket filled with sawdust stands under his head. Suddenly Andrés voice echoes across the courtyard: “Long live communism! Down with the mass murderer Adolf Hitler! 'Then there was silence.
http://ciml.250x.com/archive/communists ... glish.html

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Re: Beheadings in the Third Reich

Post by tomh » 17 Nov 2020 05:12

Thanks Pete26, that is obviously correct.
History1, Gröppler's name was spelled "Gröpler" or "Gröppler", I don't know which version would be more correct.

In the 3rd season of the German TV-series "Babylon Berlin" there are two execution scenes, in which a female prisoner is beheaded with an axe in a prison courtyard. The events in the TV-series take place in 1929 in Berlin. I think these execution scenes are much more accurate and realistic than in most other movies or TV-series.
babylon.jpg
babylon2.jpg
babylon3.jpg
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Re: Beheadings in the Third Reich

Post by Pete26 » 18 Nov 2020 05:23

This is definitely the most realistic depiction of an axe execution I have seen so far. The only comment I have is that German executioners typically wore white gloves, while this one is wearing black gloves.

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