Documents on the Nazi occupation of Poland 1939-1944

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Post by David Thompson » 20 Nov 2004 06:10

Document No-1881, in Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals Under Control Council Law No. 10. Vol. 13: United States of America v. Ernst von Weizsaecker, et al. (Case 11: 'Ministries Case'). US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1952. pp. 151-154.

Translation of Document No-1881, Prosecution Exhibit 1313.

Extract From Article in the Newspaper 'NS-Landpost,' 7 June 1940

[The "NS" in the name of this newspaper stands for "National Socialist."]

"Agriculture in the New Eastern Territories. The Work of the Ostdeutsche Landbewirtschaftungs G.m.b.H.," by Dr. H. Berger [Not defendant Berger.]

The occupation of Poland in September 1939 confronted the Reich Food Minister with a task, the magnitude and difficulty of which was governed by the extent of the occupied area and the speed of the military occupation. In the very shortest space of time, immediately upon the heels of the invading army, harvesting, especially of all the root crops, had to be started; livestock which had been carried off or was found straying had to be returned to the farms and the farms themselves set going again so as to secure the harvest for 1940.

Immediately behind the advancing army, the entire occupied area (including the present Government General) became dotted with farmers from the Reich, at first widely distant. It was their task to ensure continued cultivation by all available means. More agricultural workers to run the derelict estates and farmsteads were continually being applied for according to the requirements. On the basis of applications and after examination of the applicant's particulars, these agricultural workers were summoned to Berlin and sent on their journey to the areas requesting them. The area south of East Prussia was supplied by the province of East Prussia in the same way as the area now constituting the Danzig-West Prussia Gau was supplied by Danzig, whereas the Warthegau, the district of Kattowitz, and the area now constituting the Government General were directly sup plied by the Reich Food Ministry. A great number of farmers, required for running the farms, were also taken from the army and from among the racial Germans on the spot. Almost at the same time, a great number of tractors, tractor implements, steam plow units, threshing implements, steaming apparatus and other appliances were shipped to the East for immediate use.

The speed of the supply columns and the eagerness to work of thousands of German farmers, many of whom (among them a considerable number of reliable lessees of government land) had temporarily left their own or leased farms in the Reich, were the main factors contributing to the success of the operation. Untrammeled by red tape, this tremendous task, unique of its kind, was accomplished by eager cooperation and adaptation to the new conditions as well as could at all be expected.

In appraising this achievement, one must not lose sight of the fact that in the Incorporated Eastern Territories alone, nearly 5000 large farms and hundreds of thousands of small Polish farms had to be brought in. Their total area amounted to almost a fifth of the agricultural area of the old Reich (Germany up to December 1937). In addition, the organization had to be improvised to suit the necessities of the moment and had to cope with the fact that agriculture had already been deprived of many efficient farmers who were serving in the army.

At the time they were taken over, Polish agriculture as well as the individual farms bore the marks of decades of Polis agricultural policy. The use of fertilizers was unknown to many farmers, cattle raising methods were generally inadequate, and the herds were of poor quality. The buildings had been partly destroyed by fire, and those available were in a poor state of maintenance and were dilapidated. Modern machines were lacking. On many large farms and nearly all the small Polish farm conditions can still be found which we, with our well ordered conditions, are unaccustomed to.

During the long winter which set in early, first of all the estates were overhauled from a production point of view, and lectures on the economic objectives were given to such managers and administrators of small farms as had already been appointed. These objectives were to raise output, to increase root crop and oil seeds cultivation, to intensify and improve livestock keeping, to increase farm produced fodder, etc., also appropriate plans for the cultivation of the land were worked out. The use of commercial fertilizers has already considerably increased this year. In order to raise crops and improve their quality, seeds were made available. Livestock (horned cattle, pigs, and sheep) was increased by additions from the old Reich. With the help of bookkeeping centers, bookkeeping was introduced on the larger farms.

Pursuant to the decree of 12 February 1940, all agricultural and forestry undertakings and estates located in the Incorporated Eastern Territories (not the Government General), which on 1 September 1939 were not owned by persons of German extraction, will be put under State management. For the purpose of implementing State management, the Reich Minister for Food and Agriculture has appointed the "East German Land Cultivation Company, Inc." (Eastland) [Ostdeutsche Landbewirtschaftungsgesellschaft m.b.H. (Ostland)] as Custodian General. The lands formerly owned by the Polish State will be excluded and will be managed by the administration of lands owned by the State [Domaenenverwaltung] of the Reich Ministry of Food and Agriculture. The economic tasks of the "land cultivation" of the farms not owned by Germans as well as the whole machinery of management in the Incorporated Eastern Territories have thus devolved on this corporation.

The late spring made it necessary first of all to employ all available labor for tillage. The tractors loaned for use in the fall of 1939 were purchased by the Ostland at the beginning of April 1940 and used on a large scale. They were operated day and night as far as possible so that spring tillage, despite the late start, had made good progress by April 1940.

The organization predominantly designed to deal provisionally with purely agricultural assignments is now being consolidated by the Ostland in administrative and credit matters. It must be a further aim to exert a stronger influence on the management of the smaller Polish farms than has hitherto been possible in by far the largest part of the area.

The Central Office of the Ostland will be kept as small as possible--indoctrination in methods of production management and the administrative work has been delegated to eight branches corresponding to the administrative areas...

[Typed file symbol] O.L. 253 [Ostland 253] 6.9.40.-75 [6 September 1940--75].

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Post by David Thompson » 30 Nov 2004 20:54

Document NO-4396 [Partial Translation], in Trials of War Criminals
Before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals Under Control Council Law No.
10. Vol. 13: United States of America v. Ernst von Weizsaecker, et al.
(Case 11: 'Ministries Case'). US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1952. pp. 731-732

Partial Translation of Document NO-4396, Prosecution Exhibit 2162.

Decree Concerning the Main Trustee Office East*:

The organization of the administration in the Incorporated Eastern Territories has been completed. The legislative work required for this purpose has, in the main, been brought to a conclusion. As a measure of adjustment to the changes effected thereby, I issue the following ordinance:

Section 1. Main Trustee Office East: The Main Trustee Office East is an office under the jurisdiction of the Plenipotentiary of the Four Year Plan [eine Dienststelle des Beauftragten des Vierjahrplan], charged with the execution of the duties within the limits [im Rahmen] of competency delegated by me.

Berlin
12 June 1940.
President of the Ministerial Council for the Reich Defense and Plenipotentiary for the Four Year Plan,
Goering
Field Marshal.

________________________________________________
* This decree was not published in the Reichgesetzblatt. The decree was found as an enclosure to a letter of 26 June 1940 by SS Colonel Creutz. The portion of the decree here reproduced is discussed in the extract from the testimony of defendant Koerner reproduced later in this section.

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Post by David Thompson » 01 Dec 2004 04:21

Document NI-3724, in Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals Under Control Council Law No. 10. Vol. 13: United States of America v. Ernst von Weizsaecker, et al. (Case 11: 'Ministries Case'). US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1952. pp. 733-738.

Translation of Document NI-3724, Prosecution Exhibit 3233.

Berlin,
20 February 1941.

The Four Year Plan Journal of National Socialist Economic Policy.
Official Information of the Plenipotentiary for the Four Year Plan. Minister President Reich Marshal Goering.

New Sphere of German Economy From the Work of the Main Trustee Office East, by Max Winkler:

After the victorious conclusion of the Polish campaign, in the course of establishing the new order of the eastern territories within the union of the German Reich, the Fuehrer and Reich Chancellor has established by a decree of 8 October 1939 the Reichsgaue Danzig-West Prussia and Wartheland, and also by incorporating neighboring territories into the province of Silesia, and into the province of East Prussia, has created the government districts of Katowice and Ciechanow. In this way those eastern German territories, which for two decades had suffered Polish domination, were again returned to the German Reich. Every type of reconstruction work of a political, cultural, economic, and social nature ever accomplished in these territories unmistakably bore the stamp of the German spirit and mind. In spite of the methods dictated by hate, and a persecution mania adopted towards Germanism, the Polish State did not succeed in destroying these German characteristics, not to mention the fact that there was nothing original to compete with German creative production. On the other hand, the Polish administration in these former German territories was successful in one thing: by separating parts of formerly confined economic areas and destroying the instinctive cooperation with the Greater German economic area essential for their prosperity, in many places absolute chaos arose, which paralyzed promising sectors of economic life.

In addition to those territories which were German prior to WWI, in which traces were felt of the work of the former German administration right up to the end of Polish rule, and which enabled some contact to be established, those sectors also came under the German Reich through the incorporation of those territories in which the Polish type of administration had had full effect. There is no doubt, therefore, that, through the incorporation of these eastern territories during the war, a task arose for the German administration which, both in the light of the timely circumstances and with reference to the prevailing cultural, economic, and social conditions, must be regarded as unique.

The Plenipotentiary for the Four Year Plan, who, through diverse measures, had thus coordinated and strengthened the German economy so that it was in a position to fulfill the tasks arising from a total war, now also adopted those measures which were essential for the economy of the incorporated Eastern Territories to be adapted to that of the former Reich and, in particular, to render it serviceable for the tasks of the German economy prevailing at the present time. The
Main Trustee Office East, with its headquarters in Berlin, was established for this purpose by proclamation of Reich Marshal Goering as Plenipotentiary for the Four Year Plan on 1 November 1939. In accordance with this, the administering of the assets of the former Polish State, the settlement of finances and credits, issuing of orders with regard to economic measures essential for the transfer of economic control to the various spheres of administration belonged to its tasks, as well as the necessary discussions and calculations arising from them. To these tasks were added the necessity of the registration, administration, and later utilization of the assets of members of the former Polish State, insofar as confiscation was to be considered; settlement of debts and claims which were made before 1 October 1939 in the incorporated Eastern Territories, as well as the preparatory negotiations with foreign creditors. The Main Trustee Office East executed the tasks imposed upon it in close cooperation with the Reich Governors and/ or Oberpraesidenten. It has established local trustee offices in Danzig-Gdynia for the Gau Danzig-West Prussia, in Poznan for the Reichsgau Wartheland, and in Lodz for the special branches of the industrial sphere there, in Ciechanow for the government district of Ciechanow, and in Katowice for the government district of Katowice. On the other hand, there are a number of subordinate branch offices of the local trustee office which ultimately continue to deal with the essential requirements of the local branches.

The legal basis for the execution of the tasks is presented among others by the decree of the Plenipotentiary for the Four Year Plan dated 15 January 1940 (Reich Law Gazette I, p. 174) (official information No. 697) concerning the confiscation of assets of the former Polish State, and the decree concerning the management of assets belonging to members of the former Polish State dated 17 September 1940 (Reich Law Gazette I, p. 1270).

The organization of the Polish administration did not produce data concerning industrial enterprises and other assets which were available before the outbreak of war in the incorporated Eastern Territories. There were no reliable statistics either with regard to the sphere of industry or that of wholesale and retail trade, or in the province of crafts. Polish statistics from the year 1930 may serve as approximate facts to illustrate the extent of the work of the Main Trustee Office East within the sphere of private economy, according to which there were 294 large industrial enterprises, 9000 medium industrial enterprises 76000 small industrial enterprises, 9120 wholesale enterprises and 112000 retail enterprises in the incorporated eastern territories.

Even though this contains proof that the industrial enterprises which were in the hands of the ethnic Germans under Polish control were greatly pushed into the background, nevertheless a certain survey is obtained of the tasks incumbent upon the Main Trustee Office East within the sphere of private economy.

It was necessary to catalogue and, if required, to confiscate all property hitherto in the hands of Polish citizens.

A detailed examination was also required to determine to what extent enterprises, which, although productive enough for Polish conditions were certainly not sufficient for a German existence were to be maintained or brought to a stand-still; if they were to be maintained and confiscation seemed suitable, they were removed by the provisional trustee under the supervision of the local trustee office. Already by the appointment of this provisional trustee in closest cooperation with the Reich Leader SS in his capacity of Reich Commissioner for the Strengthening of Germanism, the interest of those groups of German resettlers were preserved who, obeying the call of the Fuehrer, are settled in the newly created eastern territories. It was these resettlers in particular who, by acting from now on as temporary trustees for these assets, were to gain the opportunity of accordingly asserting their knowledge and capabilities, in order later on to make a living in the regained territories as purchasers of the property which they had administered. In addition such administrations were transferred in the first place to ethnic Germans who were settled in the incorporated Eastern Territories in order to offer them the opportunity of revealing and extending their activity after liberation from Polish domination.

From this extensive operational sphere of the Main Trustee Office East, the following points should be of general interest:

Banking firms, hitherto Polish, had to adapt themselves to reorganization of the credit system in the incorporated Eastern Territories. To cover credit needs of temporarily administrated enterprises, a special credit system was established.

In the field of power supply, productive plants, in accordance with local requirements, were either consolidated or administrated by the cities themselves.

Coal and ore mining in Upper Silesia has been reorganized in accordance with the principles contained in the decree of the Plenipotentiary of the Four Year Plan.

The large textile industry in the territory of Lodz and Bielitz was likewise reorganized, to a large extent. Of 4000 plants, the modern and productive ones were put in operation again. A large number of plants considered worthy of maintenance are being kept intact for a later period when assignment of quotas in this field will permit resumption of operation. An additional large number of plants whose condition with respect to technological advancement would not warrant a resumption of operation were shut down permanently, and utilization of machinery still usable in these plants was prepared for and partially carried out. Characteristic in the field of trade and handicraft is the extraordinarily large number of small and little enterprises. According to the German viewpoint, and for social and economic reasons, a large part of these enterprises would not offer a living wage to a German. The planning for future organization of this branch of the economy was carried out in close collaboration with the Reich Group Trade and the National Estate of Craft Guilds, giving special consideration to the importance which just this branch of the economy will have in the resettlement of the eastern territories with Germans.

Finally, the settlement of claims and debts for property under the administration of the Main Trustee Office East arising from a period prior to 1 October 1939, constitutes a task of a special nature. In order to satisfy claims of all debtors, a formal stoppage of payments which was at first unavoidable would, however, be considerably relaxed by various decrees in favor of German and foreign neutral debtors. A formal legal settlement of problems connected with these questions is imminent.

In the utilization of property administrated by the Main Trustee Office East already begun, primary consideration for acquiring property is given to ethnic Germans who are residents in the incorporated Eastern Territories; second place is accorded to families of groups who are to be resettled in this territory, so far as they may be considered purchasers in the industrial field; and final place is accorded to German nationals who formerly were residents of the incorporated Eastern Territories and who, after the liberation of their country [Heimat], desire to resettle there. So far as the interests of the above-mentioned ethnic groups permit it, German nationals may also acquire property which is administrated by the Main Trustee Office East. Even though the Main Trustee Office East endeavors to transfer property, thus far administrated temporarily, to private ownership in the interest of introducing private initiative in the economy, the retention of a sufficiently large part of the administrated properties for soldiers returning from the front after the war is of great importance. Since smaller enterprises, which would guarantee a living wage from the German viewpoint, have been taken over from the Poles in a condition under which a German cannot be expected to accept them, considerable financial means have been made available by the Main Trustee Office East for the repair and equipping of such enterprises. Repair and equipping of enterprises reserved for soldiers returning from the front has already begun.

As may be adduced from the aforementioned statements, the Main Trustee Office East, in transferring temporarily administrated enterprises to the German purchaser, is taking special care to see to it that the purchaser maintains the enterprise in a condition which will guarantee him a living wage. In the interest of the resettlement policy in the eastern territories, the purchaser of an enterprise is to find a secure existence in his new home which will enable him to enjoy the fruits of his work. In the interest of the influx of German compatriots in the regained area of settlement, and in the interest of encouraging ethnic Germans and resettlers in private initiative, it was therefore understandable that the Main Trustee Office East summarized these aspects in a memorandum which it forwarded to the Reich Minister of Finance in the endeavor to take also all measures in the field of taxes which would appear necessary for the promotion of an economic expansion in the incorporated Eastern Territories. It is characteristic that at a time when England, in her financial distress, was forced to resort to blocking and utilizing the capital of its citizens in the United States of America, Greater Germany, by a generous plan, was in a position to grant far-reaching tax reductions in the newly acquired eastern territories. In the interest of promoting the incorporated Eastern Territories, the decree on tax reduction of 9 December 1940 provides for a reduction in tax to members of all vocational groups liable for taxation, largely for a period of 10 years. No war tax or national defense tax is being collected. In the field of income tax and wage tax, the large majority of small wage earners is fully exempt. Considerable exemptions have been granted in property and citizens tax. Real estate and furnishings may be acquired by an employer free of purchase and turnover tax. Donations to eastern territories from the territory of the former Reich are exempt from gift tax. Regulations already in force in the Reich and augmented for the eastern territories concerning financial assistance for children and education, marriage loans, loans and subsidies for furnishings have come into force simultaneously with the decree for reduction of tax in the eastern territories.

During a war which has been forced upon the German nation and which it must wage for its survival, it has been possible to build the foundation for the establishment of a means of existence for countless Germans, in territories which, at the time they were taken over by the German administration, were completely bankrupt economically and in which, from the viewpoint of a resettlement policy, tasks had to be mastered which were unique and with which no one in history had so far been confronted.

This knowledge, however, will be the best gratification to all those who, under the eyes of the Fuehrer, are allowed to participate in this work to a small or to a large degree.

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Post by David Thompson » 01 Dec 2004 04:24

Koerner Document 231, in Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals Under Control Council Law No. 10. Vol. 13: United States of America v. Ernst von Weizsaecker, et al. (Case 11: 'Ministries Case'). US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1952. pp. 738-739.

Translation of Koerner Document 231, Koerner Defense Exhibit 139.

[Published by Franz Vahlen. Berlin, 1942. The entire extract offered in the defense document is taken from page 75 of the book, and is here reproduced.]

Part II. The Hague Rules of Land Warfare.

Part III. Military Authority in Occupied Enemy Territories

Preliminary Remarks to Part III.

5. The Hague Rules of Land Warfare, particularly part III, do not apply for the debellation, that is, the complete subjugation of the enemy and the destruction of his sovereignty (example of the present war--Poland and Yugoslavia). One cannot speak here of warlike occupation, for the occupation of enemy territory presupposes that there exists an enemy in the sense of international law, that is, an enemy state. If the enemy State no longer exists there is no longer any room for the Hague Rules of Land Warfare. The territories which formerly belonged to the enemy are administered by the victor, so to speak, as their trustee until the final settlement. He will place those territories which he plans to annex into his permanent administration and will extend his jurisdiction to those territories as far as necessary. In other fields he can act as he pleases until the establishment of a new constitutional structure has been decided upon, be it in the form of independent States, Protectorates, or Mandates. Such an administration lies outside of the regulations of part III of the Hague Rules of Land Warfare. However, the administrator may use them as a guide for his actions.

The regulation of the Hague Rules of Land Warfare can only be applied to cases which constitute a true occupation of a territory which still belongs to the enemy. The presupposition of its validity is the existence of a sovereign enemy State. It is without any significance whether or not only part of the still existing enemy State is occupied (example of the present war--France) or whether the entire State territory is occupied (example of the present war--Norway.)

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Post by David Thompson » 01 Dec 2004 04:39

Document NID-13863, in Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals Under Control Council Law No. 10. Vol. 13: United States of America v. Ernst von Weizsaecker, et al. (Case 11: 'Ministries Case'). US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1952. pp. 739-740.

Partial Translation of Document NID-13863, Prosecution Exhibit 2165.

1942 Reichsgesetzblatt, Part I, Page 331.

First Implementation Decree for the Execution of the Decree concerning the Treatment of Property of Nationals of the Former Polish State, 15 May 1942

Pursuant to article 23, paragraph 1 of the ordinance of 17 September 1940 concerning the treatment of the property of nationals of the former Polish State (Reich Law Gazette I, p. 1270) I decree the following:

Part I. Administration of seized property.

Section 1: The Main Trustee Office East itself can administer seized property Seized property also means demands and proceeds from transfers of ownership and the interest from such property.

* * *

Section 7: Property under the administration of the Main Trustee Office East is to be used to cover such expenses of the Main Trustee Office East as are provided for in the budget of the Plenipotentiary for the Four Year Plan (individual plan XXIII). The amounts required are to be booked as revenues in the individual plan XXIII.

Section 8: The Main Trustee Office East may employ the seized property under its administration for the reconstruction of the incorporated Eastern Territories, provided the Plenipotentiary for the Four Year Plan in conjunction with the Reich Minister of Finance give their consent.

* * *

Part II. Confiscated property.

Section 10: The directives of part I are to be applied analogously to property confiscated on behalf of the Reich.

Section 11: The Plenipotentiary for the Four Year Plan in conjunction with the Reich Minister of Finance decides how to employ property confiscated on behalf of the Reich, as far as it has not been disposed of already according to articles 7 and 8.

* * *

Part IV. Effective date of the ordinance.

Section 13: 1. This ordinance becomes effective as from its date of promulgation.

2. Measures of competent agencies taken before the effective date of the ordinance are valid, as far as they are not revoked by the Plenipotentiary for the Four Year Plan in conjunction with the Reich Minister of Finance.

Berlin, 15 May 1942
The Plenipotentiary for the Four Year Plan
As deputy:
Koerner

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Post by David Thompson » 01 Dec 2004 04:42

Document NID-13895, in Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals Under Control Council Law No. 10. Vol. 13: United States of America v. Ernst von Weizsaecker, et al. (Case 11: 'Ministries Case'). US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1952. p. 741.

Translation of Document NID-13895, Prosecution Exhibit 2166.

1944 Reichsgesetzblatt, Part I, Page 61.

Second Implementation Decree for the Execution of the Decree concerning the Treatment of Property of Nationals of the Former Polish State, 29 February 1944.

In accordance with article 23, paragraph 1 of the ordinance of 17 September 1940 concerning the treatment of property of citizens of the former Polish State (Reich Law Gazette I p. 1270) I herewith decree:

Article 1: Regulations necessary for the execution of the ordinance concerning the treatment of property of citizens of the former Polish State will be issued through administrative channels in the sphere of competence of the Main Trustee Office East.

Article 2: (1) As far as it is necessary these ordinances will be issued in agreement with the Reich Commissioner for Strengthening of Germanism.

(2) Regulations which imply payments from property under the administration of the Main Trustee Office East are to be issued in agreement with the Reich Minister of Finance.

Article 3: (1) This decree shall be effective upon its promulgation.

(2) Measures taken by the responsible authorities before the effective date of this decree are valid unless they are rescinded by the Plenipotentiary for the Four Year Plan.

Berlin
29 February 1944.

The Plenipotentiary for the Four Year Plan,
As deputy: Koerner.

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Post by David Thompson » 01 Dec 2004 09:30

Partial translation of Document 1918-PS in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, Vol. IV, US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1946, pp. 553-572

Himmler's Address to Officers of the SS-Leibstandarte "Adolf Hitler" on the "Day of Metz" (Presentation of the Historical Nazi Flag)

Now I would like to bring another matter to your attention. Very frequently the member of the Waffen-SS thinks about the deportation of this people here. These thoughts came to me today when watching the very difficult work out there performed by the Security Police, supported by your men, who help them a great deal. Exactly the same thing happened in Poland in weather 40 degrees below zero, where we had to haul away thousands, ten thousands, hundred thousands; where we had to have the toughness -- you should hear this but also forget it again immediately -- to shoot thousands of leading Poles, where we had to have the toughness, otherwise it would have taken revenge on us later. We also had to bring in, in this winter of 40 degrees below zero, ten thousands of Germans, and had to take care of their needs -- that the women were warm; that, when they bore children, these children did not experience want and destitution; where we had to take care of their horses; where we had to take care of the baggage of these poor Germans from Volhynia; all duties where the proud soldier says: "My God, why do I have to do that, this ridiculous job here . . . !" Gentlemen, it is much easier in many cases -- and that I would like to tell you this once, or would like to recall to you, you will gladly admit: in many cases it is much easier to go into combat with a company than to suppress an obstructive population of low cultural level in some area with a company, or to carry out executions, or to haul away people, or to evict crying and hysterical women, or to return our German racial brethren across the border from Russia and to take care of them. I want to tell you: In the entire Waffen-SS we must begin to view the other great activity of the entire SS [Gesamt-SS] and entire police. We must see to it that you consider the activity of the man in green uniform as just as valuable as the activity you yourself are engaged in. You have to consider the work of the SD man or of the man of the Security Police as a vital part of our whole work just like the fact that you can carry arms. You are the ones to be envied, because if you do something, if a unit achieves fame, then one can talk of fame, and it can be decorated. It is much more difficult in many other positions-and with that I do not want to underestimate your achievements; I would be the last one to do that-but, believe me, in many places it is much more difficult, this silent work-compulsion, this silent activity, this standing guard over our ideology, this necessity of remaining steadfast, this necessity of not compromising is very much more difficult in places. Now I want to tell you something else ; I men-tioned before that we absolutely were in danger of suffocating within ourselves, within the leadership corps [Fuehrerkorps] . There did not seem to be a way out. Either we would have become senile or we had to kick the people out too soon. Today, in the future, in time of peace, the possibility does not exist that a man, or a leader, provided he is worth his salt, does not perform valuable work in some position or that satisfactory work is not assigned to him. Of course we will do it in such a way-let there be no doubt about it-that we put the most capable ones into each position. In other words, if there are four company commanders, the most capable one will be promoted to battalion commander, the one who is best fitted for that activity. The other three, or the other 2, will be utilized in some activity which is just as valuable, but for which he is better adapted. In general, everyone should understand that the course of the past two years, which were pure war years with preparation, for war, are of course not completed, education for Political Officers will become much more strongly emphasized. I would like to use this word for once, Political Leader, Political Officer. A period will commence where someone will be platoon leader in the Waffen SS for 3 or 4 years. During that time he will attend this training course or that, and already as a young leader he will come to know the sphere of activity of all other branches in the SS, in courses lasting 6 to 8 weeks. From the beginning it will then happen that mutual understanding sets in, mutual esteem and the absolute conviction that the duties of the other guy are very, very difficult, and are very, very valuable. On the other hand, I will not allow any branch to grow where the leading men, the members of the Fuehrercorps, are not at least reserve leaders of the Armed SS and did not get at least far enough to be able to lead a company as reserve leader. This way coherence will be achieved which is necessary. I believe that you can get an idea from what I said to the men today-and you as leaders can add to it by drawing your own conclusions-what the entire SS will have to do in order to secure our Reich, I mean in the first place with respect to ideology and safeguarding of the race [Blut] by settlements and extending of our Lebensraum, with respect to the work in colonies, and we shall have garrisons far away in South-Africa, and we shall have garrisons in the Arctic winter, as we have not in Kirkenes, that is up there on the North cape we are also going to have a garrison of a few battalions, we shall have garrisons on the Bug, and we shall now have garrisons in the West, where certainly Metz will not be the most distant western frontier. If we think the right way, some things will be of decisive importance. You would be surprised if I wanted to carry out immediately after the war when peace begins with an iron hand what I indicated today in my class with the men, that we must win the peace and be hard against ourselves. The first two years of peace will be decisive for our future. After victory we must nowhere become megalomaniacs, we must not relax in any respect but we must start an unheard-of education of ourselves. It is necessary, that obedience be granite-like, or else it would be impossible to have distant garrisons like Kirkenes which at times cannot be reached even by modern means, or colonial garrisons, if the officers there, the leader there, does not act strictly [eisern] in accordance with his orders and would take any consequences rather than disregard in any way an order, a basic order, given.

We shall have to do one thing: After the war we shall apply an unheard-of discipline against ourselves as far as external values are concerned they also are important. Whether it concerns our clothes or anything else, because you see, it is a great plus and a great danger at the same time, that what we are doing after the war, during Adolf Hitler's life, will live on for centuries to come, and if we make a mistake, the mistake will live on for centuries, because silly descendants will say: "Yes this is what they did in Adolf Hitler's time, consequently we must act likewise!" If we strike up a wrong tune, this wrong tune will resoundthrough centuries. And mistakes unfortunately do grow in dimension the longer they are continued. Therefore, it is necessary that we train ourselves in the future in an unheard-of way. I believe it is not the right thing for us to do to discuss these worries whichI have with each one of you separately. The one or the other among you who talks here and there like a fool and believes he must talk wildly in the Cassino might say:" For Heaven's sake, those people up there don't know, they have not the slightest idea!" Our idea goes very far and I know exactly what is going on within the troop, know exactly what they think and how they feel. You must also consider the following: I cannot concentrate my mind solely on-now, please don't become conceited -- the most splendid part of the SS because it is the most positive part and because the trade you are following is the most positive and most manly, I cannot do that, I must always have the entire SS in my mind.

If I did not see this part, I would deny life to this most positive and most manly part of our activity ; i. e., the Armed SS. I would deny your life. Because this armed SS will live only if the entire SS is alive. If the entire corps is actually an order which lives according to these laws and realizes that one part cannot exist without the other -- you are unimaginable without the general SS, and the latter is not imaginable without you. The police is not imaginable without the SS, nor are we imaginable without this executive branch of the state which is in our hands. The Fuehrer-corps is not imaginable without the national-political institutions of education which we are building up now, and vice versa we cannot fill up our ranks without contact with the youth, we cannot exist without the business enterprises. A field which probably is unknown to most of you because nothing has ever been said about it. I want to tell you just a little bit of it: The apartment-building program which is the prerequisite for a healthy and social basis of the entire SS as well as of the entire Fuehrercorps can be carried out only when I get the money for it from somewhere; nobody is going to give me the money, it must be earned, and it will be earned by forcing the scum of mankind, the prisoners, the profes-sional criminals to do positive work. The man, guarding these prisoners, serves just as hard as the one on close-order drill. The one who does this and stands near these utterly negative people will learn within 3 to 4 months * * * and we shall see: In peacetime I shall form guard-battalions and put them on duty for 3 months only-to fight the inferior being [Untermenschentum], and this will not be a boring guard duty, but if the officers handle it right, it will be the best indoctrination on inferior beings and the inferior races. This activity is necessary, as I said, 1. to eliminate these negative people from the German people, 2. to exploit them once more for the great folk community by having them break stones and bake bricks so that the Fuehrer can again erect his grand buildings 'and 3. to in turn invest the money, earned soberly this way, in houses, in ground, in settlements so that our men can have houses in which to raise large families and lots of children. This in turn is necessary because we stand or die with this leading blood of Germany and if the good blood is not reproduced we will not be able to rule the world. Please understand: We would not be able to hold the great Germanic Reich which is about to take shape. I am convinced, that we can hold it, but we have to prepare for that. If we once had not enough sons those who will come after us will have to become cowards. A nation which has an average of 4 sons per family can venture a war: if 2 of them die, 2 transplant the name. The leadership of a nation having one son or two sons per family will have to be faint-hearted at any decision on account of their own experience because they will have to tell themselves; We cannot afford it. Look at France, which is the best example. France had to accept from us a dictate. It could no longer dictate to us because they could not continue. All the things which sometimes seem strange to you be-cause other things were more urgent during the last 2 years, because I could not explain them sufficiently to you, the leaders, ' because sometimes I did not explain them to you in order not to make too public what was just starting life, so that the tender nursling would not be pulled out by people who don't like us. I preferred that very often not even my own troops knew anything about it and let the small nursling secretly grow into a small tree. Then when it is big, nowadays everything is big, now the trees are not being uprooted. Everything that seemed strange to you: "Why do we have to contribute to the spring of life [Lebensborn] ?"" Why do we have to join the saving's cooperative?" "Why do we have to do this and to do that?" If anything like that turns up, I demand from you in future:

In the first place be SS men who have the creed that everything being done is all right. One piece fits the other, even if you don't recognize it beforehand, even if it does not appear at first sight that they fit each other. In the end, everything will be all right. The ultimate aim for those 11 years during which I have been the Reichsfuehrer SS has been invariably the same: To create an order of good blood which is able to serve Germany. Which unfailingly and without sparing itself can be made use of because the greatest losses can do no harm to the vitality of this order, the vitality of these men, because they will always be replaced. To create an order which will spread the idea of nordic blood so far that we will attract all nordic blood in the world, take away the blood from our adversaries, absorb it so that never again, looking at it from the viewpoint of grand policy, nordic, blood in great quantities and to an extent worth mentioning will fight against us. We must get it and the others cannot have it. We never gave up the ideas and the aim conceived so many years ago. Everything we did has taken us some distance further on the way. Everything we are going to do will lead us further on the way. It can only be carried and, if everyone of us looks beyond the things he likes in his activity, his company, his regiment-and you are supposed to love it you may be proud of it -- looks beyond it towards the great common goal, here the SS, and the SS also is only a means to an end, always the Reich, the ideology, created by the Fuehrer, the Reich, created by him, the Reich of all teutons.

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Post by kordts » 04 Dec 2004 17:48

I noticed that some Poles took this opportunity to conduct a little genocidal activities of their own against the Ukrainians. There were Polish victims and victimizers. Same as the Ukrainians. Same as all the rest. One of the tragedies of Poland being conquered by the communists is that postwar Poland wasn't forced to look into and admit it's compliancy in the Holocaust and other war crimes, like the western zone of Germany was forced to. I don't deny Poland's suffering, but get a little hacked that few if any Poles admit that many Poles benefitted from and were involved in killing, plundering and exposing Jews.

Cheers, Jeff.

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Post by Obserwator » 06 Dec 2004 20:15

Same as all the rest
Wrong-there never was any state organised genocide on the part of Polish people, nor did any organisation conduct genocide as aim of its operations.

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Post by Agadanik » 06 Dec 2004 21:06

kordts wrote:I noticed that some Poles took this opportunity to conduct a little genocidal activities of their own against the Ukrainians.

Not quite, Jeff. It was actually the other way around: in February, March and April 1943 Ukrainian nationalist underground began a large-scale ethnic cleansing of indigenous Polish population in Volhynia. Historians estimate 7000 people died during that period.

On July 11, 1943, Ukrainian partisans attacked 167 villages simultaneously, with some 17,000 Poles killed by the end of August. As is usually the case with ethnic cleansing, unspeakable atrocities were committed regularly. As a result, Polish underground sought and obtained tacit German approval to allow organization of local self-defence units. Thobald Thier, the German gauleiter of Galizia (where Germans denied Polish requests for organized self-defence) claimed that 100,000 Poles died from the hands of Ukrainians.

Without a doubt, there were great many victims on the Ukrainian side. But accusing Poles of “genocide” is plainly wrong. My source is a recent, non-partizan and authoritative book by two leading Polish historians, G.Motyka and R.Wnuk, called Pany i rezuny , Warsaw 1997.

I don't deny Poland's suffering, but get a little hacked that few if any Poles admit that many Poles benefitted from and were involved in killing, plundering and exposing Jews.

I am not sure where you get your information on what Poles admit. During the last several years, Poland has undergone a profound, soul-searching debate after the exposure of anti-Jewish pogroms in Eastern Poland in the summer of 1941. From my perspective, it was the largest national debate I can remember in post-communist Poland. I doubt that there was a single piece of media in the country which did not write on the subject repeatedly and over a prolonged period of time. IPN, the Institute of National Remembrance, a state body dealing with war crimes, published a 2-volume book of some 1600 pages, one of many on the subject. For details in English, please see
http://www.pupress.princeton.edu/chapters/i7632.html

rgds a

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Post by kordts » 07 Dec 2004 05:10

Thanks for the reply. In the docos posted, there are specific references to Ukrainians being victimized bt Poles. That's not me making it up. Yes, I also know that Ukrainians committed atrocities on Poles. My point is that very few countries had clean hands during the holocaust. I Know there was no Polish gov't sponsored action because the Polish gov't was in exile. Yet, many individuals and partisan groups were willing participants in plundering, killing or hunting down Jews. I am glad to hear that Poland is/was examining it's past. My experience is only empirical, the Poles I know don't like Jews, and make jokes about what happened till I get pissed at them. I can't extrapolate these people to a whole nation, yet, it a very high percentage of Poles I know have these attitudes. I am not holding up the US as honorable either. There are a lot of anti-jewish feelings here, it was worse in the past, but it is on the rise again. I like most of the Poles I know, I go to a Polish restaraunt, Poland produced great soldiers and patriots, one of whom is a hero of our revolution. Kociuszco(sp?) maybe. I don't have an axe to grind with Poles. One of my co-workers taught me Zimne Piwo, I think.
Peace out.
Jeff

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Post by David Thompson » 08 Dec 2004 15:45

Readers who want to know more about the ethnic conflicts between Poles and Ukrainians may find these threads of interest:

Polish President condemns "Operation Vistula" [postwar expulsion of Ukrainians]
viewtopic.php?t=1838
Ukrainian and Polish massacres
viewtopic.php?t=53749
Poland and Ukraine resolve massacre row
viewtopic.php?t=26483
Huta Peniatska
viewtopic.php?t=18182
Wolyn/Volhynia in World War II
viewtopic.php?t=17547
Genocide in Volhynia
viewtopic.php?t=14761

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Post by David Thompson » 10 Dec 2004 07:46

For more documents on the plunder and spoliation aspect of the Nazi occupation of Poland, see:

The German Resettlement Trustee Company (DUT)
viewtopic.php?t=66094

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Post by Jacky Kingsley » 06 Jan 2005 22:52

Thank you David

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Post by David Thompson » 14 Jan 2005 11:30

Document L-61: Employment Of Jews Here: Exchange Of Jews In Essential Employment Against Polish Labor [translation]", in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Volume VII: US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1947. pp. 816-817.

COPY

Saarlandstr. 96 Berlin S.W.11
26 November 1942

The Commissioner for the Four Year Plan.
The Plenipotentiary General for Manpower.

SECRET

Va 5431/768/42 q Express letter

To the Presidents of the "Landes" Employment Offices (Employment Office Brandenburg excepted).

In agreement with the Chief of the Security Police and the SD, Jew who are still in employment are, from now on, to be evacuated from the territory of the Reich and are to be replaced by Poles, who are being deported from the General Government.

The Chief of the Security Police advises under the date of 26 October 1942 that it is anticipated that during the month of November the evacuation of Poles in the Lublin district will begin, in order to make room there for the settlement of persons of German race [Volksdeutsche].

The Poles who are to be evacuated as a result of this measure will be put into concentration camps and put to work where they are criminal or as social elements. The remaining Poles where they are suitable for labor, will be transported, without family, into the Reich, particularly to Berlin; there they will be put at the disposal of the labor allocation offices to work in armament factories instead of the Jews who are to be replaced.

The Jews who will become available as a result of the employment of Polish labor will be deported on a shuttle system. This will apply first to Jews engaged in menial work since they can be exchanged most easily. The remaining so-called "qualified" Jewish laborers will be left to the industries until their Polish replacements have been made sufficiently familiar with the work processes by a period of apprenticeship to be determined for each case individually. Loss of production in individual industries will thus be reduced to the absolute minimum.

I reserve the right to issue further instructions. Please inform the labor offices concerned accordingly.

To the President of the "Landes" Labor Office Brandenburg,Berlin W.62

I transmit the foregoing copy for your information. So far as the removal of Jews (still) in employment concerns your area [Bezirk] too, I request that you take the necessary measures in cooperation with the competent offices of the Chief of the Security Police and of the SD.

[Signed]: Fritz Sauckel


*********************************************************

The Regierungs President Economics Admin Staff for War Economics Area XII [Wehrwirtschaftsbezirk XII].
Wilhelmstr. 48 Wiesbaden
12 December 1942
Tel. 5948

III/11-B.E. 10. 23/3205/42 g

COPY

SECRET


to the Chambers of Commerce and Industry and the Manual Workers' Guilds [Handwerkskammern] in War Economics Area XII -- address to individuals or acting deputy for your information:
By order:
[Signed]: Dr. Schneider

Certified Hellbach Employee
[Stamp]
The Regierungspraesident Landes Office of Economics Coblenz
16 December 1942
Diary No. 2627 Clerk

[Stamp]
The Regierungspraesident Wiesbaden Economics Admin Staff for
War Economics Area XII

For information:

a. Chambers of Economics.
b. "Landes" Master Mechanics.
c. "Landes" Economic Offices Koblenz and Saarbruecken for War Economics Area
XII -- address to individuals or acting deputy.

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