Einsatzgruppen Operational Situation Reports USSR

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Einsatzgruppen Operational Situation Reports USSR

Postby David Thompson » 19 May 2004 02:16

In 1941-1942, clerks of the Reich Security Main Office (Reichssicherheitshauptamt - RSHA) compiled summaries of the reports they had received from the Action Groups (Einsatzgruppen) of the German Security Police and Security Service (Sicherheitspolizei und Sicherheitsdienst - Sipo u. SD) for very limited circulation. In 1945 a collection of most of these summaries, individually captioned "Operational Situation Reports USSR" and later "Reports from the Occupied Eastern Territories," was captured by American troops and subsequently used as evidence in the "Einsatzgruppe trial" conducted by a US military tribunal at Nuernberg.

In 1998 and 1999, Ken Lewis scanned a number of these Einsatzgruppen reports and other material, and posted them on the Electric Zen website. They have been an invaluable aid to researchers in the field, and may still be seen at the Einsatzgruppen website at:

http://www.einsatzgruppenarchives.com/index.htm and specifically at:

http://www.einsatzgruppenarchives.com/einsatz.html

Recently I noticed that this collection does not contain a number of the individual reports which were part of the original collection. In an effort to make these available, I have scanned some of the missing reports from ed. Arad, Yitzhak, Shmuel Krakowski and Shmuel Spektor's The Einsatzgruppen Reports: Selections from the Dispatches of the Nazi Death Squad's Campaign Against the Jews July 1941-January 1943, Holocaust Library (Yad Vashem Martyr's Remembrance Authority), New York: 1989, and will post them here. Here are 13 of the missing reports to make a start:

Additional information on the officers of these units and the structure of the Einsatzgruppen, compiled by Peter Hertel and moderator Michael Miller, is available on Michael Miller's Axis Biographical Research website at:

http://www.geocities.com/~orion47/SS-PO ... uppen.html

The Chief of the Security Police and the SD
Berlin, July 3, 1941
25 copies
(25th copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 11

Einsatzgruppe A.
Location July 2, 1941: Under way from Siauliai to Riga (Communication by radiogram)
Einsatzkommando la
Location July 3, 1941: Under way from Mitau to Riga (Communication by radiogram)
Einsatzkommando 1 b: Location Kaunas
Einsatzkommando 2: Location July 3, 1941: Siauliai, NKVD Building.
Siauliai: 35,000 inhabitants (12-15,000 Jews). About 2,000 Jews are still left. The others have fled. The prison is empty. In order to keep the war plants and the plants vital for the population operational, the Wehrmacht is, for the time being, not in a position to dispose of the Jewish manpower still available and fit for work.
Einsatzkommando 3
Location July 3: Kaunas (Communication by radiogram)

Einsatzgruppe B
Location July 2, 1941: Lvov (Communication by radiogram)
Einsatzkommando 4a
Location: Lvov
Einsatzkommando 4b:
Location: Lvov
Einsatzkommando 5:
Location: Lvov

According to reliable information, the Russians, before withdrawing, shot 30,000 inhabitants. The corpses piled up and burned at the GPU prisons are dreadfully mutilated. The population is greatly excited: 1,000 Jews have already been forcefully gathered together.

Einsatzkommando 6 reports on July 2, 1941 that 133 Jews were shot.

Einsatzgruppe C:
Location: July 3: Volkovisk.
The group commander reports the result of the conference with Army Group Central Sector about the recognition of the Lithuanian Committee by the field commander. There is unanimity on this. Army Group Central Sector immediately issued a corresponding order.
Einsatzkommando 7a:
Location: Vilnius
Officials of the Komsomol and Jewish officials of the Communist Party were liquidated. The Einsatzkommando is trying to push forward to Minsk as fast as possible.
Einsatzkommando 7b:
Location on July 2, 1941: Under way to Slutsk.
Einsatzkommando 8:
Location July 3, 1941: Volkovisk.
Kommandos in Slonim and Baranovichi.
Einsatzkommando 9:
Location: Vilnius
Vorauskommando under way to Lida.


Chief of the Security Police and the SD
Berlin, July 12, 1941
12 copies
(11th copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 20

Einsatzgruppe B:
Location: Minsk

The industrialized areas are only slightly damaged. The town is without light and water. Political and government officials have fled. The population is very depressed. Many people have lost their shelter and the food situation is worsening. To protect the communication lines and prevent acts of sabotage, the Field Commander ordered the arrest of all male inhabitants between the ages of 18-45. The civil prisoners are being screened at this time. The attitude of the population toward the Germans is one of wait-and-see. The Byelorussians show a friendlier attitude towards the Germans. However, the entire population hopes that the occupation will enable them to live a normal life in the near future.

According to the last report of Einsatzgruppe B, wooden houses in the western part of Minsk were set afire. Apparently the houses were set on fire by Jews because the Jews were supposed to evacuate their homes for returning Byelorussian refugees. At present the population is in a mood to launch a pogrom. Their fury caused certain anti-Jewish actions. A number of Jews were liquidated for this act.

Einsatzgruppe C:
Location: Rovno
1. Actions
On July 5, 1941, 15 Jews were executed as reprisal for the bestial murder of the Ukrainian nationalist leader Dr. Kirnychny in Rudki. The Ukrainian population on their part set the synagogue and Jewish houses on fire. 150 Ukrainians were found murdered in Stryj. In the course of a search, it was possible to arrest 12 Communists who were responsible for the murder of the Ukrainians. It concerns 11 Jews and 1 Ukrainian who were shot with the participation of the entire population of Stryj.


The Chief of the Security Police and the SD
Berlin, July 14, 1941
30 copies (22nd copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 22

Einsatzkommando 1b:
Location: Chernovtsy, Vorkommando at Khotin. The following was ascertained at Chernowitz:
1. The Rumanians declare North Bukovina to be Rumanian territory.
2. A great number of Jews of the poorer class are in Rumanian prisons. Nearly no intelligentsia.
3. The Rumanians are inclined to exterminate the upper echelon of Ukrainian leadership in order to settle the Ukrainian problem in the North Bukovina once and for all, taking advantage of the present situation. 22 Ukrainians are under Rumanian arrest in Chernowitz. lb has been given the following orders in this respect:
a. To influence the Rumanian authorities to take severe measures concerning the Jewish question. They must raid Jewish meetings and uncover conspiracies in order to stimulate Rumanian activities against the Jewish intelligentsia and to enable us to take a hand ourselves.
b. To hold or to turn over to us important Ukrainians; similarly, Ukrainian Communists will be put at the disposal of the Rumanians.

10b finished its tasks at Khotin. Intelligentsia from the Soviet party and public life, Jewish agitators, teachers, lawyers, and rabbis were apprehended with the help of Ukrainian informants in the course of several raids. Jewish physicians were not arrested in order to administer to the medical needs of the population.


The Chief of the Security Police and the SD
Berlin, July 15, 1941
32 copies
(21st copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 23

Einsatzgruppe C:
Former Polish officers and Jews play an important part in the Honved Army. The translators are almost without exception either Jews or scoundrels. Names of individual Polish officers have been established. All the leading military Hungarian circles sympathize with the Poles, most of them also with the Jews. Poles were preferred in Zaleshchiki and Stanislovov. The Hungarian Feldgendarmerie is apparently favoring the setting up of Polish units.

In the area of Zaleshchiki, the Poles cooperate with Soviet Russian gangs who are still hiding in the forests. Hungarian circles deny knowing of Polish activities in connection with Bolsheviks. All the intelligence officers are either Jews or under Jewish influence. I personally had dealings with 6 officers in the area who were undoubtedly Jews. A Polish officer, Dabrowski, holds a leading position.

Isolated actions against Jews were carried out by the militia (Ukrainian). As a consequence, the Hungarian Army intervened immediately. In Stanislovov one could see leading officers together with many Jews in the restaurant "Kiev."


The Chief of the Security Police and the SD
Berlin, July 17, 1941
34 copies (23rd copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 25

Einsatzgruppe D
Location: Piatra-Neamt.
EK 10:
Location: Belzy.

We must be aware that a Rumanian major from Jassy delegated by the Rumanians will arrive. For the time being, administrative business is carried out by a suitable personality who has connections with the EK and was delegated by the local Kommandatur. Before the arrival of the local Kommandatur, the commander initiated some preparatory measures for the reopening of the supply factories. These measures are being continued by the local Kommandatur.

During the past days and nights, considerable excesses were carried out repeatedly against Jews by Rumanian soldiers. The number of Jews killed cannot be established, but might, however, reach several hundred. On the evening of July 10, Rumanian military authorities rounded up some 400 Jews of all ages, including men and women, in order to shoot them in retaliation for attacks on Rumanian military personnel. Fault was found, however, in the lengthy technical planning. Following the wish of the commander of the 170th Division, the Rumanian commanding general restricted himself in the last moment to the shooting of 15 male Jews.
Rumanian police gather up the Jews who are capable of working, and keep them under arrest. These Jews are also used for clearing and cleaning jobs [removing rubble, etc.].

Before yesterday in accordance with the wish of the commander of the 170th Division, about 70 hostages were arrested. This number is to be increased to 200, in order to protect the army against repeated insidious attacks that have occurred. A few hostages were shot as retribution for the attack on a German army car in a suburb of Belzy. All the leading state and party officials have fled.

Interrogation of various Ukrainians in the P.O. W. collection centers has demonstrated that they all had joined the war without the slightest enthusiasm and that they awaited the Germans as their liberators. They had been told by the Russian soldiers that the Germans would shoot them in case they were captured, but as they knew how their fathers had been treated as German P.O. W. s in World War I, they realized that these were only lies of the Red Rulers. Other sources also confirm that many Ukrainians kept away from actively resisting the German advance.



Chief of the Security Police and the SD
Berlin July 19, 1941
36 copies
(23rd copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 27

Einsatzgruppe B:
Location: Minsk

A meeting of the commander of the Rear Army Area 102 with the higher SS and Police Leader has resulted in complete agreement concerning our further activities.

The rear security divisions attach great importance to cooperation with the security police.

Liquidation continues daily. If they are not caught red-handed [in some dereliction], persons are liquidated according to lists. It has been repeatedly observed that Jews escape into the forests now and try to hide there. The employed White Russians have shown little activity so
far. It has been explained already to Dr. Tschora what is expected from their support, particularly concerning the cooperation in the apprehension of Communists, officials, commissars, intellectuals, Jews, etc.

EK 8:
Location: Baranovichi
With the Vorkommando to Slutsk and Lachoviche. Special action [Sonderaktion] was carried out against 60 Communists.

Einsatzgruppe C:
Location: Zhitomir
Zhitomir had a population of 90,000, of which about 30% were Jews, 15% Poles, the rest Ukrainians, and about 4,000 Volksdeutsche. Now there are approximately 40,000.
Zhitomir is heavily damaged by arson committed by the Russians. The population greets the Germans as they march in.
Einsatzgruppe D:
Location: Piatra-Neamt


The Chief of the Security Police and the SD
Berlin July 20, 1941
36 copies
(27th copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 28

Einsatzgruppe A:
Location: Pleskau [Pskov]

Einsatzgruppe A has transmitted secret instructions (a copy of which is enclosed) concerning the deportation of anti-Soviet elements from Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.

I. Following consultations with Army Group South, the agreement stands that all the Einsatzkommandos as well as the Group staff stay close to the fighting troops whenever possible. This guarantees that the advance Kommandos as well as the main Kommandos will march into Kiev as soon as possible after its capture, which is expected shortly.

II. According to the report of an eyewitness from Tarnopol, an officer of the German Air Force was led through the city by the Russian police, followed by a large crowd of Jews, and was insulted and ill treated. The population is in general convinced that it is mostly the Jews who should be held responsible for the atrocities that are committed everywhere.

IV. So far, a total of 240 executions have been carried out in Rovno: mostly Jewish Bolshevik agents and informers of the NKVD. The advanced Kommando Lublin for special tasks arrived here yesterday and together with the militia will now proceed to undertake the further purging of the town and its environs.

As it was learned that the Russians before they left have either deported the Ukrainian intelligentsia, or executed them, that is, murdered them, it is assumed that in the last days before the retreat of the Russians, about 100 influential Ukrainians were murdered. So far the bodies have not been found — a search has been initiated.

About 100-150 Ukrainians were murdered by the Russians in Kremenets. Some of these Ukrainians are said to have been thrown into cauldrons of boiling water. This has been deduced from the fact that the bodies were found without skin when they were exhumed. In retaliation, the Ukrainians killed 130 Jews with sticks.

In Dubno, where the activities have essentially come to an end, a total of 100 executions were carried out. Among them was a Ukrainian who since 1940 has worked without interruption for the NKVD. He confessed he was responsible for the murder or deportation of Ukrainians into Central Russia; in addition, two Communist officials and confidants of the NKVD who instigated sniper-warfare; one Communist who had revealed every activity of the Ukrainian nationalists to the Russians and had initiated the evacuation or deportation of many local families. Finally, there were also two Russians who were found in possession of shoulder-straps, leather-wear and army under-wear of German soldiers. Before leaving Dubno, the Russians, as they had done in Lvov, committed extensive mass-murder.

Altogether 127 executions were carried out in Tarnopol. Before their flight, as in Lvov and Dubno, the Russians went on a rampage there. Disinterments revealed 10 bodies of German soldiers. Almost all of them had their hands tied behind their backs with wire. The bodies revealed traces of extremely cruel mutilations such as gouged eyes, severed tongues and limbs.

The number of Ukrainians who were murdered by the Russians, among them women and children, is set finally at 600. Jews and Poles were spared by the Russians. The Ukrainians estimate the total number of victims since the occupation of the Ukraine by the Russians at about 2,000. The planned deportation of the Ukrainians al-ready started in 1939. There is hardly a family in Tarnopol from which one or several members have not disappeared. In the town, containing about 40,000 inhabitants, among them 12,000 Ukrainians, 18,000 Jews, and 10,000 Poles, there are fewer than 10,000 Ukrainians left. The entire Ukrainian intelligentsia is destroyed. Since the beginning of the war, 160 members of the Ukrainian intelligentsia were either murdered or deported.

Inhabitants of the town had observed a column of about 1,000 civilians driven out of town by police and army early in the morning of July 1, 1941.

As in Lvov, torture chambers were discovered in the cellars of the Court of Justice. Apparently, hot and cold showers were also used here (as in Lemberg) for torture, as several bodies were found, totally naked, their skin burst and torn in many places. A grate was found in another room, made of wire and set above the ground about 1m in height, traces of ashes were found underneath. A Ukrainian engineer, who was also to be murdered but saved his life by smearing the blood of a dead victim over his face, reports that one could also hear screams of pain from women and girls.

The troops passing by who saw these horrors, in particular the bodies of the murdered German soldiers, killed approximately 600 Jews and burned down their houses.


The Chief of the Security Police and of the SD
Berlin July 22, 1941
36 copies
(27th copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 30

Einsatzgruppe C:
Location: Zhitomir, reports:

187 Soviet Russians and Jews turned over by the army, some as civilian prisoners, were shot in Zhitomir.

One car of Einsatzgruppe 4a was shot at from a house in Zhitomir. The young culprit, aged 12, was arrested. Inquiries are not yet completed. Retaliation measures initiated.

Since Communists and Jews are said to hide in the area of Zhitomir, systematic search activity has started in cooperation with the army... Despite the independence propaganda of the Bandera group, the mood of the Ukrainians, particularly in the provincial towns, continues to be good. They are only worried about the advance of the Hungarian troops into Ukrainian territory.

Polish officers are serving with the Hungarians and are hostile to-ward the Ukrainian militia. They prefer German occupation to Ukrainian rule. Rumor propaganda from the resistance movements is being notices.


Chief of the Security Police and the SD
Berlin, July 23, 1941
40 copies
(30th copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 31

Einsatzgruppe B:
Location: Borisov
5. Einsatzkommando 9
Location: Vileyka

Mood and Situation in the Occupied Territories

Up to now, Jewry has shown restraint. The harsh measures against the Jews and, in particular, the executions, have increased the anti-German attitude considerably. They are also attempting to become aggressive.

Reports that Jewish circles spread horror propaganda and other incitements against the Germans among the population be-come more and more frequent. They try to intimidate and threaten the White Russians who remain undecided whether to carry out pogroms.
The Jews have organized a signal service and, as soon as a SiPo kommando appears, escape into the surrounding forests and swamps. At least 1½ million Jews live in the Byelorussian area; their sociological structure differs from that of the former Polish and Soviet regions. While the Jew did not have any official function and did not enjoy any special protection as a Jew in what was formerly Poland, in the Soviet Union, he regarded himself, without any question, as a member of the ruling strata.

The Polish Jew always had to be aware of anti-Jewish demonstrations from the population, and where he was not in the majority, he considered it better to appear reserved and timid. The Soviet Jews, on the other hand, were strengthened in their self-confidence to a great degree during the quarter century of Jewish-Bolshevik rule. They appeared to be not only self-assured but even arrogant in many cases when the German troups entered. The liquidations of Jews carried out by the Einsatzgruppe brought about a rapid external change. Nevertheless, the Jew remains dangerous and hostile in this area. Because of his education and tradition, he is ideally suited and also willing in most cases to inflict significant damage.

A solution of the Jewish question during the war seems impossible in this area because of the tremendous number of Jews. It could only be achieved through deportations. However, to work out a flexible basis for the immediate future, the Einsatzgruppe B has, wherever it arrived, enforced the following measures:

Appointed a chairman of the Judenrat [Jewish Council]; in every town he was charged with setting up a Judenrat consisting of 3-10 per-sons. The Judenrat bears the collective responsibility for the behavior of the Jewish population. Besides, the Judenrat has to start immediately with the registration of Jews living in the area. In addition, the Judenrat must organize work groups consisting of all male Jews aged 15-55, to carry out cleaning and other work for German [civilian] offices and the Army. Also a few female work groups are to be set up from the same age-group.

The German soldiers are not always able to distinguish between the Jewish and the local non-Jewish residents, resulting in some unpleasant situations. Thus, it was ordered that all male and female Jews over the age of 10 are to wear, as of now, the yellow Jewish patch on the breast and the back.

The Judenrat is subordinated to the temporary town-commissar. The position of town-commissar has been given to reliable Byelorussians who were suggested and chosen by the Einsatzkommandos.

Because of their great numbers, the housing of the Jews in the ghetto itself presents a particularly difficult task. The fulfillment of this task is already in progress. Suitable town-districts have been chosen, in collaboration with the military and civilian headquarters.

Economic life has come to a standstill for the time being because of destruction and looting. Some factories in Minsk and Borisov have renewed their work. Kolkhoz workshops have been destroyed by looting and requisitions. This has influenced the supply situation. Presently, money has almost no value and bread is issued in lieu of payment.
Continued tension persists between Lithuanians and Poles in the Vilna district, but no open clashes occur, due to the German Army's presence.

Many rumors are circulating concerning imminent Polish action. Four additional Lithuanian-organized groups were uncovered which have, so far, not been active, according to our information. The control of the sermons in Vilnius has resulted in a generally positive political attitude.

A Jewish-Polish secret organization exists in Vilnius and its environs. It has set itself the task of reestablishing by force Polish sovereignty. The organization which is said to be very large in number is divided into sections in the town and country of the Vilnius district. They are said to have machine guns, rifles, pistols and hand grenades. The organization is also said to possess a secret transmitter. An agent was planted in the organization. We expect to uncover it within 2-3 days.

There exists complete agreement with the commander of the Rear Army Area concerning the treatment of partisans and soldiers in civilian clothes. Large actions are initiated with participation of the security police. Proceedings are carried out with utter ruthlessness.

The number of liquidations reported on July 14, 1941 is 4,243 and by July 19 has increased by an additional 3,386.

As of now, there is an order to dissolve the Communist party and Communist organizations. Confiscations of valuables, reports, and files, etc., are assured. The Einsatzgruppe is constantly kept in-formed as to all confiscations and other activities that occur by the local Kommandatur, etc.


The Chief of the Security Police and the SD
Berlin, July 24, 1941
41 copies
(41st copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 32

Einsatzgruppe B:
Location: Orscha
Reports:
1. Police activity

In addition to reports from Brest-Litovsk, Minsk, Bialystok, Baranovichi, and Slonim, we have received reports on activity of EKs from: Novogrudok, Brazianka, Lizejka, Vsielub, Niekhnierviche, Koreliche, Stankiewiche, Zdzenciol, Lida and Lakhoviche. We have succeeded in arresting 67 NKVD agents and officials; among these were three Red Commissars from these small localities; they have been liquidated.

Cooperation between the EK 8, based in Baranovichi, and the appropriate Army units is particularly successful. Together with the local military and civilian headquarters the formation of Jewish Councils, registration and concentration of Jews were brought about, as well as a renewed registration of all civilians. With the help of the GFP, the Abwehr units, and the Field Gendarmerie, actions were carried out continuously against Bolshevik agents, political commissars, NKVD members, etc. Another 301 per-sons were thus liquidated in Baranovichi. This accounts for Jewish activists, officials and looters. Approximately 25,000 rubles in cash were confiscated.

The Teilkommando which was dispatched to Slonim has carried out with the police major action [Grossaktion] against Jews and other Communist elements. During this action about 2,000 persons were arrested because of Communist activity and looting. Of these, on the same day 1,075 persons were liquidated. The Kommando alone liquidated another 84 persons in Slonim.

In addition, during the Lakhovich liquidation-action, 323 Russian infantry rifles, machine guns, and automatic pistols were confiscated and handed over to the Ortskommandatur [municipal occupation headquarters]. The police, supported by the local Einsatztruppe, have liquidated 4,435 persons, among them 400 Russians and Byelorussians. Quite a number of NKVD buildings were searched for political material. Several card indexes, lists, etc. were found.

In Minsk the entire Jewish intelligentsia has been liquidated (teachers, professors, lawyers, etc., except medical personnel). A Jewish Ordnungspolizei [Ghetto police unit] has been established. It is to maintain order in the new Jewish quarter. The Jewish police is at the disposal of the Jewish Council. It has to help carry out the orders issued by the German authorities and the municipality of Minsk. A Jewish health service, which is subordinated to the city health department, has been set up in order to prevent epidemics in the Jewish quarter.

At present the population of Bialystok cooperates actively in the elimination of the Bolshevik system. They report regularly on partisan groups in the surrounding area of Bialystok; thus, together with the army, action against them can be taken. As requested by the 162nd Infantry Division, the security police carried out an action against former Communist officials who now live in a small locality near Bialystok. 17 Communist officials were liquidated. In Bialystok proper, another 59 NKVD informants were liquidated.


The Chief of the Security Police and the SD
Berlin, July 27, 1941
41 copies
(17th copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 33

The Jewish Question in the Byelorussian Territories

More than half of world Jewry lives on a relatively narrow strip of east-central Europe along the Riga-Bucharest line, the so-called Jewish segment of Europe. Here, one can find the human reservoir of western Jewry which cannot renew itself on its own, depending on a steady transfusion from the east. It is simply impossible to trace the family lines of any leading personality of world Jewry without going back to the ghetto of some town in east-central Europe.

The Jews came to these regions following the migrational routes taken by people on the way from the south to the south-east. A small part also came from Germany. They stopped there as a result of tsarist Russia's laws closing areas further east to Jews until World War I. The zone that was open to the Jews in tsarist Russia included the districts' of Kaunas, Grodno, Vilnius, Volhynia, Podolia, Minsk, Vitebsk, Mogilev, Kiev (without the city of Kiev), Chernigov, Poltava, Jekaterinoslav, Tauria (without the cities Nikolayev, Sevastopol and the tsarist summer residence in Yalta), Bessarabia and the 10 districts of the Russian part of Poland. The Jews that were already settled in Kurland and Livonia were given permission to stay there.

Despite this the Jews frequently broke through into the forbidden zone which was not difficult because of the corruption of the Russian police. There were also some legal opportunities since academicians and businessmen of the first and second guilds were also permitted to live officially outside the Jewish zone. Of course, all these exceptions only concerned relatively small numbers.

1. Gubernia (Russian for 'province').

The 1917 February revolution lifted the Jewish settlement ban. The central part of Russia was also opened up by law to the Jews. Particularly under Bolshevik rule (which began half a year later) they rushed in ever increasing numbers to the Russian east, especially to the big cities. This development was of too short a duration to cause a noticeable de-Judaization2' of the east-central European region until now. Only the very large natural population surplus of Eastern Jewry was diminished.

The Byelorussian area of settlements also belongs to the area of maximal Jewish-density. According to the 1926 Soviet census, at that time there were more than 400,000 Jews in the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR). In the western regions, formerly part of Poland and inhabited mainly by Byelorussians, the districts3 of Bialystok, Novogrudok, Polesie and Vilnius had a Jewish population of more than 500,000 according to the last Polish census of 1931. Only a fraction of the Jews living here are included in this number since only those who admitted being Jews were registered as such in this census. The Polish census, for instance, reveals that in most of the Polish census regions, the number of those who admit to belonging to the Mosaic faith is higher than the number of persons who admit that they are Jews. Converted Jews and children of mixed marriages4 are of course not registered as Jews. Conditions are similar in the Soviet Union. There, religion was not included in the census; however, in the same region, in many cases, more people declared Yiddish as their mother tongue than were registered as Jews. The estimate of 1½ million Jews in the Byelorussian territories is rather too small than too high.

These Jews lived formerly scattered all over the country with special preference for small towns, some of which are even today almost totally Jewish as their population consists of up to 80% or 90% Jews. Around the turn of the century, particularly after World War I, a tendency to move to the big cities set in, with a preference for living in the larger towns such as Grodno, Bialystok, Brest, Baranovichi, Pinsk, Mosyr, Gomel, Bobruisk, Mogilev and particularly in Minsk, where there were 100-120,000 Jews in a population of 238,000.

The sociological structure of the Jews in the west is not the same as in the east. In both regions one thing is similar. While a small portion of the Jews can be counted as belonging to the upper strata, it is extraordinarily high in relation to that of the host nation. Most of the Jews live in great poverty and exist from small workshops, home artisanship and, most of all, from small trade and small commission jobs. On the other hand, there are only a few workers and even fewer peasants among the poor Jews.

In the former Polish areas, as well as in the former Soviet part of Byelorussia, almost all the key positions in spiritual and cultural life are occupied by the Jews. Universities, schools, newspapers and theaters were under Jewish influence. Jews formed an overwhelming majority among physicians and lawyers. The Jewish political influence in the former Polish areas, however, was felt mainly through their very strong economic position. Direct influence on politics in former Poland was exerted mainly by camouflaged descendants of Jews. They are in very great numbers among the Polish intelligentsia, with very many descendants of mixed marriages. Polish and Jewish estimates calculate the number around 2 million.

The use of power by the Jews to influence politics played a smaller role in the Soviet Union, though they quickly learned to take over the leading and economically most profitable posts in the nationalized economy. Their main ambition, however, was to occupy the decisive posts in the government itself and in the Communist party, especially in the real power centers, the Central Committee of the KP (B) SU. How fast and with how much success they managed to do so is proven by the fact that in Lenin's time, the Jews, though constituting 1.77% of the entire population, were represented in the Communist party with 5.2%, in the party's Central Committee with 25.7% and in the Politburo with 36.8%. At the end of the Lenin period their participation in the Politburo was up to 42.9%. In the area of high Jewish density, as in Byelorussia, this participation was accordingly higher.

These statements do not reflect the actual conditions accurately. There were and are strong anti-Semitic tendencies inherent in the Russian people, even if they are latent at present. Although the death penalty for anti-Semitism existed in the Soviet Union, the Jews deemed it prudent to camouflage themselves as much as possible. The most frequent means for this was a change of name which is very easy to effect in the Soviet Union, where a notification at the appropriate office is sufficient. In former years such a change was announced in a government publication so that the number can be estimated with some precision. These publications have stopped lately, but it is certain that the changes of names have rather increased than decreased as the Jews have gone far in their camouflage. After the political crises in 1936 and 1937, they gave up in many cases obvious posts, concentrating instead on those posts that are less obvious and representative in public life, but having politically more power where the influence of state and party meet. Here the Politburo occupies the first place.

Recapitulating, one can state that:

At least 1½ million Jews live in the Byelorussian (region). Their social structure is not uniform as in the former Polish and Soviet parts. Immediate measures were taken for the solution of the Jewish question by installing Jewish councils, identifying all Jews over 10 years of age with special badges, setting up labor gangs of all Jews aged 15-55. The establishment of ghettos is already in progress and already partly accomplished.


The Chief of the Security Police and the SD
Berlin, July 28, 1941
43 copies (32nd copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 36

Einsatzgruppe B:
Location: Minsk
I. Police Activity:

a. In the course of an extensive search action, 38 more persons were arrested in cooperation with the GFP. A larger number of weapons, radios and files has been secured. Further action led to the liquidation of 193 Jews. Two armed robbers caught red-handed were also liquidated. A Jewish-Polish secret organization was discovered and was infiltrated by secret agents. They will be uncovered only after more details are available. An organization plan of the NKVD and NKGB was set up in Vilnius with the assistance of secret agents. For the time being, one cannot know for certain if this plan is complete in all its details.

b. Until further notice, about 200 persons are being liquidated daily in Minsk. This concerns Bolshevik officials, criminals, Asiatics, etc. They are being sorted out from among civilian-camp prisoners. Among those already liquidated were also the former politically oriented staff commissar, Gregory Bylich, born 1890 in Lesog, and his wife. Both had been very active in the deportation of Byelorussians to Siberia. Actions were further carried out in Rakov, about 40 km from Minsk, and in the forest region north of the Minsk-Borissov-Krupka line. 58 Jews, Communist officials, and agents, prison inmates as well as soldiers in plain clothes suspected of having contact with partisan groups, were liquidated. In addition, 12 Jewesses who were proven to be agents for the KP during the Polish campaign were shot.

c. Concerning their KP memberships: Our experience up to now shows that a majority of members at heart rejected the Bolshevik Weltanschauung [world outlook]. The Soviet leading class had exerted strong pressure on the population to join the KP Those who refused were in many cases sent to Siberia, thrown into prison or shot. The percentage of the population that was forced to join the party varied, however, within the diverse groups of peoples. In general, the Jews belong to the party out of inner conviction. The same goes for the Russians who lived in Byelorussian areas. Also the Poles were forced into memberships.

However, coercion to join the KP was often the case with the Byelorussians. The Kommandos have been ordered to consider these facts carefully in the course of the liquidations.

II. Civilian Life Activity:

a. The activity of the Roman Catholic Church, which has in the Byelorussian area mainly Polish leadership, is very noticeable and clearly attempts, with the Byelorussian clergy, to do missionary work.

b. Preference of Byelorussian personnel for "leading and organizational" positions in the former Polish areas as well as gradual removal and relief of the Poles partly causes reactions in their mood.

c. Ruthless requisitions have had a negative influence on the general public mood as well as the prevailing conditions in Minsk and its rural environs. A price list has been drawn up, and the question of wages was handled in Minsk. Free trade will be opened up soon. The Reichskreditkasse has granted the city of Minsk a substantial loan for its reconstruction expenses. For the time being financial re-sources are drawn from forced loans from the Jewish population. The appointed head of the Minsk district has appointed an administrator of the kolkhozes [collective farms]. The following immediate projects have been ordered:

A survey of cattle and cultivated fields has to be drawn up; further-more, all the distributions in the kolkhoz-factories were cancelled. The immediate publication of a newspaper in the Byelorussian language is planned. The first 5,000 copies are to be printed. The con-tent: general information, German Army reports and news from the front. For the time being, political issues are not to be touched. Radio station Baranovichi lacks material to transmit; there are not enough records either.

d. It is evident that the population rejects the Bolshevik rule in the area around Orscha, Krupka, and Shklov, 200 km east of Minsk; how-ever, this is so mainly for economic and social reasons. The population is still greatly intimidated. Economic life is completely paralyzed, food very scarce. The population rummages in demolished places for things which they could use. Einsatzkommando 7b has set up appointed town administrations in Krupka, Shklov and other places. Four-fifths of Shklov are destroyed, mainly by arson. Citizens are afraid to assume an office in the town hall for fear that the leaders of the Komsomol might take revenge. We succeeded nevertheless in forming a city council consisting of 8 Russians who carried out the following:

1. Clearing of houses inhabited by Jews and placing the Jews in ghettos (cases of leprosy and scabies were observed among the Jews).

2. Distribution of flour to the population from army reserves.

3. Work in city kolkhoz was begun.

e. The antagonism between Poland and Lithuania continues in the district of Vilnius. Poles feel disadvantaged in the distribution of goods.

Lithuanians believe that they have the right to arrest Poles and to confiscate their belongings. There is, however, a general agreement with the measures taken by the Germans, particularly with the proceedings against the Jews. It was established that the above-mentioned Lithuanian organization has dissolved spontaneously with the advance of the German forces. The active forces went over to the activist [collaborating] groups. Activity of Schaulists has increased in the university. Tension between Fascist and Catholic groups can be noticed there. Fascist groups are in the minority.


The Chief of the Security Police and the SD
Berlin, July 29, 1941
45 copies
(45th copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 37

Einsatzgruppe C:
Location: Zhitomir
Reports:

There were about 30,000 Jews living in Zhitomir, that is somewhat more than 30% of the entire population. The greatest part of them fled before the occupation of the German Army. According to conservative estimates, there are now about 5,000 Jews (9% of the entire population) in Zhitomir. Many Jews, particularly the intelligentsia, were active as informers for the NKVD. They were given preferential treatment by the Soviet authorities. They were mainly employed as administration officials, managers of warehouses, kolkhozes and sovkhozes [state farms]. (80% of the Soviet officials in the area of Zhitomir were Jews.) They had hardly any difficulties from the Soviet authorities in practicing their religion. Unlike the Orthodox churches, the synagogues were at the disposal of the Jews for their religious ritual. The Jews have not given up hope that the Bolsheviks will return in the near future. Because of the Jewish behavior during the time of the Bolshevik government, the population, with only few exceptions, is consciously anti-Semitic.

The Ukrainian population, at least the older generation, is at heart generally religious. Churches which were not used for public purposes were destroyed by the Soviets. There were, however, itinerant priests who went from village to village gathering the believers around them. A tremendous need for religious activity prevails. As could be established so far, [Soviet] anti-religious propaganda has been in general ineffective in the areas that are now occupied by German troops.

The 6th Army HQ presently prepares a special order because of the uncontrolled requisitioning of houses, cattle, and machinery by German troops. There is also a plan to try and release Ukrainian prisoners of war after a short inquiry, so that they can return to their homes, if they are now under German Army occupation. Thus, it is hoped that through these means it will be possible to proceed with the harvest without damage.
Since the Kommandos have marched into the Old-Russian area, it has become evident that work is much more difficult and frequently ineffective. This might be so because the Russians have spared the Western Ukraine. Now the Russians destroy everything systematically, as they retreat.

This assumption is confirmed by the circular letters which were found in Zhitomir. According to these, a summons was issued by the Soviet central organization of trade, economy and handicraft, to destroy the entire property of the state, i.e. buildings and supplies. In addition, they ordered the political commissars, Russians and also Jews, to retreat together with the Russians. This also explains the fact that the search for political commissars, etc., is not too successful at this time.

In Zhitomir itself, Gruppenstab and the advance Kommando of EK 4a have to date shot approximately 400 Jews, Communists, and informants for the NKVD. Thus, Einsatzkokmmando 4a has carried out 2531 executions.

In Zhitomir, a large prison camp has been set up which also contains civilian prisoners. It is highly probable that there are, particularly among these civilian prisoners, former political commissars who, apparently on instructions, left their units in time to procure civilian clothes for themselves.

Thus, three political commissars in civilian clothes who eventually admitted their identity were apprehended.

In each case attempts to obtain the truth about their assignments and activities failed. It is clear from their manner of infiltration and by their conduct that they were acting according to definite instructions.

As reported already, a Jew aged twelve, who had fired at a vehicle of Einsatzkommando 4a, was arrested. All attempts to seize any adult instigators behind him proved in vain. As retribution another action will be carried out against the Jews.

While almost everywhere the Soviets have destroyed or removed
all the material, Einsatzkommando 5 has succeeded in securing important material, chiefly pertaining to the NKVD, at Kremenets. The material has been passed on.

Einsatzgruppe D:
Location: Piatra
Einsatzkommando 10a:
Location: Iswary

Report from the district Belzy

Belzy is a district town (Kreisstadt) of 55,000 inhabitants of whom approximately 2//3 are Jews. The whole district comprises about 600,000 people. It is subdivided into 14 rayons (counties) with 350 villages.

Police Work

1. The town of Belzy is extensively destroyed. Present population, therefore, not ascertainable.

2. Searches in state and party buildings without result. Communist functionaries of Belzy have fled.

3. Rumanian police operates in political police area under the Kommando's directions.

4. Partisan warfare.

During the night of July 11-12 a German military vehicle was fired at in Belzy. Consequently 10 hostages were executed and a public announcement was made by the Rumanian police. During the evening of July 15 military vehicles were again fired at and 20 more hostages were dealt with by a summary court. During the night of July 15-16 German pioneers were murdered by decapitation. Counter-measures are not fixed at present.

5. Jews

Rumanian police in and around Belzy act harshly against Jews. The precise number of shootings cannot be ascertained. On the evening of July 15, the Kommando appropriately punished the Jewish Council of Elders in Belzy and other Jews totalling 45 for failing to comply with security police directives and as retribution for attacks on German military personnel.

David Thompson
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Postby David Thompson » 19 May 2004 02:43

Part 2:

The Chief of the Security Police and the SD
Berlin, August 3, 1941
44 copies
(34th copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 40

Einsatzgruppe A:
Location: Novoselya
B. Concerning the People

It was very easy to convince the Lithuanian circles of the need for self-purging actions to achieve a complete elimination of the Jews from public life. Spontaneous pogroms occurred in all the towns.

National consciousness in Latvia has remained strongly intact and was nourished by the obscure political situation. If no one will interfer organizations like the Perkonkrust with its definitely national political aim will find no obstacle in its way to awaken strong national pride in the Latvian population. Although in Latvia one part of the intelligentsia has completely disappeared, the pronounced Nordic outward appearance of the population in Riga as well as in the small towns is striking. The population of Latgale which differs greatly in its way of life from the population of the rest of the country reveals a very bad racial picture. The high rate of criminality and alcoholism can be due to the admixture of Russian-Polish-Latvian descent.

Self-cleansing operations are very late in starting in Latvia. Although Jews are completely eliminated from public life, they can still be seen in the streets of Latvia's towns. The impertinence of the Jews has contributed towards increased self-cleansing activities. Thus in all Latvian towns pogroms, destruction of synagogues, and liquidations of Jews and Communists occurred. The 1,550 Jews who had still remained in Jelgava (Mittau) and its surroundings were removed without any exception by the population. Self-cleansing activities in Latvia still continue at this time.

The population of occupied Estonia is in general very sympathetic. Their pronounced Nordic type, their quiet, rather clumsy but open manner in which most of the population meet the Germans, the cleanliness of their homes and courtyards, adds considerably to this impression. Since there are relatively few Jews in Estonia, the solution of the Jewish question will not pose any problem. In Latvia and Estonia, one can note a strong aversion to the Russians who live in their countries, also to old emigrants, and the Greek-Orthodox church. Frequent articles have appeared in the Latvian press bringing to mind the suppression of the Latvians during the time of Tsarist Russia.

D. Details

In the self-cleansing actions in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia over 20,000 Communists and Jews were liquidated by the self-defense organizations (Selbstschutz-organisationen). These organizations are now being dissolved as part of the reorganization of the official order and security matters in these regions. These forces will be taken over in smaller numbers by the local auxiliary order-police.

Einsatzgruppe C
Location: Zhitomir

Attitude of the population towards Bolshevism.

As in the areas that have been dealt with so far, the population in the Berdichev area can be divided into 3 groups according to its attitudes toward Bolshevism. The Bolshevik party played a decisive role in the life of the population; the main officials in the party were the Jews. With a few exceptions, the Jews were also the sole beneficiaries of the system. Leading positions were held almost without exception by the Jews. They were the absolute rulers and had extensive economic privileges.

Only a few non-Jewish members of the Communist party were employed who were not treated as equals by the Jews.

The population in general rejected the Bolshevik ideology privately without, however, being able to muster the strength to change the regime. Jews, insofar as they did not belong to the party, were removed from the masses through the help of their Jewish brothers, who were in high positions.

Einsatzgruppe D

1. Arrests and Liquidations.

In cooperation with the Rumanian police in Chernovtsy 682 of the approximately 1,200 arrested Jews were killed.

So far 16 of the arrested 50 Communist officials have been liquidated. Those remaining are still needed for interrogations, since it may be expected that as a result of the interrogations material from the Soviet offices will be found.

The area of Czernovtsy and Khotin has been searched thoroughly and as a result 150 Jews and Communists have been liquidated. In Mogilev-Podolsk no operation is necessary since the Russians have evacuated the entire population and have destroyed and devastated the town completely.

2. Economic Life.

At present, almost all the shops in Czernovtsy are closed — either because they were destroyed during the looting or because the managers of the nationalized enterprises do not dare to show themselves, as their position proves that they were reliable Communists. In addition to this, most of them are Jews whom the Rumanian authorities have prohibited from doing business. Reorganization of trade and commerce on a cooperative basis is planned.

In the future Jews are to be excluded from trade. The practical execution of this plan seems more than questionable since the Rumanian authorities are very corrupt and the Rumanians are very incompetent in the economic field as well. The fields are in relatively good condition; there is quite a large number of cattle. Soviet-Russian destruction is limited also in agriculture in North Bucovina. In the meantime, the question of property has been solved. All nationalized property in the Russian area, except property belonging to Jews, will automatically return to the owner. Only former Jewish property remains the possession of the state, and is to be divided between deserving soldiers, officers and officials after the war. The question what is to become of the very considerable transfer of real estate possessions in North Bucovina remains to be solved. The Soviets did not compensate for this and no compensation should be given if the possession can be nationalized. The possessions of the deportees or of their representatives have to be taken over by the German "Treuhand Gesellschaft" in accordance with new Rumanian law. The German claims must be registered immediately to avoid other dispositions by the Rumanians.



The Chief of the Security Police and the SD
Berlin August 3, 1941
45 copies
(24th copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 42

Einsatzgruppe C:
Location: Zhitomir

In the Zhitomir area, a Russian civilian was brought to the EK. He turned out to be a parachutist who had jumped together with a group of 16 men, all of them in civilian clothes, from a height of 2,000 m on July 30 at 03:30 o'clock. He was instructed to hide in the forests during daytime and to blow up bridges, attack military formations and destroy fuel transports at night. He communicated after landing by means of hand-clapping and pass words. This group arranges signals by means of pieces of material in the shape of Russian letters: KH-kharosho-good, in case of success; P-plokho-bad, in case of failure. On July 27 two parachutists were dropped near Warsaw with a similar task. Groups of 5-6 men jumped into East Galicia, Volhynia and Byelorussia. Armed Jews and Communists were also dropped in the rear of German lines with the task of organizing [Resistance] groups.

The arrested man belongs to the 212th Parachute Brigade. They number 1350 men and are organized into 3 battalions and 9 companies. When examining suspicious civilians, attention should be paid to parachute equipment. It consists of: a carbine and 150 rounds; a pistol and 30 rounds; hand grenades, as well as on occasion a few kilos of explosives with detonator and string.

Explosives are the size of a piece of soap, and called "tol" by the Russians. Their food supply consists of meat preserves, chocolate, tobacco, and 100 rubles in cash. Not only Russians, but Jews, Poles, Ukrainians and Asiatics are dropped as parachutists.

The 212th Parachute Brigade alone has dropped 250 men in July.

Further drops occur constantly, according to our information. The German Army has been informed. Other E-groups have been alerted.



The Chief of the Security Police and the SD
Berlin, August 5, 1941
47 copies
(47th copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 43

Activity Report of the Security Police in the former Polish Russian Territories.
3,947 persons were liquidated between July 21-31, 1941. Individual Einsatzkommandos participated as follows:
Lvov: 1,726; Brest: 1,280; Bialystok: 941; more than 7,000 persons were arrested.

In Lutsk, barns sheltering an artillery platoon were set on fire simultaneously in different places and burnt down. A German soldier was seriously wounded by a shot in his chest on an airfield near Lutsk. Communist agitators, particularly Jews, tried to disrupt work in various places. In order to achieve this aim, they spread the rumor that the German troops in the east were retreating and that the Red Army would shoot anybody who has as much as moved a hand on behalf of the German cause.

Looting still occurs frequently. In this connection, the Jews are the worst. Single stragglers from the Red Army and criminals who picked up weapons discarded by the Russians and committed gang-attacks, were shot. In all of the area's sections an order has been issued that the Jews are to wear a white arm-band with the star of Zion. Jewish Councils, Jewish work groups and, in some places, separate housing districts have been set up or started. In some places measures had to be taken against the Ukrainian militia and its leaders as looting and ill treatment occurred regularly. They murdered Polish families in Tarnopol and Rovno. In many places, the local and field commandants disarmed and dissolved the militia and arrested their leaders. Part of the militia behave in such a way that even the Ukrainian peasants call them "Bolshevik hordes."

The Ukrainians in Drohobych are issued identity cards and passes with the signature "Ukrainian National Council." Ukrainians showed themselves to be unreliable as translators for the German Army; they violated secrecy rules.

The attitude of the Poles varies. There are reports from the north-ern regions that they receive the Germans gratefully as their liberators and are generally loyal. However, the secret organizations in East Galicia energetically resume their activities. Polish leaflets ex-pressing animosity towards the Germans are distributed; meetings, some of them in homes of priests, and tuning to English radio transmissions in Polish are frequent. The former combatants' associations are the chief protagonists of this resistance. Leading persons of the resistance movement in Kremenets have fled to the General Gouvernement. Dissemination of rumors is general. It was possible to seize NKVD agents who are suspected of being spies by the Security Police offices of the General Gouvernement. They will be handed over to the proper commanders. A central workshop of international dimensions for forging passports was disclosed in Lvov, in the flat of the fugitive Jew Essigmann.

No reports from Einsatzgruppe A.

Einsatzgruppe B:
Location: Smolensk

1. General Mood and Situation

The mood in the former Lithuanian region is greatly influenced by the nationality struggle between Lithuanians and Poles. Since these national groups are still not sure what the political future will be, they observe with considerable suspicion all the German orders. For example, Lithuanians interpreted a poster put up by the German Command stating that Lithuanians, Byelorussians and Poles have the equal right to use their mother tongue as a measure aimed at stopping accusations of Lithuanization. They are also afraid that their struggle for independence, which they have not abandoned, will not be respected sufficiently. Only a part of the Lithuanian intelligentsia seems to realize that the three million Lithuanians can exist only with the support of the great power, Germany. The Lithuanians are said to demonstrate pronounced self-assurance. It expresses itself first of all in their relationship to the other nationality groups and this, naturally, has also influenced the behavior of the Poles. However, neither the Poles nor the Lithuanians have shown any open antagonism towards the Germans. According to previous reports, the Polish part of the population is very friendly towards the Germans. This can be explained by the fact that they suffered more than anyone else under the Soviet regime.

A negative turn in the mood of the population of the former Byelorussian Soviet Republic has been noted, caused, first of all, by looting and requisitions by the German troops in city and country-side. Nevertheless, the attitude of the population in general, at least in the areas of Vitebsk, Orsha, Mogilev, can be described as friendly towards the Germans. The Bolshevik rule is rejected everywhere but mainly for economic and social reasons. The population hopes that the German regime will improve their personal living conditions. Right now, the population living to the east of Minsk is still greatly intimidated. The food situation is catastrophic since the Soviets have destroyed all reserves. There is practically no Byelorussian national consciousness left in that area. A pronounced anti-Semitism is also missing, as already observed in Minsk and the former Polish regions.

In general the population harbors a feeling of hatred and rage to-wards the Jews and approves of the German measures (establishing ghettos, labor units, security police, procedure, etc.) but it is not able by itself to take the initiative in regard to the treatment of the Jews. Altogether it can be said that generally the population lacks political initiative. The reason for this fact is probably, to a certain degree, their treatment by the Soviets. This is disclosed among other things in self-administration.

2. Relations between National Groups

The behavior of the Jewish population is influenced by the development of the security measures that have become more extensive lately. The anti-German mood can not be hidden. Expressions and actions show that the Jew gradually disregards all precautions. The fear of "actions" has caused a constantly increased chase for "certificates." Thus, during an action against 157 Jews in Baranovichi, 140 produced certificates that testified to their indispensability to the German offices. Since these certificates are now without value, the Jews have organized a system of signals. As soon as a SiPo Kommando appears, they escape into the surrounding forests and swamps. There are increasing reports concerning horror and incitement propaganda by Jewish circles among the population. Prostitution is to be regarded as a special Jewish problem. According to a report it is flourishing again in Baranovichi without any supervision.

6. Operational Activity.

On the one hand the operational activity in the Byelorussian area is geared to the principle of hitting the Jewish-Bolshevik upper class as efficiently as possible. On the other, however, it should interfere as little as possible with the Russian economy needed for the German war effort. One has also to be careful not to disturb the process of inner disassociation of the Byelorussian population from the Bolshevik system as a result of executive measures.

As was to be expected, almost the entire higher Bolshevik leader-ship has escaped, thereby evading arrest by the advancing German Army and our Vorkommando. The same goes for the persons who are listed on the search list issued by the Reich Security Main Office. The same difficulties are encountered with the confiscation of politically important materials. They were either destroyed in great quantities by party officials and agents, often by setting fire to the buildings, or were taken along to the hinterland. The material that was nevertheless seized by the Einsatzkommandos is, at first, collected in Minsk and Vilnius and, as far as it is relevant, handed over to the Reich Security Main Office or to the Army. The Einsatz and Sonderkommandos have also been instructed to call upon the population in public announcements to turn over any political writings and propaganda material.

Under these conditions, in the course of time, it will be possible to seize more prominent Bolshevik officials with the help of a well organized system of informers, as they have found refuge in villages and towns of other regions. The Einsatzkommandos are ordered to report regularly to Einsatzgruppe H. Q. all information concerning escaped officials. Search lists are then drawn up and transmitted to the Einsatzkommandos and supporting troops. Searches and collections frequently suffer, however, because of missing report lists. Another obstacle in searches for people is the prevailing feeling that the areas presently occupied by the Germans may be reconquered by the Soviets. The population is, however, called upon to cooperate in the search for officials, agents, criminals, etc. and by proper instructions their fear concerning return of the Soviets can be laid to rest. The denunciations that have reached us prove already that the Byelorussians are slowly starting to cooperate in the search for functionaries. It was, however, almost impossible to stage pogroms against the Jews because of the passivity and the political disinterest of the Byelorussians.

As for membership in the Communist party: Experience gathered so far has taught that the majority of the members inwardly reject Bolshevik ideology. The Soviet leadership exerted intense pressure on the population to join the party. Persons who refused to join the party and its organizations were frequently sent to Siberia, thrown into prison, or shot dead. The percentage of persons forced into joining the party varied, however, within the nationality groups. Jews, as a rule, joined the party from inner conviction. The same goes for the Russians living in Byelorussia.

The emphasis of the operational activity was, therefore, directed, first of all, against the Jewish intelligentsia. Byelorussians were rendered harmless only when it was established that they had been, with-out any doubt, convinced Bolshevik functionaries or agents. Among the functionaries seized so far were also Russians, Poles, many Asiatics (Kirghizes, Tartars, Tibetans, etc.) who had been transplanted by the Bolshevik ruling classes to Byelorussia in order to demoralize the region, or who had been henchmen, helpers and assistants.

Wherever it was necessary and possible, ghettos were set up in collaboration with the local and field commanders. Jewish Councils were installed, marking off the Jews with special badges was accomplished, labor units were formed, etc. In order to keep order in the newly established living quarters, a Jewish Order Police was set up. In order to prevent contagious diseases from spreading, it was necessary to create Jewish health services in the Jewish living quarters.

Since the man-power at the disposal of the Einsatzgruppe is hardly sufficient, considering the huge territory, Order Police stations are to be created that will be subordinated to the Einsatzkommandos. The Lithuanian political police that was formed in Vilnius was dissolved. The officials in question work under the command of the Einsatzkommando which is stationed there.

Executive police measures were taken in Baranovichi, Bialystok, Braciarka, Borisov, Brest, Grodno, Kopis, Krointnichi, Kropka, Lachoviche, Lida, Lizajki, Niechniviche, Novogrudok, Oshmyana, Pinsk, Podrechie, Shklov, Slonim, Slutsk, Stankeviche, Stolpce, Vileyka, Vilnius, Volkovisk, Vsielub, Zarovche, Zdzienciol, Zelva and other small places. In all those places Bolshevik party officials, NKVD agents, active Jewish intelligentsia, criminals, looters, saboteurs, partisans, etc., were arrested and, after screening, were rendered harm-less. Besides, a number of searches were made in party and state buildings for political material. The assets of elements hostile to the Reich were confiscated for the Reich Treasury.

Upon demand of the 162nd Infantry Division, a security police action was undertaken against former Communist party officials living in a small locality in the neighborhood of Bialystok. 17 party officials were seized and liquidated in the course of this action.

The unit of Einsatzkommando 8 which is stationed in Baranovichi is particularly successful in its cooperation with the relevant units of the German Army. Together with the field and local commandants, they organized Jewish Councils, registration, and separate living quarters for Jews, as well as a new citizen registration. The current actions against Bolshevik agents, political commissars, NKVD members, etc. were continued with the participation of the GFP, the defense force, and the field gendarmerie. All the party offices as well as a great many Jewish private houses were searched.

Successful searches for Communist officials were carried out in Borisov. Among them were found the chairman of the city council in Borisov, criminals, asocial elements and Asiatics with contagious diseases. In Brest it was possible also to render harmless party officials, NKVD-agents and partisans. The German Army and the 307th Police Battalion were helped in cleansing actions directed against groups of partisans. Quite a number of NKVD buildings were searched for political material. Several card indexes, lists, etc. were seized. In Grodno, the NKVD building was searched. A card index with photographs as well as a Bolshevik library in German was secured. A great number of Jews who had worked during the Soviet regime for the NKVD and had instigated the population to resist against the German troops, were rendered harmless.

In Lida, besides successful search activities, lists of party officials and Bolshevik propaganda material were seized. The German Army was extensively supported in Minsk in searches of civilian prisoner camps which had been set up by them. The sorting-out was carried out from the economic point of view, with the aim of securing urgently needed manpower and rendering harmless political and criminally dangerous persons. The regiment commissar, Gregory Bylich, born 1890 in Lesog, who was largely responsible for the deportation of Byelorussians to Siberia, was among those who were seized. All the party and government buildings were searched for political material. Among other things it was also possible to find a list of all leading party members in Byelorussia. At the request of the 87th Division, a commando numbering 60 men was put at their disposal against Russian cavalry. Two Russian officers were also removed from a private house. A group of partisans, who had already cut cables repeatedly, was caught near the radio transmitter along the road to Moscow, and liquidated.

Further successful partisan actions were carried out near Hajna. On this occasion hand grenades, machine-guns, and pistols were captured. The local support unit noticed irregular Russian soldiers on the night of July 8/9 1941, near Novogrudok. It moved into the big forests east of that location where there are still Russian units led by officers and Red commissars. An army commando that passed through Novogrudok as well as the Feldkommandatur was immediately given the necessary information from the support unit. The security police activity took place in Kropka, Lizajki, Niechnievichi, Oshmyana, Pinsk, Podrechie, Shkiow, Volkovisk, Vsielub, Zaroviche, Zdzienciol and Zelva. The cooperation with the German Army in Vilnius was especially successful. The NKVD building was searched and enormous amounts of political material were found. The Trade Union house and a sum of 1.5 million rubles were secured for the DAR

Einsatzgruppe D
Location: Piatra

Einsatzkommando 10a
Location: Balta

Since July 22, 1941, Einsatzkommando l0a is situated in Yampol with the purpose of advancing to Balta. As the majority of the inhabitants of Yampol have fled and the offices did not contain any material, the EK has produced an overview of various regions based on inter-rogations and its own observations.

1. Situation of National Groups:

The district town with the 29 villages belonging to this area is inhabited by a vast majority of Ukrainians and also by a few families of Russian and Polish nationality. The center of Yampol is inhabited by Jews.

There are no national upper-class Ukrainians in that district. Although there is no leadership, the Ukrainian nationality has been preserved. The Ukrainians live in accordance with their national customs, speak only Ukrainian with their children and members of their family. They have no particular customs that would help preserve Ukrainian tradition. But for a few exceptions, the Ukrainians have preserved their racial pride during the last 2 decades. They hate the Jews from the depth of their soul. According to Ukrainian information, they had been entirely disadvantaged in public life. Even in legal matters, their punishable offenses were dealt with much more strictly than were those of Russians or Jews.

The deeper reason for the Ukrainians' hatred of the Jews comes from the fact that the Jews were settled in tsarist times by a special order of the Tsar who wanted to weaken their strong [Ukrainian] national feelings by equalizing the population groups in Russia.

At the time of the revolution, particularly in the year 1919, the Ukrainians took revenge on the Jews instigating veritable pogroms which killed thousands. The deep, insurmountable conflict between the Ukrainians and Jews found its expression in this action.

A spark of this hatred survives also within the present Ukrainian older generation. But they will not expend the energy, given their present mood, to proceed towards the total destruction of the remaining Jews. The Soviet rule has made them feel insecure.

6. Suppression of Ukrainians in Northern Bucovina

Considering the disgusting conditions in Rumania, it is quite obvious that the gendarmes have the opportunity to finish off their personal enemies, to rob the village inhabitants and to take bribes from all sides.

An example is the village Doroschivci. There Botianu, a sergeant major of the Rumanian gendarmerie, was bribed by the local Communists and Jews to murder Zvizda, the country's leader of the OUN, thus demonstrating where all this might lead.

In general, there are complaints that the gendarmerie is bribed by the Jews who incite them against the Ukrainians because of their anti-Jewish attitude. This was reported at the same time from several communities and confirmed by personal observations. Under these conditions there is a definite danger of clashes breaking out between Ukrainians and Rumanians. In some communities the Ukrainian peasants fled into the forests because of Rumanian pressure; and, at that time, they have attacked the Rumanian gendarms. In other villages, the Ukrainian leaders declare that they can no longer prevent their people from anti-Rumanian reprisals.

Under these circumstances it seems advisable to enable the active Ukrainian nationalists, who wish to participate in the fight against the Bolsheviks, to go to Galicia. In this way the danger of armed clashes will be avoided.



The Chief of the Security Police and the SD
Berlin, August 6, 1941
47 copies
(47th copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 44

Situation in former Russian Poland

Jews

Despite current liquidations, their behavior is impertinent and insolent. The Jewish population is the source of rumors hostile to Germans. Serious transgressions committed by the Hungarians are re-ported by the population from the East Galician areas which are occupied by the Hungarians.

The population has fled from many places to the German-occupied areas, as they are afraid of the violence of the Hungarian troops. The Jewish population supports the Hungarians extensively. Leading Ukrainians have repeatedly turned for help to the Germans with the request that the Hungarians should be for-bidden to act in this manner. The population is greatly worried about the presence of Jews and Poles who fled from Poland to Hungary starting in September 1939. The population is systematically worried by rumors spread by these elements against the Germans. Local Poles are urged to organize themselves in resistance movements.

[/b]

michael mills
Member
Posts: 8653
Joined: 11 Mar 2002 12:42
Location: Sydney, Australia

Postby michael mills » 19 May 2004 03:01

David,

Thanks for posting those Einsatzgruppen reports dating from the early period of their activities, July-August 1942.

You will have noted that the early reports show no sign of a program to exterminate the entire Jewish population; in fact deportation is specifically referred to as the means of solving the "Jewish Problem" in the area.

The nearest thing to a group extermination mentioned is the elimination of the Jewish intelligentsia in Minsk, most probably because the intelligentsia was considered most pro-Communist. However, it is obvious that the bulk of the Jewish population in that city at the time of the German occupation remained alive and was ghettoised.

There are also references to German soldiers carrying out massacres of Jews after seeing evidence of the atrocities committed by the NKVD before its flight.

As the reports show, the main task of the Einsatzgruppen was to gether intelligence on conditions in the recently captured areas, including the attitude of the local population toward the former regime (Communists, Jews) and toward the German occupiers. Executive actions, eg shootings of groups of identified opponents, seems only to have taken up a small part of their time. Of major importance appears to have been analysis of the attitudes of the different ethnic groups toward each other and the possiblity of conflict breaking out between them, which of course would have made the German task a lot harder.

David Thompson
Forum Staff
Posts: 22814
Joined: 20 Jul 2002 19:52
Location: USA

Postby David Thompson » 19 May 2004 03:47

Thanks, Michael. I'd hoped some of those reports would interest you and our other readers. There are more to come. For readers who may be new to this subject, please enjoy these in context with the other reports and information posted on the sites I linked to at the start of this thread.

David Thompson
Forum Staff
Posts: 22814
Joined: 20 Jul 2002 19:52
Location: USA

Postby David Thompson » 19 May 2004 07:18

Part 3:

The Chief of the Security Police and the SD
Berlin, August 7, 1941
47 copies
(33rd copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 45

Einsatzgruppe D
Location: Olschanka, west of Yampol
Einsatzkommando WA
Location: Petshanka

Because of riots and attacks against the German Army, raids were carried out against Jews in Kodyma. In the course of these raids 97 Jews were shot and 1756 hostages were taken. Hostages are taken in each new place, and they are executed on the slightest pretext. 9 Jews were shot in Yampol.

Einsatzkommando 10 B
Location: Mogilev Podolski

Prevention of the mass departure of Jews into territory where German interest predominates. Harvesting is organized.

Einsatzkommando 11A
Location: Kishinev

In the course of renovating the few official buildings which were not destroyed [EK 11] has seized material and discovered several terror and sabotage organizations. Leading agents were shot. Up to this point 551 Jews have been liquidated, of these 151 for participating in sabotage acts, 400 in reprisal for shooting at German medical trucks and for lighting signal flares for Red aviators. Jews are confined to the ghetto if they have not fled.

Einsatzkommando 11B
Location: Thigina
Jews in Thigina concentrated. 155 Jews liquidated as a reprisal for signaling to the Red Army.



The Chief of the Security Police and the SD
Berlin, August 9, 1941
47 copies (35th copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 47

The commander of the Security Police and the SD in the General Gouvernement reports:

I. Security Police Activities in the Former Polish-Russian Area.
The Einsatzkommando in Brest-Litovsk liquidated 510 persons, and in Bialystok 296 persons. 1500 persons were arrested. Groups of bandits continue their attacks in full strength. Agents [partisans] near Lutsk tried to disrupt the harvest by active Communist propaganda. About 200 parachutists were dropped between Rovno and Lutsk, and most of them were caught. They all made the same statement, namely, that they were ordered to sabotage and, in particular, to disrupt the German supply forces, destroy the harvest, etc.

Jews continue to display hostile behavior: they sabotage German orders, especially where they are strong in numbers. As was previously done, Ukrainian commanders of the [Auxiliary SS] Militia have persons shot who displease them. They demand more ammunition and uniforms in order to protect themselves against alleged Communist attacks. They increasingly make false statements.

Einsatzgruppe C.
Headquarters: Zhitomir.

1. Manner of Action of Einsatzkommandos

In agreement with the commander of Einsatzgruppe D, a small squad of 15 executive officials with an additional 15 members of the Waffen-SS has been sent to Chernovtsy. The main task of the squad, after the withdrawal of Kommando l0a of the Einsatzgruppe D, is to take care of the interest of the absolutely unprotected and helpless Ukrainians.

Owing to the slow progress of the military operations the task of the Einsatzkommandos has been rendered rather difficult insofar as Security Police matters are concerned. The whole of the present operational area of the group was systematically evacuated by the Soviets and their party followers long before the German forces had arrived. The Kommandos are, therefore, for the time being, advancing, so to speak, into empty areas. For instance, in Vinnitsa, it was found that the NKVD had left 11 days before the occupation by the Germans and had systematically either taken with them all essential records or destroyed them. A thorough search of the houses of the functionaries or of the Jews has yielded hardly any material. Under these circumstances the present operations of the Einsatzkommandos must necessarily follow a different course. As a primary measure the Kommandos are searching the small villages away from the main roads. Here the population is continually complaining that at night, bands of marauding troops loot and rob them under threats of violence. As far as they can, the Kommandos, whose members are limited, successfully carry out the systematic clearing of the woods in the vicinity of the villages.

In Vinnitsa a search of the town for leading Jews was unsatisfactory. For this reason, the leader of Einsatzkommando 4b resorted to new methods. He called the town's most prominent rabbi ordering him to gather within 24 hours all of the Jewish intelligentsia. He then told the rabbi that they would be required for work. When this first group was judged insufficient, the assembled intellectuals were sent back with the order to collect the remaining intellectuals and to appear with them on the following day. This method was repeated for a third time. In this manner nearly the entire intelligentsia was trapped and liquidated.

Furthermore, at the present time all civilian persons are systematically searched on the highways. This proved again and again that many former prisoners of war were incorrectly discharged on the basis of their uncorroborated claims that they were Ukrainians. A large percentage of suspected elements among these people have been found. Apart from the language, the best test for the investigation is a painstaking interrogation concerning the immediate surroundings of their alleged home. All Asiatics found on the highways are also liquidated. The news evidently had spread that the Einsatzkommandos would, immediately following the advance of the German troops, systematically search the occupied areas. Therefore, for the time being, the Kommandos changed their methods, postponing actions on a larger scale. They first concentrated their efforts to look for reliable agents coming chiefly from Ukrainians and ethnic Germans. Then, after a lapse of time they carried out systematic actions. It soon be-came apparent, in the meantime, that some of the inhabitants with bad political records had returned; they could now be apprehended. At times, a search of the prisoner camps was carried out systematically. These searches disclosed that sometimes camp commanders gave special preference to ethnic-German prisoners for administrative assignments.

Last but not least, systematic reprisals were carried out against marauders and Jews. Particularly, in Jewish houses the searches, time and again, produced stolen goods. In Berdichev, in 45 Jewish houses, stolen goods were secured which were distributed among the suffering Ukrainian population. Furthermore, in Berdichev they found spacious underground passages which the Jews used not only for their meetings but also for storing their loot. Under the pretext of trying to locate their husbands in the prisoner camps, hundreds of women of the surrounding villages were frequently seen loitering about the town. They then took advantage of every opportunity to steal everything that was not nailed down from unoccupied houses. When the luggage they carried was searched, stolen goods (especially textiles, leather goods, foodstuff and tobacco) were brought to light.

Carefully planned attempts made at an earlier date to incite pogroms against Jews have unfortunately not shown the results hoped for. They were successful in Tarnopol and in Chortkov, where 600 and 110 Jews respectively were disposed of. The reason for this failure may be the fact that the Ukrainian population is still too fearful in view of the strong position the Jews held formerly. They are also still afraid of a possible return of the Soviets.

3. Executions:

In Zhitomir about 400 Jews, mostly saboteurs and political functionaries, were liquidated during the last few days. In Trojanor, where a unit of engineers stationed there had already shot some Communists, another 22 Jews were liquidated. In Korostyschev 40 Jews were liquidated for sabotage, spying, and looting as it had become known that returning Jews terrorized the population and had kept close contact with the armed guerrillas in the vicinity.

At the same time a raiding party was sent out to look for parachutists who had been reported to have landed wearing civilian clothes. First caught was a soldier of the Red Army wearing civilian clothes, roaming in the woods. He could not identify himself and made very contradictory statements about himself and the reasons why he was there. He was shot on the spot, being strongly suspected of espionage.

In cooperation with the Ukrainian Militia they next caught a civilian who was identified as a Soviet parachutist. Information of this was passed on immediately to the respective competent German Army authorities. In Chernyakhov 110 Jews and Bolshevists were liquidated, also 2 Jews, Communists who tried to ambush a few small units.

In Berdichev a squad of Einsatzkommando 4a operated before the arrival of Einsatzkommando 5. 148 Jews were executed for looting and for Communist activities. Einsatzkommando 5 shot an additional 74 Jews by this date.

In Zaslav 2 political functionaries and saboteurs were shot. In Miropol 24 Jews who had refused to work and had given support to the guerrillas were shot.

In Polonne 20 persons were found to be Communist functionaries and were liquidated. Among them was a Ukrainian who was a Bolshevik informer. In addition in his position as leader of the kolkhoz he terrorized the inhabitants and fled, taking with him 150 horses after distributing the rest of the livestock among the Jews.

In Proskurov 146 Communists were liquidated.

In Vinnitsa where 30 murdered bodies were found under a layer of top soil, 146 Jews were liquidated, among them a member of the NKVD. He had been furnished with a false German passport and with German money and had been instructed by his headquarters to stay on in the occupied area and to keep on operating there.

In Makarov a raiding party seized 14 Jews, all of whom had been active as snipers and informers for the NKVD or had been responsible for deportations.

An ethnic German, called Grünwald, who had been head of a kolkhoz in the vicinity of Zhitomir since 1935, was also arrested. He was accused by the local population, a German colony, of closely cooperating with the NKVD for the systematic deportation of ethnic Germans. He was also charged with having terrorized the German population in every imaginable way. Because he was an ethnic German who most emphatically denied all accusations, all the evidence against him was re-examined very carefully. However, it was proved that all the accusations were true. Thus, he was liquidated.

Furthermore, a 60-year-old Jew was arrested today who admitted that he had been a Bolshevik since 1905 and had served as a People's Judge since 1918. When interrogated he admitted up to a total of about 1000 murders. He and his executioner will be publicly hanged tomorrow in the market square of Zhitomir in the presence of the en-tire population.
The Police Regiment operating in the areas of Shepetovka and Rovno has concluded its actions. The Higher SS and Police Leader sent the following radiogram to the Army Group South: "Purging of the Shepetovka-Rovno area finished. 370 Russians and 1,643 Jews shot as instigators and accomplices."



The Chief of the Security Police and the Security Service
Berlin, August 10, 1941
48 copies
(29th copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 48

Einsatzgruppe A
Location: Novoselye

Security Police work develops according to plan. Both in Kaunas and Riga efficient offices have been set up which may be considered to be permanent. At the same time, accommodations for the men of the operational units and married quarters for later use (sufficient for the time being), were provided. The mopping up of the rear zone, partly with the assistance of Lithuanian and Latvian auxiliary units, continues according to plan. In all 29,000 persons were liquidated in this district. As the combat troops had gained only little terrain during the past fortnight, the forces of the security police in the combat zone proper, with the armored group of the 16th and 18th Armies, were busy mopping up what little terrain had been gained, and fighting the partisans.

During his stay in Riga, the SS Reichsführer mentioned that he intends to set up police formations consisting of Lithuanians, Latvians, Estonians, Ukrainians, etc., employing them outside of their own home areas. This is possible right away if this is done here in the old Soviet areas. After this task is completed, they will be used as police units, also outside their own home areas. Since the Army Group urgently demands a quick solution because of the difficult situation with the partisans and the difficulties involving the dual front, the Einsatzgruppe urgently asks for general instructions how to deal with this question.



The Chief of the Security Police and the SD
Berlin, August 12, 1941
48 copies (36th copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 50

Census of population in some towns provides the following result: Lvov: 370,000 inhabitants, of these 160,000 Jews, 140,000 Poles, 70,000 Ukrainians.

Pinsk: 30,000 inhabitants, of these 28,000 Jews.

Grodno: 48,000 inhabitants, of these 18,500 Jews, 21,500 Poles, 5,000 Byelorussians (the rest, Russians and others). Simultaneously with the registration of the population, food ration cards are being introduced. The posts of mayor and vice-mayor are occupied by Byelorussians. These measures are aimed at preventing further penetration of Polish elements into the municipal administration. The Polish population is in a bad state. In Grodno, the administrational apparatus is almost entirely in Polish hands. Good cooperation with German offices. 72 Order Police are exclusively Polish. In Lutsk, a German mayor and a German so-called "Gebietsleiter" (district leader) have been installed. The Gebietsleiter is to prepare taking over the civil administration.

Ukrainians

In Volhynia, the Bandera group is particularly active. Ukrainians engaged by the German Army use their positions for national and party purposes. They install members as mayors and exert strong influence on the entire Ukrainian Militia. Some observations on Brest-Litovsk where the Ukrainians, despite their small number, are very active, generally expecting that an independent state will be created after the occupation of Kiev. In the district of Galicia, preparations are made for setting up an Ukrainian aid committee according to the pattern of the aid committees in the General Gouvernement. The Bandera group is undecided as to the attitude to be taken.

Einsatzgruppe B
Location: Smolensk

Various combats took place between Einsatzkommandos and partisan groups. Thus, a partisan group that had repeatedly cut cables was caught and liquidated in the neighborhood of the Minsk transmitter along the highway to Moscow. The concerned persons had frequently extorted food in the surrounding villages at night. SS-Sturmmann Krause, of the Hq of the Higher SS and Police Leader was shot and dragged away by partisans of kolkhoz Vishevka, 18 km northwest of Minsk. Action was initiated by an advance kommando of the Higher SS and Police Leader and by a sub-unit of the Einsatzgruppe. So far no success.

Executions were carried out in Minsk, Baranovichi, Slonim, Lakhoviche, Stolptse, Zaroviche, Vileyka, Oshmyana, Kopie, Alexandria, and Shklov. In Minsk search of the camp for civilian prisoners and the liquidation of politically dangerous persons or criminals continue steadily.

In Baranovichi interrogations were carried out of a large number of persons who were fanatical supporters of the Soviets or were recognized as agents of the NKVD. In the course of these examinations, 31 persons were liquidated. The Sondertrupp (special unit) Slonim executed them and in the surrounding area 52 additional persons who were recognized as active followers of Bolshevism and some of whom were also looters, among them 16 Byelorussians. In Lakhoviche, 22 Bolshevik officials were arrested and liquidated in the course of a cleansing action. It was established that some of those executed had committed political murders after the Soviet Russians entered the area in the fall of 1939. 76 more persons were liquidated in Stolptse. They were mainly activist Jewish intelligentsia. About 1½ million rubles which were kept in a safe of a branch of the Russian National Bank were secured. The entire male Jewish population of Vileyka has been liquidated by the Kommando that had passed through. There-fore, a search there resulted in the arrest of only 5 persons who were executed. All of the important buildings, like a Komsomol house, a [Communist] party house, the police archives, offices of the city police, the law-court, the NKVD building, etc., were searched for political material.

Among other things, the following lists and materials were found in Vileyka: leaders and political officials of Vilnius; agitators who were active in preparing the elections; instructions for the Communist party; lists of informants; members of the Young Communists and of Bolshevik officials. In the course of further search actions, 527 Jews were liquidated in Oshmyana. In Vitebsk, the population participated in liquidating the Bolshevik system by reporting their members.

332 Jews were shot, among them 5 Bolshevik officials. 27 Jews were shot in public because they had refused to go to work. At first, 84 Jews had to be executed in Shklov, among them 22 arsonists, 25 looters, 22 terrorists, 11 officials and snipers, as well as 4 persons who had spread harmful rumors. 7 officials were liquidated in Kopie.



The Chief of the Security Police and the SD
Berlin, August 14, 1941
48 copies
(36th copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 52

Situation Report (Galicia District)
Administration:

Total but temporary disorganization because the military administration has been relieved and the civil administration is not yet established. Conflicting and double occupancy of various positions appointed by the military government and the governor of the [G. G. ]. Self-administration very difficult because of the lack of suitable per-sons. Most of the mayors who were installed by the Ukrainians must be relieved as they are not suitable. In Lvov and in the rural towns it is planned to set up Ukrainian-Polish autonomous bodies according to the pattern of Polish autonomy in the General Gouvernement. The Ukrainian mayor in Lvov will be replaced by a German one. A Ukrainian police force numbering 3,000 men is being assembled. They are selected from a Militia now numbering 31,000 men. Pre-condition: Previous service in the Polish or Austrian army; leader-ship: headed by Germans; further leadership: Ukrainians, as officers and non-commissioned officers, former members of the Austrian army and lower ranks who have served in the Polish army.

Einsatzgruppe C
Location: Zhitomir

Report Concerning Ukrainian Development

2. What are the national political aims of the Ukrainians?

The Rumanian army encounters even now many serious difficulties with the Ukrainians in the East Ukrainian areas occupied by them. German offices had to intervene. It is certain that the Rumanian administration will turn the area into one of constant unrest. This possible development causes real dismay in military circles and they regard:

1. The area between the Dniester and Dnieper as an essential military goal of German politics.

2. It is feared that the threatening guerrilla war of Bolshevik partisans (many parachutists in civilian clothes have landed lately) will find extraordinarily fertile soil in the Rumanian administered zone.

3. It has been established that the Rumanians in Chernovtzy were forced to work together with the Jews. As the Ukrainians are more intelligent and gifted than the Rumanians, the solution of the Jewish question is definitely in worse hands with the latter. Since the Jewish percentage is very high, it constituted a problem requiring careful examination from the economic point of view as well. In addition, the solution of this problem can be approached only within a German-Ukrainian framework. Until the final solution of the Jewish question for the entire continent is achieved, the superfluous Jewish masses can be excellently employed and used for cultivating the vast Pripet swamps, the northern Dnieper swamps as well as those of the Volga.



The Chief of the Security Police and the SD Berlin,
August 15, 1941
48 copies
(36th copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 53

Einsatzgruppe A
Location: Riga

A. General Matters

The sub-units of the EK la entered Pernau and Dorpat on the first day of occupation and were under enemy fire, and are now finally free of contact with enemy forces. The EK lb that was assigned to the 16th Army advances with its frontline units.

The preparations of the EG-A units which are supposed to enter Petersburg is taking place in Novoselye, 1 km to the northeast of Pskov.

The main units of EK 2 and 3 continue their pacification work in Riga and Kaunas.

Every day in the North Estonian and old-Soviet-Russian areas there is an increasing number of partisan groups consisting of 5-30 men. There are constant reports of railway lines and bridges that have been blown up; of smaller columns and single vehicles that were at-tacked by day and night. Reports arrive from villages about partisan groups that terrorize and extort food from the inhabitants and threat-en them. Sub-units of the Einsatzkommandos had to be employed again and again against such groups in order to secure the continuation of the pacification work. This happened particularly in the area of Novoselye and in the area around the location of the 4th Armored Group's H.Q in Strugi. In the last few days, two security divisions of the Army Group North and a battalion of the Police Regiment North were dispatched to pacify the endangered areas.

B. Political Situation

Clarification of the general political situation in the entire occupied area has not yet been achieved. The uncertainty of the population leads to rumors, although everywhere there are voices advocating an attitude of patience, waiting until the end of the fighting.

Since July 25th the Reichskommissar for Ostland, Gauleiter Lohse, and the Military Commander, Lieutenant-General Bremer, are operating in Kaunas. District commissars have been assigned to Lithuania and to the areas west of the Dvina, and they have gradually started their work. It appears that nowhere are there concrete plans and guiding principles.

The commissars started their work in various ways. While the town commissar in Kaunas proceeded promptly in [initiating] the first actions, in a manner similar to those in Polish areas, district commissars approached the competent Einsatzkommandos with the request to execute Communists and Jews. Else-where, among them Kaunas, talks were arranged between the responsible commanders of the Security Police and the district commissars which will, hopefully, result in successful cooperation.

The Reichskommissar for Ostland in Kaunas has prepared a draft of a decree concerning guidelines for the treatment of Jews in the area of the Reichskommissariat Ostland and has handed it to the Higher SS and Police Commander.

The draft is similar to those issued in Holland, the Polish areas, etc. We foresee its distribution among the Higher SS and Police Commandos. However, it doesn't mention the cooperation with or the competence of the Security Police.



The Chief of the Security Police and the SD
Berlin, August 16, 1941
48 copies
(36th copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 54

Einsatzgruppe A
Location: Riga

EK 3
Kaunas

Organization of the Catholic Church in Lithuania

The attitude of the Church regarding the Jewish question is, in general, clear. In addition, Bishop Brisgys has forbidden all clergy-men to help Jews in any form whatsoever. He rejected several Jewish delegations who approached him personally and asked for his intervention with the German authorities. In the future he will not meet with any Jews at all. Conversion of Jews to the Catholic faith did not take place so far. The Church would also object to this type of con-version. It is convinced that the Jews would not come [to be converted] out of conviction but because of the possible advantages connected with it.

Executive Activity

Special actions (Sonderaktionen) were carried out as follows: July 22, 1941: Pagirai: 1 Jew liquidated

July 23, 1941: Kedainiai: 125 persons (83 Communist Jews, 12 Communist Jewesses, 14 Russian and 15 Lithuanian Communist officials, 1 Politruk liquidated)

July 25, 1941: Mariampol: 103 Jews (90 men, 13 women) liquidated July 28, 1941: Panevezys: 288 persons (234 Jews, 15 Jewesses, 19 Russian and 20 Lithuanian Communist officials)

July 29, 1941: Raseiniai: 257 persons (254 Jews, 3 Lithuanian Communist officials) liquidated

July 30, 1941: Agriogola: 30 persons (27 Jews and 11 Lithuanian Communist officials) liquidated

July 30, 1941: Wendziegola surroundings: 15 persons (Jews and 2 murderers)

July 31, 1941: Utena: 256 persons (235 Jews, 16 Jewesses, 2 Lithuanian Communist officials, 1 double robber and murderer)

August 1, 1941: Ukmerge: 300 persons (254 Jews, 42 Jewesses, 2 Lithuanian Communist officials, 1 former mayor of Janova who had set fire to the town, 1 Political Commissar)

August 2, 1941: Kaunas: 209 persons (171 Jews, 74 Jewesses, 4 Lithuanian Communist officials, among them one Jewish couple)

Between July 22 and August 3 the Kommando has liquidated 1592 persons.

The auxiliary police service companies were taken over by the regular police. They were given green armbands marked "Schutzmannschaften."
Again, vast political material was captured in Kaunas. Besides, political material was secured in offices and flats.

The ghettoization of the Jews in Kaunas, numbering about 25,000, is in full swing. Altogether, about 10,000 Jews have been resettled. The registration office (of the Lithuanian Sipo) has completed, under German supervision, a card index containing data on all Jews in Kaunas. The Jewish committee will also report soon on the financial situation and the professional use of the individual Jews.



The Chief of the Secret Police and the SD
Berlin, August 18, 1941
48 copies
(36th copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 56

Activity Report on Former Russian-Polish Areas

In the period August 5-11, [19]41, 2,808 persons were liquidated as follows:

by the EK in Lvov: 619; in Brest-Litovsk: 1296 and in Bialystok: 373. 5,000 persons were arrested. There is a considerably increased circulation of pamphlets in German, Polish and Ukrainian languages. Poles and Ukrainians are incited to resist Germany. German troops are incited to desert. There are reports of landings of parachutists, particularly from the area around Lutsk and Rovno, but also from Galicia. Isolated fights and destruction of scattered smaller Russian units that had sought refuge in the woods. Police and Army are too weak in many places to conduct systematic searches in the forests. The quiet is still disturbed by attacks from the [Resistance] groups. Communists and Jews continue in their activities. The insubordination of the Jews increases. For some time now one instigation has led Ukrainian Communist laborers to stop work on the Kovel-Lutsk road. The brewery in Lida was burned down by a Pole. Because of the lack of German propaganda, the propagation of rumors is unusually strong.

Robbery, ill treatment, and murders do not stop within the Ukrainian militia's area as Ukrainian mayors and militia commanders were held responsible for hostile utterances against Germany, for ignoring German orders, and for tearing up German regulations. Poles are equated with Jews and partly have to wear [identification] arm bands as well. In several places, units were formed by the Ukrainian militia, like "Ukrainian Security Service," "Ukrainian Gestapo" and others. Local and field commanders are disarming the militia at this time.

The OUN in Lvov sells war-loan stamps and releases pamphlets demanding Bandera's return. From Lvov, posters are released declaring that a "free and independent Ukraine" must be created according to the motto "Ukraine for the Ukrainians, under the leadership of the OUN." Orders of the German Army are frequently ignored and looted goods are regarded as private possessions. In Lutsk retired Colonel Diatschenko has tried to centralize the militia under his command. At a later stage this command should be located in Kiev. The execution of this plan was prevented by the followers of Bandera.



The Chief of the Security Police and the SD
Berlin, August 20, 1941
48 copies
(36th copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 58

Executive activity in the former Polish-Russian area August 12-15, 1941
4,988 persons were liquidated, more than 6,000 were arrested during the period of report.

Instigation and incitements by the Jews continue to increase. In Pinsk, Jews shot a guard of the city-militia. A member of the militia was shot dead from an ambush near Pinsk. As a reprisal, 4,500 Jews were liquidated.

A list of 43 agents and couriers who had mainly worked for the Russian secret service in the district of Lublin was found at the NKVD frontier guard office in Luboml. Several arrests have already been made. Disturbances and attacks by bands [partisans] continue to in-crease. An Ukrainian band, numbering 20-30, continues committing excesses near Pinsk. They spread terror using the motto: "Out with the German administration; we want a free Ukraine without Germans, Poles and Russians."

Massive distribution of pamphlets by Russian pilots continues. In this manner, Poles in particular are urged to commit acts of sabotage.

The resistance movement in Tarnopol has put up posters.

Nine persons were arrested in Lvov in a new passport forging operation.

Einsatzgruppe A
Location: Novoselye

An exchange of fire took place on August 15, [19]41, between partisans and 2 sub-units of the Waffen SS platoon attached to the Einsatzgruppe A near Boskina near the H.Q. of the Einsatzgruppe A. 13 partisans were killed, one has probably escaped. In the course of the fight, SS-man Polster was shot in his head while SS-man Isbanner was wounded by a shot in his pelvis and later passed away in the military hospital. In addition, SS-men Hinov and Haas were wounded by shots in their thighs and brought to Pskov.

Einsatzgruppe C
Location: Novo-Ukrainka

I.

Search measures are carried out by the Einsatzkommandos. By now, almost all the villages and larger localities in the more distant surroundings of Berdichev and Zhitomir have been systematically searched.

In Rajkie, the commissar of the NKVD who was at the same time leader of the Red Militia, was found and executed.

It was possible to liquidate the Communist director of the local school, Katjucko, in Nova-Chartorya and also another member of the Communist party. Katjucko, until a short time ago an influential official, had arranged meetings and given inflammatory speeches against the Germans. He has repeatedly threatened to shoot a few resident ethnic Germans whom he and the other Communists were sup-posed to guard. He coined the following phrase at his last meeting: "Hitler comes with his pig's-nose into our peaceful garden."

Nine Jews who were suspected of being Communists were found and executed in prisoner-of-war camp Berdichev.

In Janushpol, a town with about 25% Jews, Jewish women particularly have displayed an impertinent and provocative behavior in re-action to recently imposed restrictions. They tore off their own clothes and those of their children. In retaliation, the Kommando that arrived after quiet had been established shot 15 male Jews. Further retaliatory measures are to follow.

In Veherayshe, 22 officials, looters, and saboteurs were shot on the basis of information received from the militia.

In Chervonne, from where all the main officials had fled, it was still possible to finish off five officials.

A number of active Communists still remained in Holodki after the Red troops left. Of these, it was possible to liquidate six veteran party members, mayors, kolkhoz managers and co-workers of the NKVD.
There it was also possible to arrest the political commissar of a Russian regiment; however, his interrogation has as yet not been completed.

With the help of a platoon of the Waffen-SS, 29 Communists, five agents of the NKVD were arrested in Brusilov and liquidated on the spot.
Following an urgent call for help from the local commander of Radomyshl, a sub-unit and part of a Waffen-SS platoon moved in and immediately found unbearable conditions. The newly established mayor was unmasked as an informer for the NKVD and CP member since 1925. It was proven that until recently he had contact with Communist bands. His deputy was a Bolshevik as well. Furthermore, a citizen was discovered who caused the deportation of ethnic Germans and Ukrainian families. Finally, also Jews were arrested who openly opposed the German Military, refusing to work for the OT, etc. In the course of these actions, nine out of 113 persons arrested were shot.

In the area north of Zhitomir, 12 villages were searched and 15 officials were liquidated there.

In the course of a search action, 31 Jews were executed in the village of Chernyakhov; they had been active Communists and some of them also had been political commissars.

On the occasion of an action in Rudnya and Troyanov, 26 Jewish Communists and saboteurs were arrested and shot.

As was already briefly mentioned in Operational Situation Report No. 47 of August 9, 1941, in Chernyakhov it was possible to arrest the former chairman of the Troika for that area, and his accomplice. Immediately after the entry of the German Army into Chernyakhov everything was quiet. Thus, the local Jews were forced to restrain themselves. One day later, after the troops had moved on, Einsatzkommando 4a found that the Jews in the meantime, having maintained contact with the scattered Russian bands, terrorized the entire place as elsewhere. A kommando that was sent out following these observations arrested all male Jews who could be found in town.

Simultaneously, it extended its search activities for terrorists who were still in hiding. In addition to the main culprit, Judge Kieper, 15 GPU members, and 11 other informers were found. After prolonged hearings, it was possible to convict Kieper and his accomplices for the mass murders which they were accused of committing. The main witness, also a Jew, was convicted of having committed 78 murders. Then Kieper finally confessed. He described the atrocities which he had committed with typical Jewish cynicism. Already at the age of 18, he worked as a Zionist agitator in 1905 and formed illegal bands against the then prevailing order. He instigated strikes, robbery, attacks on state organizations, and prepared for the disintegration and fall of the tsarist regime. In the district of Chernyakhov alone he has committed 25 murders during the years 1905-1917; 500 more during 1917-1919; and in 1919-1925 another 800 murders of Ukrainians and ethnic Germans. He gave vent to his hatred for everything that was not Jewish by new methods of murder. He particularly preferred shooting, stabbing, slaying, poisoning and drowning. Whenever he could not get hold of his victims, he brutally mistreated members of their families. Thus a crippled girl was found (who is grown up now), whose right foot was actually smashed with a club while she was nursing at her mother's breast; he did this in his fury because he had not been able to find the child's father, a tsarist officer.

In 1933, the year of the great famine, Kieper was again particularly outstanding. He personally lured to a swamp some half-starved Ukrainians and ethnic Germans who had come to him for help. Then he pushed the weakened people into the swamp in order to "help them," as he literally admitted during the trial. Although he himself had been repeatedly convicted to prison terms for embezzlement and other frauds, he managed again and again to arrange influential positions for himself.

At least 1,350 murders are on his record which he committed as a terrorist in tsarist Russia, as a GPU agent, and as a member of a Troika.
The Einsatzgruppe has by now finished off a total of more than 8,000 Communists and Jews. The share of the Einsatzkommando 4a in this was 4,335.

II.

The relationship with the German Army is as cordial as it was previously. In particular, Army circles show a steadily growing interest in and understanding of tasks and matters concerning the work of the Security Police. This could be observed particularly during the executions. On the other hand, the Army itself endeavors to further the tasks relating to the Security Police. Thus, all the offices of the Einsatzgruppe are continually receiving reports from the Army concerning arrested Communist officials and Jews. It even happens at times that the Security Police is the last resort of the Army. Thus, for example, on August 5, [19]41, the local military commander of Radomyshl called for the help of the Einsatzkommando 4a requesting support, since he was unable to cope with the prevailing conditions.



The Chief of the Security Police and the SD
Berlin, August 21, 1941
48 copies
(36th copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 59

Einsatzgruppe A
Location: Novoselye

Fight against partisans

As per agreement with the 16th Army, a sub-unit of the Sonderkommando lb was transferred to Yaski, 20 km southeast of Porchov, to carry out security police tasks with the advance regiment. The investigations revealed that small partisan units were active in the vicinity of Yaski. One managed to locate a fully operational Soviet Russian telephone exchange in the post office in the village Porevich. The postmaster, 2 technical workers, and two female telephone operators were found and arrested. The investigations revealed that a group of partisans, numbering 15 men, had settled in Porevich. They had established connection with the telephone exchange by branching off a separate line outside the village. Via this telephone, the partisans conversed with Soviet Russian military positions in Staraya Russa. Since the investigations revealed that the postmaster had placed the telephone line at the disposal of the partisans and that both telegraph workers as well as the telephone operators assisted with establishing the connection, they were shot.

Einsatzgruppe C
Location: Novo-Ukrainka

Executive measures

Korosten, north of Zhitomir, which was occupied long ago, has been searched by a unit of a platoon of the Einsatzkommando 6 according to Security Police instructions, immediately after the occupation.

As elsewhere, it was found that the influential Jews and officials had fled and that all the files were destroyed. Only 53 Jews and two officials could be liquidated.

After the German troops entered Staro-Konstantinov (the present seat of the Higher-SS, the Police Chief, and of the Military Commander of the Rear Area), Jews were employed for cleaning the bar-racks. Since the Jews did not report for work lately, the military authorities had to round up the Jewish labor force early in the day. The Jews were impertinent and even refused to work. Out of about 1,000 Jews that were recruited for field work, only 70 appeared on the following day. Moreover, it was established that harvesters were sabotaged. Finally, the Jewish Council of Elders' spread the rumor that the Russians were advancing again; whereupon the Jews publicly threatened and abused the Ukrainians. Finally it was established that Jews were conducting a flourishing trade with stolen cattle and goods.

In reprisal, the 1 SS-Brigade carried out an action against the Jews in the course of which 300 male and 139 female Jews were shot.

Similar facts relating to the behavior of the Jews could also be established in Radomyshl, where a part of a platoon of an Einsatzkommando had regularly been active. During a search action, once again many Jews were discovered who had been influential partners in the deportation of Ukrainians and ethnic German families to Siberia. Here, as in Staro-Konstantinov, Jews also refused to perform jobs assigned to them by the local military commander. Furthermore, a Ukrainian was detected who had intended to blow up the big bridge leading to Radomyshl. Another Ukrainian who was a co-worker of the NKVD denounced six families and was instrumental in their deportation to Siberia. In the course of this and later actions, a total of 276 Jews, Communist officials, saboteurs, Komsomol members and Communist agitators were finished off.

simsalabim
Member
Posts: 223
Joined: 10 Jul 2003 10:50
Location: Netherlands

Postby simsalabim » 19 May 2004 13:07

Mr Mills wrote:

Thanks for posting those Einsatzgruppen reports dating from the early period of their activities, July-August 1942.

You will have noted that the early reports show no sign of a program to exterminate the entire Jewish population; in fact deportation is specifically referred to as the means of solving the "Jewish Problem" in the area.



Would mr Mills be so kind to react to:

http://www.einsatzgruppenarchives.com/directives.html

from which I quote:

At the third meeting, which probably took place shortly before June 22, high-level SS and Police chiefs met in the office of the Chief of Order Police, General Kurt Daluege. As Heydrich was unable to attend, he sent them a memorandum dated July 2, 1941 (dated after the invasion of the Soviet Union), specifying who was to be eliminated:

Executions

All the following are to be executed:

Officials of the Commintern (together with professional Communist politicians in general);
Top- and medium-level officials and radical lower-level officials of the Party. Central committee and district and sub-district committees;

Peoples commissars; Jews in Party and State employment, and other radical elements (saboteurs, propagandists, snipers, assassins, inciters, etc.) insofar as they are, of special importance for the further economic reconstruction of the Occupied Territories ... (10)

More details are contained in Report No. 111 dated October 12, 1941: 'The principal targets of execution by the Einsatzkommandos will be: political functionaries, ...Jews mistakenly released from POW camps, ...Jewish sadists and avengers, ...Jews in general...'

According to the testimony of Otto Ohlendorf, head of Einsatzgruppe D, dated April 24, 1947, the objective was the "murder of racially and politically undesirable elements." Later on in the Einsatzgruppen trial, he said (October 1948): "The goal was to liberate the army's rear areas by killing Jews, Gypsies and Communist activists ..." (11)


David Thompson
Forum Staff
Posts: 22814
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Postby David Thompson » 22 May 2004 02:38

Part 4:

The Chief of the Security Police and the SD
Berlin, August 22, 1941
48 copies
(36th copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 60

Einsatzgruppe A
Location: Novoselye

Report by the 4th Armored Group on Activities and Experiences in Combatting Partisans
As agreed, units of EK 2 and 3 were placed in the region of the 4th Armored Group for extensive purging and pacification activities, mainly in the area bordered by the lines connecting Pod-Gora, Novoselye, Shtrugi and Krassnyje, Ozjerewo, Shcheyednov.

As a result of this assignment, it was possible to arrest the remaining Communist officials, other active Communists and Jews. In the first stage of the action, interrogation of the civilian population and of the 86 Red Army soldiers (some of whom had discarded their weapons and roamed the forests and villages), revealed the existence of quite a number of partisan groups in the area about to be searched. These interrogations led to the conclusion that other partisan groups also passed through this area. At the same time, it became known that almost daily partisan groups attacked motor vehicles traveling alone, demolished bridges on the Pskov-Luga highway, blew up and at-tacked the Pskov-Shtrugi-Krassnyje railway line.

Einsatzgruppe C
Location: Novo-Ukrainka

I. Location

A sub-unit of Einsatzkommando 4b has arrived in Kirovograd. The rest of the Kommando will follow by August 14, [19]41. In the meantime, the advance unit of the Einsatzgruppe was recalled as the attack on Kiev is planned in the near future. The advance unit that was also sent by Einsatzkommando 4a to Vasilkov remains there for the time being in order to search the area. It has become known that precisely in that area, Russian spies with definite reconnaissance orders are constantly being dispatched from Kiev through the lines into German rear positions.

According to the facts that could be ascertained by the AOK, thus far, about 25 spies have been assigned to this area. According to the information at hand, there is a large intelligence center in Kiev, which apparently just started with the methodical assignment of its agents. At the request of the 6th Army H. Q., a sub-unit will participate in the search actions against these agents.
Executive Operations

It has already been pointed out in previous reports that the Jews no longer show any restraint. This observation has been confirmed again by the latest actions.

Thus, for instance, at Korosten the Jews flashed light signals to the Russians even after the town was occupied by German troops. One Jew set his house on fire after it had been seized as a billet for the German Army. Another Jew dared tell a German soldier that a box which had been found and was actually filled with black powder was harmless and not inflammable. Another soldier with a lighted cigarette who joined them was burned and seriously injured.

In the area around Brusilov-Kornin Jewish-Bolshevik gangs have been formed terrorizing the Ukrainian population. Although these gangs are not numerically large, they are terrifying the Ukrainian population. These gangs ruthlessly take action at night against villages which had already been cleared of Jews and Communists. They set houses on fire by throwing hand-grenades and stealing cattle and vehicles. Now they go so far as to kidnap Ukrainians. In the vicinity of Khmielnik the terror caused by Jews had reached new heights.

After the former local military commander had been relieved and before a new one was appointed, the Jewish population at once turned this occasion to their advantage. They terrorized the Ukrainians and spread the rumor that the Russians would come back to take bloody revenge. According to the reports of an inhabitant, Jews and Communists killed 25 Ukrainians in a neighboring village. The Jews tried to block the approach to Khmielnik by stretching a rope across the road, thus trapping motor vehicles. The commanding officer of a construction company and a fully loaded personnel-carrier evaded the trap at the very last minute.

Extensive actions have been launched to fight these Jewish out-rages and banditry. The localities concerned are surrounded and first of all cleared of prominent Jews and Jewish Communists.

Above all, in each case, the ghetto is systematically purged. In collaboration with the local authorities and with the militia, lists are compiled containing the names of the well-known and still present Communists; then they are sought out. In Khmielnik as many as 100 Jews and Communists were listed.

In view of these unprecedented Jewish actions it is intended to round up the Jews in certain villages, to liquidate them, and to raze the villages to the ground.

In Turchinka, to the north of Zhitomir, about 400-500 peasants, coming from 12 villages, were caught while looting a railroad depot. First of all, firearms had to be used in order to restore peace and order. Then, together with 26 peasants, one Ukrainian was held responsible for the restitution of the looted goods. In case they refused to return the stolen items, they were threatened with the severest punishment.

Furthermore, the peasants were ordered to start bringing in the harvest immediately under newly assigned kolkhoz leaders. Up to now 110 peasants have returned the looted goods.

In Chernyakhov 13 more Jews were executed, among them a former kolkhoz leader who had also been a GPU agent and caused the deportation of several indigenous families.

In several villages to the northwest of Berdichev eight leading Bolsheviks were apprehended and liquidated. They were convicted of having terrorized their villages for years, either as leaders of a kolkhoz or as NKVD agents. Above all, these Bolsheviks are responsible for the deportation of numerous Ukrainians. It is a proven fact that after the arrival of the German forces, some of the Bolsheviks acted as snipers against German troops. Moreover, they all participated in the destruction of supplies and agricultural machines and the scattering of the livestock. At first, all of them fled, but they have returned now, and, as already mentioned, it became possible to liquidate them.

In the village of Polychynca the population was freed from a radical Communist who was responsible for the crimes of violence. In 1931, he had set the village church on fire entirely on his own initiative.

The villages Koziatyn and Vcherayshe were cleared a second time in order to apprehend the Communists who had returned. In the course of this operation a total of 22 party officials and Jews were liquidated.

One platoon of Einsatzkommando 5 was again in action in Zviahel where 230 civilian prisoners who had been transferred there were screened.

161 persons were executed. They were Jews, Communists, looters and saboteurs.



The Chief of the Security Police and the SD
Berlin, August 23, 1941
48 copies (36th copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 61

Einsatzgruppe D
Location: Ananyev
EK 12:
Harvesting action

The kolkhozniki [collective farm workers] started to bring in the harvest on their own initiative. The population, almost without exception, showed itself extremely willing to work. Only in Babchinzy was there some resistance to an orderly harvesting caused by the instigation of Jewish inhabitants and some Jews who came to this area a few months ago. By spying on the population, these Jews had already created the basis for numerous deportations to Siberia. As a countermeasure, 94 Jews were executed.

The population was visibly relieved by these measures and hardly knows how to show its gratitude. This measure, as well as protecting the population from looting Rumanian soldiers, which was necessary in many cases, led to the fact that the population put absolute confidence in the Germans. This is reflected by the number of people reporting for work. In Yaruga, for example, 940 people out of a total of 1,200 inhabitants are occupied with bringing in the harvest.

Conduct of the Rumanians

In different places on the second bunkerline west of Yampol, looting Rumanian soldiers were intercepted. Plans are being considered for the use of this material by the German troops in Yampol.

Rumanian troops in quest of plunder had moved in with Jews in Borovka and looted from there. The Rumanians were apprehended and handed over to Rumanian officers.

Looting Rumanian soldiers were also apprehended near Sokol and Yelenovka and delivered into the hands of Rumanian officers. It was also possible to apprehend a Rumanian band [of soldiers] that had moved into a sugar factory.



The Chief of the Security Police and the SD
Berlin, August 25, 1941
48 copies (36th copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 63

Einsatzgruppe C
Location: Novo-Ukrainka

On August 16, 1941, Einsatzkommando 6 of Sipo and the SD were located near Novo-Ukrainka. While purging the area, the Einsatzkommando group encountered a suspicious looking civilian who escaped and was pursued. In the course of that pursuit, members of the EK-6-SS Stubf. von Koskull, SS-O-Scharf. Werner Schulz, SS-Scharführer Schwarz became involved in a shooting incident with nine hidden Soviet officers. SS-O-Scharf. Schulz fell in that fight.

Five of the Soviet officers were shot. Lieutenant-General Sokolov, the commander of the XVI Soviet armored corps, was among the Soviet officers. S. was severely wounded in the course of the exchange of fire and taken prisoner after the other officers had been overpowered.

Einsatzgruppe D
Location: Ananyev

The solution of the Jewish question, one of the most important problems, has already been tackled, though only in a hesitant manner. Before the war, there were some 60 to 80,000 Jews in Kishinev. A great many of them left when the Russians withdrew. When the town was occupied there were approximately 4,000 Jews as some of them had returned.

On the initiative of the Einsatzkommando the Rumanian town-commander established a Jewish ghetto in the old part of the town which, at present, comprises about 9,000 Jews.

The Jews are divided in labor groups and put at the disposal of the various German and Rumanian offices for rubbish clearance and other work.



The Chief of the Security Police and the SD
Berlin, August, 1941
48 copies (36th copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 64

Einsatzgruppe D
Location: Ananyev

Situation in Kodyma

A. Economy

Business and trade in Kodyma and Kotovsk are almost exclusively under Jewish management. All the stores and shops and storehouses have been destroyed as a result of the war; the rest was looted by the population.

B. Cultural Situation in Kodyma Region

1. Nationalities Situation:

In the district of Kodyma as well as in the West Ukrainian areas that have been so far in touch with the Kommando, the Ukrainian character is decidedly prevalent. Concerning the nationalities situation, it is the same as in the regions of Yampol and Pechenka.

40% of the population, numbering 6,000, are Jews. The remaining 60% consist of Ukrainians and a small Polish group that has no influence whatsoever.

2. Education and Communist Influence

There are three Soviet schools in the region of Kodyma, namely, one comprising ten classes, one eight, and one seven. The schools of ten and seven classes were used mainly by Jews. That school was transformed from a Jewish to a Russian school ten years ago. Soviet personnel policy concerning the school system provided for a staff of teachers who were in charge of the three schools. With one exception, directors and managers of the schools were either Jews or Communist activists.

C. Jewish matters

40% of the 5,000 inhabitants of Kodyma were Jews. In addition to the local Jews, there is a large number of refugees from Bessarabia. Most of the local Jews who were close to Bolshevism, that is members of the Communist party, have fled with the Soviet army.

Immediately after the Soviets arrived in Kodyma, the Jewish organizations were dissolved. Thus, their activities took place within the framework of the Communist party organizations. In 1935, the synagogues in Kodyma were transformed into schools. Prayer houses were not subsidized officially; therefore, the cult was practiced in private homes. These meetings were held secretly as the authorities collected high taxes for this. Also, Jewish Soviet employees and workers would have endangered their position. Therefore they frequented the prayer houses secretly.

The Jews in K. did not lead a traditional Jewish way of life. They were active in all of the decision-making positions and had influence in Communist organizations, clubs, and economy. Of the six Jewish physicians, one dentist, two lawyers, one pharmacist, only one female physician has remained in K. The rest of them have fled.

Jewish intelligentsia in Kodyma took great interest in the activities of the Communist party and held, as already mentioned, leading positions in the CP. The poorer part of the population were tradesmen. All of them were sympathetic to Bolshevism. Only a few Jewish families are members of the collectives.

Situation in the region of Khotin-Mogilev

1. Jewish Question

At present there are about 4,000 Jews in the town of Mogilev who are part of the population. Approximately 7,000 Jews live in the immediate proximity of Mogilev. They were deported from Rumania into this area before its administration was taken over [by the Rumanians]. One transport of Jews, consisting of about 6,000 persons, was escorted to the other side of the Dniester, in spite of considerable protest by the Rumanian officer in command of the bridge. The number of Jews increases daily on account of their return to the town.

It is intended to concentrate the Jewish population into one quarter of the town. The Jews who were deported into this area by the Rumanians are being confined in three camps. Jews fit for work were detailed to clear away rubble in the town as well as to bring in the harvest.

Relations with the Rumanian Army

Though the town was not damaged by the effects of the war, it was plundered almost entirely by the Rumanian troops as they passed through. Shootings and rapes are daily occurrences. All the complaints to the Rumanian commanders have not had any success worth mentioning. Therefore, together with the Ukrainian auxiliary police, a permanent street control has been introduced. In many cases, serious conflicts arose as looted goods were taken away again from the Rumanian troops.



The Chief of the Security Police and the SD
Berlin, August 28, 1941
48 copies
(36th copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 66

Einsatzgruppe for Special Duties
Location: Lvov

Reports: Activity Report in the former Polish-Russian areas

2,117 persons were liquidated as follows: by Einsatzkommando Lvov 1,154; Brest-Litovsk 769; and Bialystok 194. Almost 3,000 per-sons were arrested. The Communists continue their illegal work in full strength. The spread of rumors and the dropping of leaflets by Russian airplanes are continuing. On August 15, 1941 a large ammunition depot, formerly Russian, exploded not far from Lvov apparently as a result of sabotage. Communists want to delay additional sabotage acts until after the harvest has been brought in. In Klusk near Kovel, 45 full barns burned down on the night of August 15-16, 1941. It is very easy to supply the numerous bands with weapons as military installations are unguarded.

The Jews continue to be extremely hostile and commit acts of sabotage whenever one does not react most energetically.

Members of the 10th Hungarian Hunter Battalion have expelled more than 1,000 Hungarian Jews over the Dniester to Galicia. Einsatz unit Tarnopol promptly sent them back. Members of the same Hungarian unit tore down Ukrainian flags, threw stones into the windows of Ukrainian priests, and entertained themselves with the Polish clergy. The dissolution of the Ukrainian militia is going on every-where to the satisfaction of the greater part of the population. Activity of the Bander supporters increases. An inscription on the cooperative store building in Klusk near Kovel demanded removal of the "foreign government" and the return of Stefan Bandera. The popular proclamation of the Ukrainian state was to be read in public in Luboml.

Functionaries coming from the General Gouvernement especially solicit the young people to join the Polish resistance movement.



The Chief of the Security Police and the SD
Berlin, August 29, 1941
48 copies
(36th copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 67

Einsatzgruppe for Special Duty Lvov

Activity in the former Polish-Russian areas

During the period of this report, 2,739 persons were liquidated, and approximately 2,800 persons were arrested.

The illegal work of the Communists continues. It is expressed in horror propaganda, distribution of pamphlets, and acts of sabotage. In the area of Einsatzkommando Lutsk, army guards were repeatedly shot at by such elements. Adequate retaliation measures were carried out. Communist propaganda by pamphlet continues and is enhanced by propaganda material that is dropped from Russian aircraft (particularly in Volhynia).

The Polish resistance movement is again evident (Rovno, Lutsk). In Kostopol, district Lutsk, illegal organizations, "Bund der Schützen" and "Kampflegion des Todes," were uncovered. The officials and members whose names were ascertained were liquidated.

The behavior of the Jews is hostile and partly impertinent. They are the main source of anti-German propaganda.

Einsatzgruppe A
Location: Pesje

Einsatzgruppe B
Location: Smolensk

Fight against partisan groups

The current actions against partisan groups are continuing success-fully. Members of the Gruppe H.Q. had to liquidate 26 Jews in Monastyrshchina, about 70 km south of Smolensk, who were cooperating with the partisans, terrorizing the loyal population and sabotaging the economic measures ordered by the military headquarters in Smolensk. With the help of the anti-Bolshevik section of the population, the members of the Gruppe H.Q. located a group of partisans near Monastyrshchina numbering 150-200 with a large ammunition store. In cooperation with the Army, their destruction is proceeding.

At the request of the intelligence officer of the H. Q. of 2nd Army, the Sonderkommando 7b joined in the fight against the partisans.

According to information, former armed members of the Red Army are in hiding in a village near Sokhanova. They terrorize that part of the population that is willing to work. A special unit of EK 7b established that the village in question was Sharjevshtina. The special unit surrounded the village, made a surprise entry and caught six partisans who were liquidated. Loaded Russian military rifles and pistols were taken. By the way, all of the partisans were members of the CP.
Einsatzkommando 9 which is stationed in Vitebsk has accomplished four major actions against the partisans. The broad woodlands made matters particularly difficult. Anyhow, it was possible to surprise and destroy a larger number of partisans.

Sonderkommando 8 discovered among other things a Jew in Cherven who had been a school supervisor until [the outbreak of] the war. He had joined a partisan group that roamed the forests of Cherven under the leadership of a Russian lieutenant. Informed Army personnel have successfully combed the area in question. The mayor of Rzhev and his house manager were liquidated because of the same activities. In the Rzhev area a Kommando of the EK 8 has arrested and finished off 51 men because they had been active as partisans. Most of them were Red Army members wearing civilian clothes who had disposed of their identification papers. Two platoons of the police were attacked by a Red Army unit the size of a battalion. Because of their great number, the police had to retreat, losing 12 dead and two injured. A retaliatory action by the 262nd Division is in progress.

According to information received in Slutsk, strong Red forces are on their way there. The defense of the town was prepared. The entire German force was alerted as well as the sub-unit of EK 8 which was on the spot. Since the last report this sub-unit has executed 77 men who had been connected with the partisans and had been convicted of acts of sabotage.

Lately, the Vorkommando Moscow received in Smolensk more and more information about partisan activities in the surrounding villages.

Actions against officials, agents, Jews, saboteurs and looters. Seizure of material.

In Smolensk some quarters of the town were systematically searched for officials, agents, criminals, Jewish intelligentsia, etc. During this action 74 persons were arrested and liquidated. Among these were persons who had contact with partisans, as well as a member of the NKGB, who had been involved in continuous shootings in the cellar of the NKVD building and is now a leader of looting bands. The screening of the remaining parts of the town continues. However, it should be taken into consideration that Smolensk still houses only a small fraction of its former population. The building-up of a network of confidential agents was energetically promoted. The fact that only few inhabitants remained and that a series of sabotage acts have occurred lately proves the existence of active Bolsheviks. Thus, great care is necessary in the recruitment of confidential agents. In spite of these difficulties, it was possible to procure a large number of reliable confidential agents. Members of the appointed town administration were also included in the network of confidential agents.

In Mogilev, the raids seeking Communist officials were continued. Apart from the ones already liquidated, 80 more Jews were executed. Among these there was, apart from a number of arsonists, an informer of the NKGB, who had denounced numerous ethnic Germans to the Russian authorities.

In Orsha, 43 Jews were found, some of whom were actively spreading atrocity stories, while others acted as snipers. Among these were two party officials. One of them was the Communist party propagandist in Orsha. Moreover, a Pole was shot for looting. Eleven Jews were executed in the villages of Shuchari and Yasna. Some of these had been active as snipers, others carried on Communist agitation. Among the ones liquidated was an official of the Communist party who was said to have been a political Commissar. The political Commissar Valerian Sakharinkov was seized in the field, near Mogilev, and liquidated. S. was a member of the party since 1919. He was a fanatic Bolshevik who until the end exercised a strong influence on large parts of the population.
31 Jews who had been in contact with partisans were liquidated in Chashy, 60 km from Mogilev. Since neither a local nor a field command post or a town administration has as yet been formed in Chashy, the detachment operating there appointed a council; Partisans shot at the detachment during its return from Chashy and succeeded in escaping into the woods. An NKGB informer was liquidated among others in Bobruisk. This man, according to the testimony of witness-es, had about 200 persons on his conscience. A number of Jews, who agitated the population by spreading rumors, were also shot.

A secret letter was found in the Communist party building in Velish during the examination of file materials there. It concerned an instruction of the delegate of the People's Commissariat regarding preparations for December 25, 1940, in which complete mobilization by January 10, 1941 is called for. Moreover, files on the Komsomol membership and of the Communist party could be secured in the NKVD building. The formation of a Jewish Council, the marking, and registration of the Jews were also carried out.

Eight Jews who had tried to intimidate the population by spreading false rumors and who were also members of the Komsomol were liquidated in Kolkhoz Voroshilov, 17 km from Velish. Moreover, the former head of the office of forestry development in Velish, a Jewess, was shot for sabotage. In Novo-Svienchiany, 169 and in Vilnius 612 more persons were subjected to special treatment.

In Vitebsk, the actions against the Jewish intelligentsia were continued. A Jewess insidiously asked a German soldier to open a door. As he did so the soldier's lower arm was torn off by an explosive charge. She was apprehended through investigations by the Einsatzkommando. The Jewess was then publicly hanged. Some other persons who participated in setting Vitebsk afire and who drove cattle out of the villages in compliance with Stalin's proclamation were also liquidated.

In Minsk, 615 more persons were liquidated in the course of an action in the civilian-prisoner camp there. All the executed were of racially inferior stock. Also liquidated were a Russian who shot at German soldiers, and two persons who were caught red-handed while cutting cables of the Luftwaffe. A Byelorussian was apprehended by the local command post in Minsk on suspicion of committing acts of sabotage. He was found guilty of having destroyed cables of the German Army with an axe behind the Rushkin barracks. He was liquidated. A Jew and a Byelorussian woman who, as Bolshevik agitators, carried out the lowest kind of agitation and work sabotage were subjected to the same treatment. Ten more Jews from Minsk, who until the last, had carried on anti-German propaganda among the population, were also shot. A Russian who roamed through the town in the disguise of a beggar and terrorized the population with threats of arson, also had to be executed. Furthermore, a member of the civilian order service was liquidated. He made searches of apartments in Minsk and in the village of Znianka without orders. While doing this, he looted the apartments. The liquidation was necessary, for no other reason than he told the persons concerned that he was acting by order of the German authorities. A number of other persons were shot be-cause of sabotage, looting, and Communist propaganda. Ten Russians, who found a hide-out in the barracks at the border of Minsk, were subjected to the same treatment. According to the investigations, they were former convicts.

Einsatzgruppe D
Location: Ananyev

Operational Report from the district bordering the Dniester: From Khotin to Yambol, including Chernovtshy.

The territory, with the exception of the Hungarian-occupied area around Svanzia, was cleared of Jews. The Rumanians had driven thousands of selected persons unfit for labor, such as invalids and children, from Bessarabia and Bucovina into the German sphere. In the vicinity of Svanzia-Mogilev-Podolski-Yampol, a total of approximately 27,500 Jews were driven back to Rumanian territory, and 1,265, partly younger ones, were shot. 3,105 more Jews and 34 Communists were liquidated in Chernovtsy in the course of search actions east of the Dniester. No terror and sabotage groups were discovered.

David Thompson
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Postby David Thompson » 23 May 2004 08:33

Part 5:

The Chief of the Security Police and the SD
September 4, 1941
48 copies
(36th copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 73

Einsatzgruppe B
Location: Smolensk

a. Execution activity
a. General Situation

Execution activity continues with unmitigated severity during the period of this report. Certain rearrangements, however, have be-come necessary in the various branches of this task-sector as the advance eastwards continued.

As is well known, Jews were forbidden, during the tsarist regime, to settle in the central parts of Russia. The eastern border of the Jewish Zone ran along a line running through Vitebsk, Orsha, Mogilev, and Gomel. As the prohibition was lifted, in February 1917, the Jews streamed in masses into that zone and also eastwards. They were mostly intellectual Jews who, of course, settled almost exclusively in the larger towns in order to be active in politics and economics. Relatively few Jews could, therefore, be found in the villages and smaller towns of this area. The larger part of the intellectual Jews from the [provincial] capitals have managed to escape the German armies and go east. It has been also established without any doubt that the Jews who, up to this point, usually returned to their homes after fleeing into the forests, etc., do not return so soon, or not at all, to the area where the Einsatzgruppe of the Security Police is active. This proves that the activity of the Security Police has become rather well known in Jewish circles. It is, therefore, hardly possible at present to continue the number of liquidations on the same scale as before, since the Jewish elements are to a great extent missing.

In this manner the local and field Kommandaturen could be supported more effectively than previously in accomplishing their administrative and economic aims. It has become clear that quite often these authorities need the help of the Security Police in such matters as installing new mayors, establishing ghettos, marking and registering Jews, and organizing work groups from the population. It was necessary more than once to break the intransigent behavior of hostile persons through the intervention of the Security Police.

The forces that have become available through the absence of Jewish elements can thus proceed more than before with the organization of our work in accordance with the general police. Researches and investigations could be carried out more effectively. Greater numbers of dangerous agents and officials could be rendered harmless in cooperation with secret agents.

b. Fight against partisans

A squad operating in Slutsk raided the villages of Ogrodniki, Kvasinitse and Novido liquidating 39 snipers, among them a Russian major who had camouflaged himself by wearing civilian clothes and taken up some employment. In the village of Oshidkoviche five per-sons were arrested and liquidated. It was found that they had sup-ported partisan groups and given them information about the German forces.

The squad operating in Borisov liquidated another 118 persons. With the aid of the 10th Company of the 354th Infantry Regiment, they combed through the area north of Borisov for partisans. This purge was directed chiefly against the village of Sachistshe, about 25 km distance from Borisov, which was considered the center of the guerrilla activity. Investigations proved that the partisans had been supported by the leaders of the kolkhoz. Most of the persons liquidated were Jewish activists.

c. Actions against officials, agents, saboteurs and Jews

The HQ of Einsatzgruppe B succeeded in arresting three NKGB informers in Smolensk and one of the small places in the area. They terrorized the sector of the population that had no Bolshevik inclinations for years, by informing on many persons to the NKGB. The population expressed its satisfaction about the liquidation of these persons.

Sonderkommando 7a carried out another action in Nevel against the Jews, in which 74 persons were shot. This action was carried out as a reprisal for arson committed by Jews.

The action was carried out as a punitive measure for arson committed by Jews in Nevel. According to the voluntary confession of many Jews, many members of that race participated in these arsons which destroyed the center of the town which was only slightly damaged during the fighting. Further steps must be taken against the Jews after their return. An additional number of active Communists and Jewish intellectuals were executed in a number of smaller localities.

A squad of Sonderkommando 7b carried out a search action in Chautsy for Communist functionaries. They arrested four Communists who spread rumors that the German forces were beaten and were retreating. They were dealt with pursuant to orders. 20 Jews who had been active as Communists were also executed.

An NKGB agent was found in the village Isobishche and subjected to special treatment. The search in the village Novoselki led to the discovery of a Communist who was also notorious outside his home village. In addition to his activities as party official, he had been guilty of theft from ethnic Germans. He was liquidated.

The Construction Battalion 9 of Minsk handed over to Einsatzkommando 8 a Ukrainian prisoner of war who made no secret of his Communist views. While being arrested he still tried to make propaganda for Communist ideas, especially for the system of collective farms. He was liquidated. A Russian who had been active in the Communist party for many years and had been a pronounced activist and troublemaker, had also to be shot. In Minsk, another 21 persons, who spread anti-German agitation by whispering propaganda among the population, were liquidated.

The squad operating in Slutsk carried out special purges in Rzhev and in Borisov. Except for 96 Red Army soldiers who were handed over to the prisoner-of-war camp, a number of Jews were liquidated who had remained active Communists to the end. Among them were ten fugitive Jewish families who came from former Polish territory and had moved east with the retreating Russian soldiers. While searching their horse-drawn carts considerable quantities of tinned food belonging to the German Army were found.

Five members of the Soviet People's Court of Slutsk were done away with. One of them was a Jew. In the village of Komarovka they were able to arrest a former Public Prosecutor who had been denounced. The squad stationed in Slutsk liquidated 115 people in all during the time covered by this report.

Einsatzkommando 8 received information that in the ghetto of Minsk the Jews were spreading anti-German propaganda in a whispering campaign. It was especially effective with the rural population who tried to sell their products in the ghetto.
Because Jews had attacked a member of the local auxiliary police and had repeatedly destroyed German Army sign-posts, a new special action was carried out against the Jews of Minsk in which 214 persons were shot.

Einsatzkommando 9 found 149 Jews of Yanovichi to be NKGB in-formers and political functionaries who were handled accordingly. Some of these Jews sabotaged German projects. They stayed in hiding in order not to be drafted to gather the harvest, and for road and aerodrome construction work.

After three German soldiers were killed in the vicinity of Vitebsk a German Army pacification-action was carried out. On this occasion we seized 19 Jews and Jewesses wandering around in the forest where the murder had been committed. They were executed on the strong suspicion of having taken part in the attack and committing arson in Vitebsk.

The Vorkommando Moscow was forced to execute another 46 per-sons, among them 38 intellectual Jews who had tried to create unrest and discontent in the newly established ghetto of Smolensk.

The Kommandos can make the gratifying observation almost everywhere that because of the strict and fair attitude of the Security Police, the population is becoming more open all the time. Also our pacification activity is supported by reports on Communists.

Investigating civilian prisoners camps

The search action of the civilian prison camp of Minsk continues. Another 733 civilian prisoners were seized and all of them were liquidated.

All the persons executed were absolutely inferior elements with a predominant mixture of Asiatic blood. No responsibility could be assumed if they were left in the occupied zone.

In Vitebsk the German Army handed over to Einsatzkommando 9 (after searching through the civilian prisoners' camp) 397 Jews who had committed acts of sabotage and attacked German troops.

Formation of labor groups, Jewish Councils, ghettos etc.

As in the other towns until now, Jews were also picked up in Nevel in the course of systematic search actions and were organized in labor groups that were used for town-cleaning. A Jewish Council was chosen from the more intelligent Jews. As a first task, they were ordered to register the Jews of both sexes and to mark them with a yellow star.

b. Statistics of the liquidations

The total figures of persons liquidated by Einsatzgruppe B as of August 20, 1941 were:
1. H. Q. and Vorkommando Moscow 144
2. Vorkommando 7a 996
3. Vorkommando 7b 886
4. Einsatzkommando 8 6,842
5. Einsatzkommando 9 8,096

Total 16,964

Confiscations

A member of the local auxiliary police of Minsk, a Volga German, found in a Jewish doctor's apartment 17,980 rubles which the Jew had hidden. The amount was confiscated.

On the occasion of a purge in Cherven 125,880 rubles were found on 139 liquidated Jews and were confiscated. This brings the total of the money confiscated to date by Einsatzkommando 8 to 1,510,399 rubles.

Einsatzkommando 9 succeeded in securing nine folders containing extracts of censured letters that were written by civilians and soldiers. The letters were confiscated and studied in the censor's office of the NKVD in Novogrudok. The NKVD was obviously interested to find out what the mood was in the area of Poland that had been under Russian occupation.



The Chief of the Security Police and the SD
Berlin, September 5, 1941
48 copies (36th copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 74

Einsatzgruppe C
Location: Novo-Ukrainka

Behavior of allied forces stationed in this area

In Pervomaysk, an ethnic German auxiliary policeman had the task to escort Jewish laborers. In the course of this activity, he had an altercation with a Jew and was injured. Self-defense was prevented by a Hungarian soldier who, with a loaded pistol, came to the aid of the Jew. Later on the Jew was found and liquidated by the Einsatzkommando in charge.



The Chief of the Security Police and the SD
Berlin, September 9, 1941

48 copies (46th copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 78

Situational Report in former Russian-Poland

Ethnic groups: Nationalities

1,308 more persons were liquidated, 760 by Einsatzkommando Lvov and 548 by [EK] Brest-Litovsk. Approximately 700 persons were arrested. Distribution of Soviet Russian pamphlets has somewhat diminished at the time of this report. Only in the area of Lutsk, larger amounts were still seized in some villages. Pamphlets of more recent dates were not found any more. Six Russian parachutists landed east of Pinsk. Searches for them so far are without result. Parachutists were dropped in the area of Kremenets, most of them were seized and liquidated by the local security division. So far, no sabotage acts have been committed. The Polish resistance movement has become more evident in the area of Brest where there is strong propaganda for General Sikorski. No arrests have been effected, so as not to interfere with further investigations. Ukrainian bands have appeared lately in the neighborhood of Pinsk. However, they were driven out by the local police.



The Chief of the Security Police and the SD
Berlin, September 11, 1941
48 copies (36th copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 80

Einsatzgruppe C
Location: Novo-Ukrainka

Observations made and measures taken by the Security Police.

Besides the thorough liquidation of the Party organization and the operations to clear the country of Jews who constitute the most negative civilian element, the executive operations of Einsatzgruppe C at present also include: above all, the fight against all partisan activities, beginning with the well-organized bands and the individual snipers down to the systematic rumor mongers.

The rumor that the Germans shoot to kill all the Jews has advantages. This is probably the reason why all the time the EKs encounters fewer Jews. Thus, it should be noted that everywhere more than 70-90% of the original local Jews have fled. In contrast to the past, this concerns not only those Jews who once held influential positions.

Primarily in the large towns, the ever increasing security tasks cannot be solved by the Einsatzkommandos alone, since they are too small for this purpose. Mounting importance is being attached to the creation and organization of a regular police service. Well screened particularly reliable Ukrainians are employed for this purpose. Moreover, a network of confidential agents composed predominantly of ethnic Germans, has been created with great success. In the kolkhozes these tasks have mostly been conferred upon the kolkhoz managers (the starostas).

At Kirovo, the development has reached a stage where the men enlisted for this purpose are already being paid by the municipality from funds seized from Jews. They obtain their rations from a small farm that has been especially allocated to them.

In Narodichi, 208 terrorists, and, in a nearby barn, nearly 60 terrorists were arrested and shot in the course of a large-scale action.

In Andrushovka 6 more Bolsheviks were rendered harmless.

In Korosten, according to reports received, numerous Jews who had previously fled had gathered together again, constituting a source of continuous unrest.

238 Jews who were rounded up and driven to a special building by the Ukrainian militia were shot.

In Fastov, where the Secret Military Police of the local command post and a Defense Battalion had already liquidated about 30 snipers and 50 Jews, order was fully restored only after

Sonderkommando 4a shot a former terrorist and all the Jewish inhabitants between the ages of 12 and 60, making a total of 262 heads.

August 24, 1941, the total of executions carried out by Sonderkommando 4a has thus reached the figure of 7,152 persons.

In Lisovishi three saboteurs, one of whom had destroyed several harvesters, were arrested and liquidated.

In Tarashcha, 17 executions were carried out.

In Kamenets-Podolsk 23,600 Jews were shot in three days by a Kommando of the Higher SS and Police Leaders.



The Chief of the Security Police and the SD
Berlin, September 12, 1941
48 copies (36th copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 81

Einsatzgruppe C
Location: Novo-Ukrainka.

Report relating to the situation in the Ukraine submitted by Einsatzkommando 6.

The Jewish question

All experiences confirm the assertion made before that the Soviet state was a Jewish state of the first order. This can be ascertained in every enterprise, authority and even in the kolkhozes. Take the director, vice-director, the bookkeeper, the cashier, the manager of the depots of each enterprise: they were Jews, and the employees and workers were Ukrainians. The manager of the local labor union, the party-secretary of the same enterprise are Jews as well. This is found to be the rule in the medium and small enterprises, let alone the big ones. For these reasons, the Jewish question has become a burning problem for the Ukrainian people. Whenever this question is discussed, enthusiastic approval can be heard. The use of the word "Zhid" was threatened with severe punishment and considered to be symptomatic of an anti-Soviet attitude during the Bolshevik era. The acceptable form was that of "Yevrei. The aversion of the population and the clear understanding of the Jewish problem increases when going from west to east. This means that in the districts of central and east Ukraine, where there are no long-time Jews, the Jew is rejected with even greater exasperation than in the "old-Jewish" districts west of Berdichev and Zhitomir. There, a greater passivity and an accommodation to the association with Jews took place over the course of centuries. Concerning propaganda measures for the broad masses in the Ukrainian districts it should be kept in mind that the population is always grateful for our treatment of the Jewish question. Almost nowhere could the population be induced to take active steps against the Jews. This may be traced back to the fear still prevailing in many circles that the Reds might come back again.

Time and again this intimation was made by the older people with the addition that they already had the experience in 1918 when the Germans suddenly withdrew. In order to counteract this psychosis of fear, and to break the spell which adheres to the Jews as carriers of political power in the eyes of many Ukrainians, Einsatzkommando 6 in several instances marched the Jews through the town under guard prior to their execution. It was likewise often deemed important to have men from the militia (Ukrainian auxiliary police force) participate in the execution of Jews.

Word seems to have passed among the Jews on the other side of the front, too, about the fate they can expect from us. While a considerable number of Jews could be apprehended during the first weeks, it can be ascertained that in the central and eastern districts of the Ukraine, in many cases 70% to 90%, and in some cases even 100% of the Jewish population had bolted. The gratuitous evacuation of hundreds of thousands of Jews may be considered to be an indirect success of the work of the Security Police. As we hear mostly from the other side of the Urals, this is a considerable contribution to the solution of the Jewish question in Europe.

As an oddity we should like to mention the discovery of Jewish kolkhozes. Between Krivoy-Rog and Dnepropetrovsk there is a considerable number of Jewish kolkhozes which consist of Jews not only as the managers but also as agricultural laborers. As far as we could find out they are Jews of low intelligence who had been found unsuitable for important tasks and "exiled" to the country by the political leaders.

In order to be sure work was carried on [without interruption], Einsatzkommando 6 refrained from shooting the Jews in these cases, and was satisfied with the liquidation of the Jewish managers [only], replacing them with Ukrainians.

Some experiences

Executions of Jews are understood everywhere and accepted favorably. It is surprising how calm the delinquents [victims] are when they are shot, both Jews and non-Jews. Fear of death seems to have been dulled by 20 years of Soviet rule.



The Chief of the Security Police and the SD
Berlin, September 17, 1941
48 copies (36th copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 86

Einsatzgruppe A
Location: Kikerino

Fight against partisans

Eight persons who have provided partisans with food and information were shot. Among them was a Jew who had been hiding his true descent. He sneaked in as a translator in a German war hospital and deliberately provided false translations.

Einsatzgruppe C
Location: Novo-Ukrainka

General situation

The Einsatzkommandos maintain contact with the fighting troops in order to arrive together with the advance infantry units in the newly occupied cities and areas. In this process they are frequently ex-posed to violent enemy fire.
In spite of their rapid progress, the picture has by now become the same all over and can be summarized as follows: the most important officials of the KP and the NKVD and the influential Jews have fled and destroyed all documentary material. The politically important fugitives have apparently gone over the Dnieper, while the less important, among them many Jews, are returning by and by. Therefore, next to the search for strangers in prison camps and in as many small localities as possible, particular importance is given to the search of forest areas, roads, and villages at night. For, according to our experience, fugitives and partisans show up there for provisions.

The arrival of the security Kommandos is generally made known very soon and is welcomed by the Army, especially by the local command headquarters as well as by the population. Village mayors, militia commanders, and other civilians arrive from distances as far as 20 km in order to make reports. It is remarkable that up to now the peasant has hardly ever left the borders of his village. Particularly frequent are reports on Russian parachutists that have been seen, as well as bands and hidden Bolsheviks. As all the Einsatz commanders have noticed, the actions that were subsequently taken were only partly successful because the information received from the population is exaggerated or not based on reliable facts. Exaggerated anxiety, the wish to hurt personal enemies, and the wish for weapons of the Ukrainian militia are the main reasons for such useless denunciations. Anyhow, the trust of the Ukrainian population is gratifying, particularly as it was possible to ferret out the places of Bolsheviks, Jews, and asocial elements following the reports.

The above-mentioned exaggerations come at first from an inability that can be called childish on the part of the population to express itself clearly and unambiguously and of a narrow-mindedness, particularly in the southern Ukraine. It frequently happened that persons timidly denied their strongly biased reports or they weakened them when they found out that the life of the accused was in danger.

In general, such informants are sternly cautioned in order to avoid unnecessary troubles. In one case, an especially vicious informant was shot in the hamlet of Rozhyn. He was convicted of former Communist activity and asocial behavior.

One could also observe that the Jews behave in a brazen and impertinent manner in spite of the large-scale actions against them. This is proven by the following example:

In Ushomir where the 1st SS brigade shot all male Jews, bands led by four Jews entered two hours after the brigade left and set fire to 48 houses. In Zhitomir, the unarmed Ukrainian militia was repeatedly molested by Jews and, in one case, even shot at.

The Jews wrote a threatening letter in Kotelnia to the mayor that ended with the following words, "Long live the party of Lenin and Stalin! Long live the Jewish Communists! Death to the German bandits."

In Cherniakov, a Jewish woman managed to pose as an ethnic German in front of the mayor in the presence of a member of the SD by presenting a forged German document. Referring to this so-called proof she demanded a plot of land from the local commander.

Smuggling flourishes among the Jews in Zhitomir. They hoard the products which the peasants exchange for looted goods.

The Jews use work certificates that were given them by the Army offices for short-term occupations and do not return them. They also occupy themselves with forging documents. Thus, certificates were found like those used by the local Kommandatur in Zhitomir. Al-though the 6th Army HQ stamps were forged, the forms appeared to be real. They stem probably from an Army printing shop where Jews had been employed as auxiliary workers.

Operations

266 Jews were liquidated as further reprisal measures against the rebellion of the Zhitomir Jews. They even sabotaged the black-out regulations at night and lit up their windows during Russian air raids.

In the vicinity of the town, it was possible to disarm and arrest a parachutist with the aid of the militia after a rifle skirmish. He was equipped with explosives.

160 persons were shot in Korosten; during the course of the actions 68 persons were executed in Byelatserkiev and 109 in Tarashcha, mostly Jews.

Thus the Sonderkommando 4a has exterminated 6,584 Bolsheviks, Jews, and asocial elements. In two cases, ethnic Germans had to be arrested. They were active in the Communist sense, participating actively in the preparations for the deportation of ethnic Germans and Ukrainians. The investigations against these have not yet been concluded.

For the time being, Einsatzkommando 5 has been divided into platoons covering a larger territory, and is systematically combing the villages of this area. Among others, several Bolshevik mayors and kolkhoz representatives were taken care of. Besides that, several mentally retarded persons who were ordered to blow up bridges and rail-road tracks and to carry out other acts of sabotage, were rendered harmless. It seems that the NKVD favored mentally retarded persons in allocating these kinds of tasks; they, in spite of their inferiority, mustered enough energy for their criminal activities. Four executions were carried out in Ulianov, 18 in Uledovka.

It was possible to take care of 229 Jews in the clean-up action carried out in Khmielnik. As a result, this area, which suffered especially from Jewish terror, is extensively cleaned up. The reaction of the population here to their deliverance from the Jews was so strong that it resulted in a Thanksgiving service.

Einsatzkommando 5 took care of 506 Bolsheviks and Jews in the course of 14 days.

In the south of the Einsatzgruppen area, there still exists an empty area with respect to security police work because military operations do not take place sufficiently far away. So far, the return of the fugitives has not started in sufficient measure. Therefore, the number of actions naturally increases in the area which lies further back [from the front].

The remaining units of Einsatzkommando 6 shot about 600 Jews in Vinnitsa.

Up to now, 140 politically tainted persons were arrested in Kirovo and 48 of these were shot. Among these were heads of unions, Komsomol leaders, lay judges, and leaders of other Bolshevik central offices.

In Krivoy-Rog, 39 officials, 11 saboteurs and looters, and 105 Jews were taken care of.
Several actions for the seizure of officials, terrorists, and migrating Jews were carried out by the Einsatzgruppen HQ in Novo-Ukrainka and vicinity. Among others, a caravan of Jews, which was taking along a wagon of loot, was stopped. The Jews were shot and the goods distributed to the population. It was possible to find and to take care of two leading Communists during a night action in Zlinka. On the basis of individual reports and of road blocks on streets in the course of official travels, several Jews or Bolshevik agents were shot.

The office of the Higher SS and Police Leader took care of a total of 511 Jews in actions in Pilva and Stara-Sieninva.

The Jews

Even if an immediate hundred percent exclusion of the Jews were possible, this would not remove the political source of danger. Bolshevik work depends on Jews, Russians, Georgians, Armenians, Poles, Latvians, and Ukrainians. The Bolshevik apparatus is very limited in scope, identical with the Jewish population. In this situation, the goal of the political security police would be missed if the main task of the destruction of the Communist machine were to become a second or third choice in favor of the practically easier task of the exclusion of the Jews. Furthermore, concentrating on the Bolshevik official robs the Jews of their most able forces. Thus, the solution of the Jewish problem becomes more and more a problem of organization.

In the western and middle Ukraine, the Jews are almost identical with the city workers, artisans, and the tradesman class. If the Jewish labor force is entirely discarded, an economic reconstruction of the Ukrainian industry and the extension of the administration centers of the cities are almost impossible.

There is only one possibility, which the German administration in the General Gouvernement has not sufficiently understood for a long time, the solution of the Jewish problem by extensive labor utilization of the Jews. This will result in a gradual liquidation of the Jews, a development which corresponds to the economic conditions of the country.



The Chief of the Security Police and Security Service
Berlin, September 19, 1941
48 copies (36th copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 88

Einsatzgruppe A
Location: Posje

Liquidations

a) Operations were carried out by the Sonderkommando of the Einsatzkommando 3 in conjunction with the Lithuanian Kommando in the districts of Raseiniai, Rokiskis, Sarasai, Perzai and Prionai. Eleven districts are now free of Jews. These executions bring the number of persons liquidated by Einsatzkommando 3, together with Lithuanian partisans, to 46,692. The total number of executions is approximately 85,000.

b) After scrutiny of the Daugavpils (Dünaburg) prisons, a total of 279 persons (against whom there was no reason for detention) were discharged. 21 persons were liquidated.

c) Of the inmates in the lunatic asylum Aglona, a total of 544 insane persons were liquidated on August 22 with the assistance of the Latvian self-defense unit. Ten males who could be regarded as partially cured were discharged by the governor of the institution, Dr. Borg, after steps for their sterilization had been taken. After this action, the asylum no longer exists. The question of the re-employment of the nursing staff (about 150 persons) to care for the troops or in connection with the establishment of a hospital is being discussed with Military Headquarters.

Operations in Riga

In Riga, 223 searches and check-ups were carried through during the period under review In the prisons, there are at present 3,857 persons among them 3,569 Communists, 172 Jews and 116 persons against whom various charges are pending. The prison is being continually cleared.

Operation in the Town and District of Dorpat

Since the occupation of the town by German troops, approximately 1,200 cases of arrest were dealt with up to the present. Most of these concern people arrested for Communist activities. 504 individuals were set free after the conclusion of the investigation and registration. 150 persons were released as there was obviously no reason for their detention. 291 prisoners were taken to the detention camp set up and supervised by the Dorpat Military Headquarters. The total number of persons executed in Dorpat is 405, among them 50 Jews. There are no more Jews in prison.

Einsatzgruppe C
Location: Novo-Ukrainka

Locations

The Vorkommando 4b, which was previously stationed in Koryukov, has since moved to Kremenchug. Work in Kremenchug, which was heavily damaged by the actions, was begun at once. Head-quarters will move into the town on completion of the bridge over the river now under construction.

The Einsatzgruppe, too, will effect a change of location these days, presumably to Poltava.

Measures in the sphere of the Security Police

On September 6, 1941, Kommando 4a carried out an action against the Jews in Radomyshl. There, Jews from all over the district had been assembled. This led to an overcrowding of Jewish homes. On the average, 15 persons lived in one room. Hygienic conditions be-came intolerable. Every day several Jewish corpses had to be re-moved from the houses.

It was impossible to supply food to the Jews as well as the children.

In consequence, there was an ever-increasing danger of epidemics. To put an end to these conditions, 1,107 Jewish adults were shot by Kommando 4a, and 561 juveniles by the Ukrainian militia. By September 6, 1941, Sonderkommando 4a has liquidated a total of 11,328 Jews.

Between August 23 and September 5, 1941, Vorkommando 4b carried out a total of 519 executions by shooting, among these 56 officials and agents of the NKVD, 28 saboteurs and looters, and 435 Jews.

Between August 24 and August 30, 1941, Einsatzkommando 5 carried out 157 executions by shooting comprising Jews, officials and saboteurs.

On September 1 and 2, 1941, leaflets and inflammatory pamphlets were distributed by Jews in Berdichev. As the perpetrators could not be found, 1,303 Jews, among them 875 Jewesses over 12 years, were executed by a unit of the Higher SS and Police Leaders.

Owing to the halt of military operations, the Kommandos were restricted to their locations for longer periods than before. The time thus gained could be used for an intensification of work in the area. This partially very successful work was rendered possible by the creation of an excellent network of confidential informers. In the first place ethnic Germans and reliable Ukrainians were selected for these jobs.

It is with a view to the later period that an efficient communications network in the whole country is of particular importance. For this reason, it is intended to set up message centers all over the country which will be in charge of particularly reliable informants. These informants, then, will maintain communication with the others and collect the incoming messages. At longer or shorter intervals, these message centers will be visited by the Kommandos or by command head-quarters to pick up the accumulated information. This may afford a possibility to keep check on this vast area, so as to discover early and suppress by surprise potential dangers. Finally, a certain political alignment of the population could be achieved through the message centers. While headquarters have not been stationed yet, these talks will be carried out as far as possible by the group itself.

Einsatzgruppe D
Location: Nikolayev

Russian administration in Bessarabia

General

The Jews are concentrated in camps in the district of Tighina and are used for all kinds of work. Part of them count on being shot. In general, a strong anti-Jewish tendency can be observed among the Rumanian population.



The Chief of the Security Police and Security Service
Berlin, September 20, 1941
48 copies (36th copy)

Operational Situation Report USSR No. 89

Einsatzgruppe D
Location: Kikorino

Work areas of the Kommandos have been freed of Jews. From August 19 to September 25, 8,890 Jews and Communists were executed. The total number is 13,315.

Presently the Jewish question in Nikolayev and Kherson is being solved. In each place about 5,000 Jews were seized. In this location there are hardly any Communists since almost all of them retreated with the Soviets. In addition to a few Party officials, eight NKVD officials in Anayev and fourteen in Nikolayev were rendered harmless.

After interrogations any denunciations concerning terror organizations proved to be unfounded.
Jewish partisan group removed in .. .

Reconstruction work until now:

a) Organization and training for German self-defense. Continuation of furnishing guards, road blocks, assistance to relatives of banished persons. Assistance in house-to-house searches.

b) Marking of German villages, including the exterior of all houses with posters and sign boards in German, Rumanian and Ukrainian languages. Ethnic Germans were issued certificates signed by the Commander-in-Chief.

c) Freeing of settlements from Jewish and Communist elements.

d) Influence on Rumanian offices regarding self-administration of German communities.

e) Concentration of settlements was started. Farmers, physicians, teachers, etc. who had lived in scattered places brought into German settlements.

f) Economic protection, distribution of loot, cattle, harvesting ma-chines to the people, distribution of Jewish houses, belongings, etc.

g) Reviving cultural life by starting German instruction in most of the communities on September 9. Some hospitals opened. Influence on German behavior through lectures on Germany and the Führer.

h) Preparatory work for the inclusion of all ethnic Germans. Forty communities were included in the Beresany area. All the ethnic Germans were registered. In Nikolayev and Kherson they were also registered in card indexes. Selecting of the best for further reconstruction work, etc.

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Many Thanks!

Postby Debbie » 24 Jun 2004 11:35

David,

Thank you for taking the time to post the "missing" reports. Two questions-one, do you know how many more there are that weren't included in other sources?

And two, do you know which members of the German government received copies of these reports?

Debbie

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Postby Earldor » 24 Jun 2004 22:55

michael mills wrote:David,

Thanks for posting those Einsatzgruppen reports dating from the early period of their activities, July-August 1942.


Before we go any further in analysing the reports, could mr. Mills be so kind and answer a few definitive questions?

1) What is mr. Mills' definition of mass extermination, or "group extermination" as he insists on calling it now?

2) Would it make a difference whether the people killed were "pro-communists" or Jews? If so, why and in what sense?

3) Does mr. Mills have any proof to indicate that the Soviet Jews as a whole were pro-communist, as he seems to imply, or was there a difference as opposed to other Soviet nationals?

4) How does mr. Mills explain the distinction made in the EG reports between Jews and communists and other groups when reporting people shot?

5) What was the tally of Jews shot in the Ostland, Belorussia and The Ukraine, accepted by mr. Mills, by the end of year 1941?

You will have noted that the early reports show no sign of a program to exterminate the entire Jewish population; in fact deportation is specifically referred to as the means of solving the "Jewish Problem" in the area.


For some reason, mr. Mills fails to mention that most Holocaust historians have acknowledged that the killing of women and children picked up in August 1941. For some reason mr. Mills has chosen to limit the scope of his deductions to July-August 1941.

I would say that eg. the killing of 23 500 Jews (men, women and children) in late August by units sent by Jeckeln to Kamenets-Podolsk could be described as a program to exterminate the Jewish population.

In reference to Heydrich's orders of 2.7. 1941 (which lists the targets of the EGs), Peter Longerich has the following to say (The Unwritten Order, p.66):
"The order is certainly not to be interpreted as meaning that Heydrich intended to limit executions to those Jews who held 'party and state posts' . Given the fact that in the course of the war preparations the supposedly close connection between Jews and the Soviet system was repeatedly emphasised, it can be concluded that the instructions to execute 'other radical elements' was primarily directed against the Jewish population. Even the last word of this list, 'etc.', shows that the circle of 'other radical elements' was by no means clearly delineated.

The idea that efforts were made from the beginning to limit the set of Jewish victims specifically to 'all [...] Jews in party and State posts' is also incompatible with the intention of allowing collaborators to initiate these 'self-cleansing operations', or pogroms and massacres. A pogrom once begun could not be confined to specific Jewish victims chosen according to their function. [... ] these reports (the Ereignismeldungen. My clarification) openly describe the murder of hundreds of thousands of people, more of 90% of them Jews."

The nearest thing to a group extermination mentioned is the elimination of the Jewish intelligentsia in Minsk, most probably because the intelligentsia was considered most pro-Communist. However, it is obvious that the bulk of the Jewish population in that city at the time of the German occupation remained alive and was ghettoised.


Not that killing of the communists could be considered acceptable, but according to "Operational Situation Report USSR No. 20

Einsatzgruppe B:
Location: Minsk

The industrialized areas are only slightly damaged. The town is without light and water. Political and government officials have fled."

So, what kind of a trial were the Jews of Minsk given? Or was the simple fact that they were Jews enough to seal their fate?

You can read about the history of the Minsk ghetto here: http://www.deathcamps.org/occupation/mi ... hetto.html

There are also references to German soldiers carrying out massacres of Jews after seeing evidence of the atrocities committed by the NKVD before its flight.


The Germans used lies about Jews being somehow responsible for the NKVD murders to incite hatred in their own troops and in the local population.

Christopher Browning "The Origins of the Final Solution", p.259:
"Reports on events in Kaunas (Kovno), Lwow (Lemberg), and Tarnopol (Ternopol) linked the execution of Jews to earlier killings of prisoners by Soviet authorities, thus artificially creating a causal connection that ignored the Jews among the NKVD victims and helped gloss over the anti-Jewish feeling of German units."

Are the actions of the German troops and the local collaborators acceptable? Thousands of Jews were murdered under this pretext.

As the reports show, the main task of the Einsatzgruppen was to gether intelligence on conditions in the recently captured areas, including the attitude of the local population toward the former regime (Communists, Jews) and toward the German occupiers.


It seems to me that most of this intelligence gathering seems to be connected with the Jewish population and their extermination, or the attitude of the local population towards the German actions against the Jews...

Executive actions, eg shootings of groups of identified opponents, seems only to have taken up a small part of their time.


How can you make such a claim? Are you saying that gathering the information found in the reports takes up inordinate amounts of time? There is nothing to back up your biased deductions in the reports.

Also, your claims of no large scale executions or plans to exterminate the Jewish population are put into strange light, since the Tätichkeits- und Lageberichten for early September 1941 tell us that a single SK has shot 75 000 victims and an Einsatzkommando active in the district of Rokiskis, Sarasai, Persai, and Prienai has killed 85 000 persons and report that the said districts are now free of Jews.

Again, you seem to be deliberately distorting the evidence.

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Postby KraniX » 25 Jun 2004 16:00

michael mills wrote:You will have noted that the early reports show no sign of a program to exterminate the entire Jewish population


Ohlendorf was asked on the stand at Nuremburg by Colonel Amen what instructions his squad (Einstazgruppen D) were given, and he answered:
"The instructions were that the Jews and Soviet political commissars were to be liquidated"

"And when you say 'liquidated,' do you mean 'killed'?" Amen asked.

"Yes, I mean killed," Ohlendorf answered, explaining that this took in the women and children as well as the men.

The Russian Judge, General Nikitchenko broke in to ask:
"For what reason were the children massacred?"

OHLENDORF The order was that the Jewish population should be totally exterminated
JUDGE Including the children?
OHLENDORF Yes
JUDGE Were all the jewish children murdered?
OHLENDORF Yes

Sounds like a program of extermination to me.

EDIT, thanks for the reports btw David.

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Postby David Thompson » 12 Oct 2004 00:02

Here are extracts from another "missing" Report -- No. 6:

From "Document R-102: Activity And Situation Report No. 6. Of The Task Forces [Einsatzgruppen] Of The Security Police And The SD In The USSR [partial translation]", in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Volume VIII: US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1947.
pp. 96-103.

[Rubber Stamp] TOP SECRET
100 copies Copy No. 42.
(Time covered by report: 10/1-31/1941)

Table of Contents

I. Stations. ... Page 1

II. Activities.

A. Eastern Territory (Ostland)
a. Partisan activity and counteraction ... Page 1
b. Situation in Leningrad ... Page 2
c. Jews ... Page 7

B. White Ruthenia.

a. Partisan activity and counteraction ... Page 8
b. Arrests and executions of communists, officials and criminals ... Page 11
c. Jews ... Page 12
d. Enemy propaganda activity ... Page 14
e. Material seized ... Page 15

C. Ukraine

a. Partisan activity and counteraction ... Page 16
b. Arrests and executions of communists, officials and criminals Page 17
c. Jews ... Page 18
d. Enemy propaganda activity ... Page 19
e. Material seized ... Page 20

III. Economy. Commerce and Culture.

A. White Ruthenia

a. Economy and commerce ... Page 20
b. Supplies and provisions ... Page 21
c. Agriculture ... Page 21
d. Culture, Church ... Page 22

B. Ukraine
a. Economy and commerce ... Page 23
b. Supplies and provisions ... Page 24
c. Agriculture ... Page 25
d. Culture
1. Schools ... Page 25
2. Church ... Page 26

IV. Attitude of foreign groups

A. White Ruthenians Attitude towards Germanism. ... Page 27

B. Ukrainians

a. Attitude towards Germanism ... Page 28
b. Tendencies to autonomy. ... Page 29
c. Attitude towards Bolshevism. ... Page 29

V. The German Racial Group in the area around Landau. ... Page 30

I. STATIONS.

During the period covered by this report the stations of the Task Forces of the Security Police and the SD have changed only in the Northern Sector.

The present stations are:

Task Force A: since 10/7/1941 Krasnowardeisk.
Task Force B: continues in Smolensk. Task Force
C: since 9/27/1941 in Kiew.
Task Force D: since 9/27/1941 in Nikolajew.

The Action and Special Commandos [Einsatz und Sonder Commandos] which are attached to the Task Force continue on the march with the advancing troops into the sectors which have been assigned to them.

II. ACTIVITIES.

A. Eastern Territory (i. e. Baltic area)

a. Partisan activity and counteraction.

The activity of the Bolshevist partisans in area of task force A has quieted down somewhat. Nevertheless, intelligence work as been further extended through the dispatching civilian agents, and the enlistment of the village elders and of the population. The results of the preliminary intelligence work served as a basis for several actions in the active combatting of the partisans. From a captured activity report of a partisan group, it can be ascertained that the partisans anticipate, in view of the approaching winter season, that they will not be able to hold out longer than the middle of November.

c. Jews. In 1940 there were in Estonia approximately 4500 Jews almost exclusively in Reval, Dorpot, Narwa and Pernau. There were only a few Jews in the country districts. After the occupation of the Eastern territory by German troops there were still approximately 2000 Jews. The larger part had left the country in an easterly direction together with the Soviet authorities and the Red Army.

Spontaneous demonstrations against Jewry followed by pogroms on the part of the population against the remaining Jews have not been recorded, on account of the lack of adequate indoctrination.

However, the Estonian Protective Corps [Selbstschutz], formed at the time of the entry of the Wehrmacht, immediately started a comprehensive arrest action of all Jews. This action was under the direction of the task force of the Security Police and the SD.

The measures taken were:

1. Arrest of all male Jews over sixteen.

2. Arrest of all Jewesses from 16-20 years, who lived in Reval and environments and were fit for work; these were employed in peat cutting.

3. Comprehensive detention in the synagogue of all Jewesses living in Dorpot and its environments.

4. Arrest of the Jews and Jewesses fit for work in Pernau and environments.

5. Registration of all Jews according to age, sex, and capacity for work for the purpose of their detention in a camp is being prepared.

The male Jews over 16 were executed with the exception of doctors and the elders. At the present time this action is still in progress. After completion of this action, there will remain only 500 Jewesses and children in the Eastern territory.

As an immediate action the following has been ordered by the task force of the Security Police and the SD:

1. Identification of all Jews.

2. The prohibition to carry on a public trade.

3. Prohibition of use of sidewalks and public transportation as well as of visits to theaters, cinemas and restaurants.

4. Prohibition of attendance at schools.

5. Seizure of all Jewish property.

B. WHITE RUTHENIA

a. Partisan activity and Counteraction.

Contrary to the situation in the North sector, the activity of the partisans in the area of task force B has increased slightly. In Welikij Luki alone, 19 reports of attacks by partisans were received. However, the main weight of partisan activity lately has been shifting over to the perpetration of acts of sabotage. It has been noted, that the strongest groups divide themselves into smaller ones. This results in a better camouflage and mobility. How far this camouflage goes, is shown by three cases where partisans married into three villages, in order to appear unsuspected. Furthermore, Red Army men were unmasked as partisans; they had obtained certificates surreptitiously from units of the Wehrmacht, showing them to be unsuspected as political prisoners who were to be left at large. When interrogated by the Action Commandos of the Security Police and the SD, they admitted after long denials that the had received the order to pass themselves off as political prisoners or as forced laborers, and to take up the fight again as partisans behind the front.

Again and again it can be observed, that the population refuses to support the partisans, and in several instances they have even acted actively against the partisans, if by this action the destruction of their property could be prevented.

In several actions against smaller partisan groups, a number of partisans would be shot.

At Choslawitschi 4 partisans who had shot at a German soldier were apprehended and liquidated.

Southeast of Demidow, five partisans were captured after a search of the forests; they admitted to have killed 14 German soldiers. They were liquidated.

In several actions northwest of Welish 27 partisans were apprehended and shot.

In the village Michalowo, after careful reconnaissance through civilian agents, 8 partisans were surprised in a house by the same Commando of the Security Police and the SD, they were arrested and hanged the next day in this particularly partisan-infested village.

The president of the District Region Soviets in Tarenitsch and his secretary were shot because of their connections with partisans.

During an action approximately 70 kilometers south of Mogilew, 25 Armenians, Kirghizs and Mongols were apprehended with false identification papers with which they tried to conceal the fact that they belonged to a partisan group. They were liquidated.

In the same district two partisan leaders were captured and shot.

An Action Commando of the Security Police and the SD shot 3 partisans at Iwniki, who shortly before capture had thrown their weapons into a brook.

In Wultschina 8 juveniles were arrested as partisans and shot. They were inmates of a children's home. They had collected weapons which they hid in the woods. Upon search the following were found: 3 heavy machine guns, 15 rifles, several thousand rounds of ammunition, several hand grenades, and several packages of poison gas Ebrit.

b. Arrests and executions of Communists, Officials and Criminals.

A further large part of the activity of the Security Police was devoted to the combatting of Communists and criminals. A special Commando in the period covered by this report executed 63 officials, NKVD agents and agitators.

In the vicinity of the Tytschinino railway station 4 girls were shot because they attempted to derail a train by loosening the fish-plates.

Three communist officials and one Politruk were liquidated at Gorodnia.

18 persons were executed at Mogilew; they had acted as political officials and Politruk. Weapons were found in their possession.

An Action Commando convicted a member of the Supreme Council of the White Russian Soviet Republic of arson in Witebsk. He was shot.

Blood-Cellar in Tschernigow. In the NKVD building in Tschernigow a blood cellar was discovered. It was soundproof and lightproof. One room served as the place for executions. The wall was covered with boards serving as butts with sawdust strewn in front of it which was completely soaked with blood.

Lunatics. The Red Troops had opened the insane asylum at their departure and had armed some of the inmates. 21 insane persons were apprehended in the meantime and liquidated. In Minsk 632 and in Mogilew 836 persons were shot.

In Mogilew in addition 33 looters were executed.

The liquidations for the period covered by this report have reached a total of 37,180 persons.

* * *

Now as ever, it is to be noted that the population on their own part refrains from any action against Jews. It is true that the population reports collectively of the terror of the Jews to which they were exposed during the time of the-Soviet regime, or they complain about new encroachments of the Jews, but nevertheless, they are not prepared to take part in any pogroms.

All the more vigorous are the actions of the task forces of the Security Police and the SD against the Jews who make it necessary that steps be taken against them in different spheres.

In Gorodnia 165 Jewish terrorists and in Tschernigow 19 Jewish Communists were liquidated. 8 more Jewish communists were shot at Beresna.

It was experienced repeatedly that the Jewish women showed an especially obstinate behavior. For this reason 28 Jewesses had to be shot in Krugoje and 337 at Mogilew.

In Borissow 321 Jewish saboteurs and 118 Jewish looters were executed.

In Bobruisk 380 Jews were shot who had engaged to the last in incitement and horror propaganda (Hetz- und Greuelpropaganda) against the German army of occupation.

In Tatarsk the Jews had left the Ghetto of their own accord and returned to their old home quarters, attempting to expel the Russians who had been quartered there in the meantime. All male Jews as well as 3 Jewesses were shot.

In Sadrudubs the Jews offered some resistance against the establishment of a Ghetto so that 272 Jews and Jewesses had to be shot. Among them was a political Commissar.

* * *

In Mogilew too, the Jews attempted to sabotage their removal to the Ghetto. 113 Jews were liquidated.

* * *

Moreover, four Jews were shot on account of refusal to work and 2 Jews were shot because they had ill-treated wounded German soldiers and because they did not wear the prescribed markings.

In Talka 222 Jews were shot for anti-German propaganda, and in Marina Gorka 996 Jews were shot because they had sabotaged orders issued by the German occupation authorities.

At Schklow 627 more Jews were shot, because they had participated in acts of sabotage.

* * *

On account of the extreme danger of an epidemic, a beginning was made to liquidate the Jews in the ghetto at Witebsk. This involved approximately 3000 Jews.

* * *

a. Partisan activity and counteraction.

Although partisan activity in the south sector is very strong too, there is nevertheless the impression that spreading and effective partisan activity are strongly affected by the flight of higher partisan leaders, and by the lack of initiative of the subordinate leaders who have remained behind. Only in one case a commando of the Security Police and the SD succeeded in a fight with partisans in shooting the Secretary of the Communist Party for the administration district of Nikolajew-Cherson, who was at the time Commissioner of a partisan group for the district Nikolajew-Cherson-Krim.

The leader of a partisan group of five was captured after an exchange of shots near Odessa. He had the task of spotting artillery positions and of reporting them to a Soviet command post.

An action against partisans near Kostromka resulted in the arrest of 16 persons, among them a Politruk, a Unit leader of an annihilation brigade, as well as 3 communist revolutionaries.

The Jew Herschko Salomon, who had belonged to a parachute Defense-Assault battalion, was located at the city hospital in Nikolajew. The screening of PWs resulted in the discovery of 3 Jews who were members of a partisan company.

In Belabanowka the former president of the village soviet, who had attempted to form a partisan group of his own, was arrested.

Furthermore a member of the Polit. Bureau and president of a workers union, at present organizer of partisan groups, was arrested and liquidated.

14 partisans were shot at Kiew.

In the course of an action at Cherson, 2 persons were apprehended who attempted to carry information behind the Bolshevist lines. At the same time the leader of a band of partisans was shot after a lengthy fight.

b. Arrests and Executions of Communists and Officials.

The search for leading communists resulted in the arrest of Kaminski, former GPU chief of Cherson. In the years 1919/21, he had carried out the liquidation of the Czarist officers. The head of the prison work shops of the NKVD was also caught.

In Kiew a number of NKVD officials and political commissars were rendered innocuous.

* * *

The embitterment of the Ukrainian population against the Jews is extremely great, because they are thought responsible for the explosions in Kiew. They are also regarded as informers and agents of the NKVD, who started the terror against the Ukrainian people. As a measure of retaliation for the arson at Kiew, all Jews were arrested and altogether 33,771 Jews were executed on the 29th and the 30th September. Money, valuables and clothing were secured and put at the disposal of the National-Socialist League for Public Welfare [NSV], for the equipment of the National Germans [Volksdeutschen] and partly put at the disposal of the provisional city administration for distribution to the needy population.

* * *

In Shitomir 3145 Jews had to be shot, because from experience they have to be regarded as bearers of Bolshevist propaganda and saboteurs.

* * *

In Cherson 410 Jews were executed as a measure of retaliation for acts of sabotage. Especially in the area east of the Dnjepr the solution of the Jewish question has been taken up energetically by the task forces of the Security Police and the SD. The areas newly occupied by the Commandos were purged of Jews. In the course of this action 4891 Jews were liquidated. At other places the Jews were marked and registered. This rendered it possible to put at the disposal of the Wehrmacht for urgent labor, Jewish worker groups up to 1000 persons.

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Postby David Thompson » 19 Oct 2004 01:06

Extracts From Operational Situation Report USSR No. 94, 25 September 1941, Concerning Activities of the Einsatzgruppen", in Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals Under Control Council Law No. 10. Vol. 10: United States of America v. Wilhelm von Leeb, et al. (Case 12: 'The High Command Case'). US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1951. pp. 1220-1224.

Partial Translation of Document No-3146, Prosecution Exhibit 943.

The Chief of the Security Police and Security Service (SD)
IVA 1/Journal No. 1/B41
Top Secret
Berlin
25 September 1941
48 copies--36th copy.

Operational Situation Report USSR, No. 94
Top Secret.

I. Political survey.

II. Reports from the Einsatzgruppen and Einsatzkommandos: Einsatzgruppe A.

Location Kikerino.

I. Partisans: Within the area of the civil administration, Einsatzkommandos 2 and 3 found at various places an intensified propaganda activity of the Jewish population for the Bolshevist cause. Wherever such propaganda activity appears the most severe measures are being taken and the places entirely purged of Jews as far as possible. This Jewish propaganda activity having been particularly intensive in Lithuania, the number of persons liquidated within the area of Einsatzkommando 3 has increased to approximately 75000.

For specific tasks special Kommandos had repeatedly to be sent into the rural districts and were assigned to certain places for several days. Thus, for example, one Kommando had to be sent to Pljussa, since reports about large-scale looting had been received from there. Forty-seven persons were arrested and questioned. Seven persons were shot for looting, two more were publicly escorted through the streets of the place, while the inhabitants were told that these persons had been looting food to the detriment of the population. Another Sonderkommando had to be sent to Mugotova where 87 insane persons had armed themselves and roamed the countryside looting. It could be ascertained that these insane had been incited by 11 Communists, part of whom presumably belonged to a partisan group. The 11 agitators, among them 6 Jews, and the insane were liquidated.

In the vicinity of the headquarters of group staff Pesje, Ikerine and Neshne, the whole male population was regularly screened immediately on arrival of the units, resulting repeatedly in the arrest of partisans, Jewish and Communist agitators, looters, etc. Since the locations of the Einsatzgruppe are always near the headquarters of the 4th Armored Group, appreciation for this systematic and successful screening of the neighborhood area was repeatedly voiced by the 4th Armored Group.

II. The Jewish problem in the Eastland Territory [Gebiet Ostland]: The first actions against the Jews in the Reich Commissariat Eastland, also in the field of the administrative police, were undertaken by the Security Police. After the civil administration had taken over, the Einsatzkommandos transferred all anti-Jewish actions in the administrative police field whether completed or only initiated, to the civil administration agencies. The establishment of ghettos had already been prepared everywhere and is being continued by the civil administration. Only at Wilno [Vylna] which was taken over by Einsatzgruppe A at a later date, preparations for the confinement in a ghetto of the 60000 Jews living there had not yet been made. Einsatzkommando has now suggested the establishment of a ghetto and will at the same time initiate the necessary pacification actions against the political activity of the Jews.

At Riga, the so-called Moscow quarter of the town had been provided as a ghetto, even before the civil administration took over and a council of Jewish elders had been nominated. The removal of the Jews into the ghetto is being continued.

The Jews in the cities are being employed by all German agencies as unpaid manpower. Difficulties with such employing agencies are everyday occurrences, if and when the Security Police must take steps against working Jews. Economic agencies have repeatedly even filed applications for exempting Jews from the obligation to wear the Star of David and for authorizing them to patronize public inns. This concerns mostly Jews who are designated as key personnel for certain economic enterprises. Such efforts are of course suppressed by the agencies of the Security Police.

In the old Soviet Russian territory, Jews were found only sporadically, even in the cities. Most of the Jews who had been living there had fled. At present, and since old Soviet Russian territories have been occupied, the Wehrmacht itself usually issues orders for the marking of the Jews. Thus, the commander in chief of the 18th Army has ordered, for example, that Jews must be distinguished by white brassards to be worn on both arms and showing the Star of David.

IV. Situation in occupied area of Old Soviet Russia...

No reports from Einsatzgruppe B.

Einsatzgruppe C.

Location Smolensk.

II. Measures taken and observations made by the Security police: During the preparation period for the military offensive now under way, the operations of the Einsatzkommandos could be continued intensively and on a broad basis.

In the southern region of the operational area, because of the sparseness of the Jewish population, the main effort had to be directed toward individual investigations and search actions, while particularly in the region of Zhitomir and Berdichev there was an opportunity for actions on a larger scale.

This explains also the difference in the number of executions reported by the individual Kommandos.

Sonderkommando 4a has now surpassed the number of 15000 executions.

Einsatzkommando 5, for the period between 31 August 1941 and 6 September 1941, reports the liquidation of 90 political officials, 72 saboteurs and looters, and 161 Jews.

Sonderkommando 4b, in the period between 6-12 September 1941, shot 13 political officials and 290 Jews, primarily of the intelligentsia, whereas Einsatzkommando 6, in the period between 1-13 September 1941, executed 60 persons. Group staff was able to liquidate during the last days four political officials and informers of the NKVD, six asocial elements (gypsies) and 55 Jews. The units of the Higher SS and Police Leader during the month of August 1941 shot a total of 44125 persons, mostly Jews.

As already mentioned, the procedure against the Jews is necessarily different in the individual sectors, according to the density of their settlement. Especially in the northern sector of Einsatzgruppe C, a great many Jewish refugees have returned to the villages and, present now a heavy burden in regard to the food situation. The population neither houses nor feeds them. They live partly in caverns, partly in overcrowded old huts. The danger of epidemics has thus increased considerably, so that for that reason alone a thorough cleanup of the respective places became necessary.

The insolence of the Jews has not yet diminished even now. Apart from the fact that, on the occasion of raids, they like to pass themselves off for Russians, Ukrainians, even ethnic Germans, they often are in the possession of passports which, though showing their names correctly, give a false nationality. Concealment of their Jewish descent has been made easier for them by the Russianization of the names which has taken place to an ever-increasing degree during the last years.

At Kirovograd it became known that Jews tried to obtain all the registers office identity papers with a false nationality. Several Jews, on the basis of forged papers, even succeeded in obtaining various posts with the administration where they performed such acts of "re-baptism" in a system of patronage as practiced already previously. The Ukrainian population, for fear revenge by the Jews, often does not dare to report this situation to the authorities. The most severe measures are taken here in dealing with such cases.

Difficulties have arisen insofar as Jews are often the only skilled workers in certain trades. Thus, the only harness-makers and the only good tailors at Novo-Ukrainia are Jews. At other places also only Jews can be employed for carpentry and locksmith work. The cause of this shortage of skilled workers is to a large extent to be found in the unlimited compulsory evacuation of skilled Ukrainians by the Soviets. In order not to endanger reconstruction and the repair work also for the benefit of transient troop units, it has become necessary to exclude provisionally especially the older Jewish skilled workers from the execution.

No reports from Einsatzgruppe D.

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WalterS
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Postby WalterS » 22 Oct 2004 14:58

Michael Mills wrote:

As the reports show, the main task of the Einsatzgruppen was to gether intelligence on conditions in the recently captured areas, including the attitude of the local population toward the former regime (Communists, Jews) and toward the German occupiers. Executive actions, eg shootings of groups of identified opponents, seems only to have taken up a small part of their time.


Of course, these reports prove nothing of the sort. Mr Mills seems to think that if the EG didn't spend all of their time murdering people that murder wasn't their primary function. How Orwellian of him.

I find it interesting that Mr Mills readily embraces these reports, which he can easily spin to support his benign EG thesis, while, in other threads, he has caustically dismissed other EG reports and testimony that show that just the opposite was true. This is just another example of Mr Mills's penchant for "cherry picking" sources and documents that support his theories. I am anxiously awaiting his declaration that the real mission of the EG was to guard Heydrich's White Sea camps.

michael mills
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Postby michael mills » 23 Oct 2004 03:42

From the EG C report of 14 August:

Until the final solution of the Jewish question for the entire continent is achieved, the superfluous Jewish masses can be excellently employed and used for cultivating the vast Pripet swamps, the northern Dnieper swamps as well as those of the Volga.


The proposed utilisation of the mass of the Jewish population in the conquered Soviet territories for swamp-clearance and agricultural work contradicts the thesis that the Einsatzgruppen entered the Soviet Union with a mission to exterminate all Jews who fell into their hands.

As stated, the utilisation of the Jewish masses for labour was to be a temporary measure, awaiting the "final solution of the Jewish question" for the entire continent of Europe, which could only be implemented after the final German victory.

Statements by German political and police leaders at this period (August 1941) show that the "final solution" envisaged at that point was the removal of all Jews from Europe to some external destination, either a colony in Africa or across the Urals into Siberia.


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