Nazi occupation policies for the USSR

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Post by David Thompson » 11 Oct 2004 10:08

19410511 Covering Letter and Combat Directive From Fortress Staff Allenstein to Subordinate Units, 5/11/1941, Signed by Defendant Reinhardt", in Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals Under Control Council Law No. 10. Vol. 10: United States of America v. Wilhelm von Leeb, et al. (Case 12: 'The High Command Case'). District of Columbia: GPO, 1951. pp. 987-989.

"VI: Crimes Against Peace: Selections From the Evidence on the Charges of Aggressive War: (D) Invasions of Other Countries: (3) The Offensive in the Southeast and East: (b) Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR): Covering Letter and Combat Directive From Fortress Staff Allenstein to Subordinate Unites, 5/11/1941, Signed by Defendant Reinhardt", in Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals Under Control Council Law No. 10. Vol. 10: United States of America v. Wilhelm von Leeb, et al. (Case 12: 'The High Command Case'). US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1951. pp. 987-989.

Partial Translation of Document NOKW-2510, Prosecution Exhibit 1226.

Enclosure 11a,
[Stamp] Top Secret,
Through Officer only.

Fortress Staff Allenstein [Code designation of XLI Army Corps commanded by Reinhardt.],
Sec. Ia No. 83/41,
Top Secret Matter for Chiefs.

Subject: Combat directive pertaining to operational order.

Written by an officer, Staff Headquarters,
5/11/1941.
10 copies--10th copy.

We send enclosed the combat directive pertaining to the operational order, for the personal information of the commanders of unit headquarters [Dienststellen]. On behalf of Fortress Staff, The Chief of Staff,

[Signed] Roettiger.

* * *

Distribution (only on draft):
1st copy: 1st Panzer Division;
2d copy: 6th Panzer Division;
3d copy: 36th Mtzd. Inf. Division;
4th copy: 269th Inf. Division;
5th copy: Arty. Commander 30;
6th copy: Eng'r. Regimental Staff 628;
7th copy: General;
8th and 9th copy: extra copies;
10th copy: draft.


[Stamp] Matter for Chiefs, Through officer only.
[Stamp] Top Secret,
Matter for Chiefs, Through officer only,
Written by officer, Enclosure to Fortress Staff Allenstein
Ia, No. 83/41
Top Secret, (Matter for Chiefs),
5/11/1941,
10 copies--10th copy.

Combat Directive:

The war against Russia is the inevitable result of the struggle for survival forced upon us, especially the struggle for the economic independence of greater Germany and the European territory under its rule. It is the old fight of the Germanic race against the Slavs, the defense of European culture against a Muscovite Asiatic flood, the thrusting back of Jewish bolshevism.

The aim of this fight must be to smash the present Russia, and it must, therefore be conducted with utter ruthlessness. The complete merciless annihilation of the enemy must be the inflexible purpose of the planning and execution of every combat operation. In particular no mercy must be shown to the followers of the present Russian-Bolshevist system.


* * *

(Excerpt from enclosure 2 of command of Panzer Group 4 Ia No. 20/41, Top Secret Matter for Chiefs, 5/2/1941)

Enemy station and terrain: In Lithuania, as well as on the other sectors of the Russian front, the enemy is probably expecting our attack. But we hope he will remain in the dark as to the time of our attack and as to the direction of the push of the Panzer group, especially as it will be directed towards a terrain which is rather unsuitable for Panzer troops. For a considerable time the enemy has been making preparations for defense, but up to now they have been impeded by weather conditions.

[Signed] Reinhardt.

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Post by David Thompson » 11 Oct 2004 10:09

19410513 Document: *C-50; Description: Covering letters and Order of 5/13/1941, signed by Keitel on ruthless treatment of civilians in the USSR for offenses committed by them. (USA 554; GB 162)

"Document C-50 [translation]", in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Volume VI: US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1946. pp. 871-875.

Naval War Staff Berlin,
6/17/1941
Reg. No. 1
SKL. Ia 00149/41
MOST SECRET S.O. Only [illegible markings]

MOST SECRET
By hand of officer only

ORDER 1. Address to:

Group North: Copy 1-2
Admiral Norway: Copy 3-4
Baltic Station: Copy 5-6
F.O. Cruisers: Copy 7-8
Liaison Staff Finland: for information Copy 9-10
Naval Command "C": for information Copy 11-12
Naval Command "D": for information Copy 13-14

1. Inclosed is an Order by the Fuehrer concerning the application of Martial law in the area "Barbarossa" and special military measures.

2. Make copies of the Fuehrer Order of 13th May and attach 2 copies of each to the document mentioned in 1.

Ii after departure


****************************************************

Naval War Staff iA Ia initials [illegible notations]

Supreme Command of the Armed Forces
WFStSection L (IV qu)
Fuehrer's Hq., 5/14/1941
No. 44718/41
Most Secret S.O.

MOST SECRET
Only by officer [illegible markings]

23 copies 7th copy

Subject: Application of military jurisdiction and procedure in area "Barbarossa" and special military measures.

Inclosed is an order by the Fuehrer concerning application of military jurisdiction and procedure in the area "Barbarossa" and special military measures. If possible further distribution will not be made until 6/1/1941.

The Chief of the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces

By order:
[Signature illegible]
[illegible notation]

Distribution:

C-in-C of the Army (Ops-Abt): 1st copy
C-in-C of the Army (Gen Qu): 2d-3d copies
Supreme Command of the Army (Chief H.Ruest.u.Bd.E ): 4th copy
C-in-C of the Air Force (Lw. Fuehrungsstab): 5th copy
C-in-C of the Air Force (Gen Qu): 6th copy
C-in-C of the Navy (Naval War Staff:) 7th copy
Supreme Command of the Armed Forces/WFSt 8th copy
Dept L-Chief: 9th copy
Dept L-IH: 10th copy
IL: 11th copy
IK: 12th copy
IV/Qu: 13th copy
II: 14th Copy
Ktb: 15th copy
WR: 16th copy
Armed Forces Propaganda:16th copy
Foreign/Abw: 18th copy
Abw III: 19th copy
Reserve: 20th-23d copies


***********************************************

The Fuehrer and Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces.
Fuehrer's Headquarters, 5/13/1941

[Pencil note] One copy for Group South sent 12/15/1941. V.W.

ORDER CONCERNING THE EXERCISE OF MARTIAL JURISDICTION AND PROCEDURE IN THE AREA "BARBAROSSA" AND SPECIAL MILITARY MEASURES

The application of martial law aims in the first place at maintaining discipline.

The fact that the operational areas in the East are so far-flung, the battle strategy which this necessitates, and the peculiar qualities of the enemy, confront the courts martial with problems which, being short-staffed, they cannot solve while hostilities are in progress, and until some degree of pacification has been achieved in the conquered areas, unless jurisdiction is confined, in the first instance, to its main task.

This is possible only if the troops take ruthless action themselves against any threat from the enemy population.

For these reasons I herewith issue the following order effective for the area "Barbarossa" (area of operations, army rear area, and area of political administration):

I. Treatment of offenses committed by enemy civilians:

1. Until further notice the military courts and the courts martial will not be competent for crimes committed by enemy civilians.

2. Guerillas should be disposed of ruthlessly by the military, whether they are fighting or in flight.

3. Likewise all other attacks by enemy civilians on the Armed Forces, its members and employees, are to be suppressed at once by the military, using the most extreme methods, until the assailants are destroyed.

4. Where such measures have been neglected or were not at first possible; persons suspected of criminal action will be brought at once before an officer. This officer will decide whether they are to be shot.

On the orders of an officer with the powers of at least a Battalion Commander, collective despotic measures will be taken with out delay against localities from which cunning or malicious attacks are made on the Armed Forces, if circumstances do not permit of a quick identification of individual offenders.

5. It is expressly forbidden to keep suspects in custody in order to hand them over to the courts after the reinstatement of civil courts.

6. The C-in-Cs of the Army Groups may by agreement with the competent Naval and Air Force Commanders reintroduce military jurisdiction for civilians, in areas which are sufficiently settled.

For the area of the "Political Administration" this order will be given by the Chief of the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces.

II. Treatment of offenses committed against inhabitants by members of the Armed Forces and its employees.

1. With regard to offenses committed against enemy civilians by members of the Wehrmacht and its employees prosecution is not obligatory even where the deed is at the same time a military crime or offense.

2. When judging such offenses, it must be borne in mind, whatever the circumstances, that the collapse of Germany in 1918, the subsequent sufferings of the German people and the fight against National Socialism which cost the blood of innumerable supporters of the movement, were caused primarily by Bolshevik influence and that no German has forgotten this fact.

3. Therefore the judicial authority will decide in such cases whether a disciplinary penalty is indicated, or whether legal measures are necessary. In the case of offenses against inhabitants it will order a court martial only if maintenance of discipline or security of the Forces call for such a measure. This applies for instance to serious offenses originating in lack of self control in sexual matters, or in a criminal disposition, and to those which indicate that the troops are threatening to get out of hand. Offenses which have resulted in senseless destruction of billets or stores of other captured material to the disadvantage of our Forces should as a rule be judged no less severely.

The order to institute proceedings requires in every single case the signature of the Judicial Authority.

4. Extreme caution is indicated in assessing the credibility of statements made by enemy civilians.

III. Within their sphere of competence Military Commanders are personally responsible for seeing that

1. Every commissioned officer of the units under their command is instructed promptly and in the most emphatic manner on principles set out under I above.

2. Their legal advisers are notified promptly of these instructions and of verbal information in which the political intentions of the High Command were explained to C-in-Cs.

3. Only those court sentences are confirmed which are in accordance with the political intentions of the High Command.

IV. Security.

Once the camouflage is lifted this decree will be treated as "Most Secret."

By order Chief of the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces
[signed] Keitel

Checked
Dressel (?) Major d.G.

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Post by David Thompson » 11 Oct 2004 10:09

19410513 Document: 886-PS; Description: Fuehrer decree, 5/13/1941, on courts martial and treatment of enemy civilians in the district "Barbarossa" signed by Keitel for Hitler, and initialled by Jodl.

"Document 886-PS [translation]", in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Volume III: US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: GPO, 1947. pp. 637-639.

SECRET

Fuehrer and Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces
Enclosure to 32/41 g.Kdos. Chefs.
WR. 1st Copy.
Fuehrer headquarters, 5/13/1941
[Initialed] "J 10/5"

TOP SECRET

Decree for the conduct of courts-martial in the district "BARBAROSSA" and for special measures of the troop [written in ink]

The armed forces court-martial serves primarily the purpose of maintaining discipline.

The great expanse of the Eastern theatre of operations, the kind of warfare necessitated on that account, and the peculiarity of the opponent present tasks to the armed forces courts-martial which they can accomplish during the course of the war and until the first pacification of the conquered territory -- being short staffed -- only if the court-martial is limited to its main task.

This is only possible if the troop itself defends itself ruthlessly against any threat by the enemy civil population.

Accordingly, the following is decreed for the territory "Barbarossa" (theater of operation, rear army area and area of the political administration):

I. Treatment of punishable offenses of enemy civilians

1. Punishable offenses committed by enemy civilians do not, until further notice, come any more under the jurisdiction of the courts-martial and the summary courts-martial.

2. Guerillas are to be killed ruthlessly by the troops in battle or during pursuit.

3. Also all other attacks of enemy civilians against the Wehrmacht, its members and employees are to be fought by the troops at the place of the attack with the most extreme means until annihilation of the attacker.

4. In cases where measures of this kind were neglected or not immediately possible, elements suspected of offense will be brought at once before an officer. He decides whether they are to be shot.

Against villages from which the Wehrmacht was insidiously and maliciously attacked, collective punitive measures by force will be carried out immediately under command of an officer with the rank of at least a battalion commander, if the circumstances do not permit an immediate identification of individual perpetrators.

5. It is expressly prohibited to hold suspected perpetrators in order to transfer them to the courts upon reinstitution of their jurisdiction over civilians.

6. The commanders in chief of the army groups can, in conjunction with the competent commanders of the air force and the navy, restore the Wehrmacht jurisdiction over civilians in districts which are sufficiently pacified.

For the area of the political administration this decree is issued through the chief of the high command of the Wehrmacht [marginal ink correction inked out: C-n-C of army in agreement with C-i-C of other branches.]

II. Treatment of punishable offenses of members of the Wehrmacht and its employees against the native population

1. For offenses committed by members of the Wehrmacht and its employees against enemy civilians, prosecution is not compulsory, not even if the offense is at the same time a military crime or violation.

2. While judging offenses of this kind, it should be considered in every case, that the break-down in 1918, the time of suffering of the German people after that, and the numerous blood sacrifices of the movement in the battle against national socialism were decidedly due to the Bolshevist influence, and that no German has forgotten this.

3. The judge examines therefore whether in such cases disciplinary action is justified or whether it is necessary to take legal steps. The judge orders the prosecution of offenses against civilians through court-martial only if it is considered necessary for the maintenance of discipline or the security of the troops. This applies, for instance, to cases of serious offenses which are based on sexual acts without restraint, which derive from a criminal tendency, or which are a sign that the troop threatens to mutiny. The punishable offenses of destroying senselessly quarters as well as supplies or other captured goods to the disadvantage of the own troop should, as a rule, be judged as more leniently.

The order of the inquiry proceedings requires in every individual case the signature of the judge.

Extreme care must be exercised when judging the authenticity of the statements of enemy civilians.

III. Responsibility of the troop commanders

The troop commanders are, within the sphere of their competence, personally responsible for the following:

1. that all officers of the units subordinated to them are very thoroughly and promptly instructed about the fundamentals of I,

2. that their legal advisors be promptly informed about these instructions and about the verbal statements with which the political intentions of the leadership had been explained to the commanders-in-chief,

3. that only such sentences will be confirmed which are in accord with the political intentions of the leadership.

IV. Protection of secret

After end of camouflage the decree is to be considered only as secret.

For the chief of the high command of the Wehrmacht
Signed: KEITEL

Note [in pencil]: This should, if possible, not be passed on before 1 June 41.
Certified

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Post by David Thompson » 11 Oct 2004 10:11

19410519 Special Instructions For Case Barbarossa, issued by OKW on, 5/19/1941, With Enclosed, 'Directive for the Conduct of the Troops in Russia", in Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals Under Control Council Law No. 10. Vol. 10: United States of America v. Wilhelm von Leeb, et al. (Case 12: 'The High Command Case'). US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1951. pp. 990-995.

"VI: Crimes Against Peace: Selections From the Evidence on the Charges of Aggressive War: (D) Invasions of Other Countries: (3) The Offensive in the Southeast and East: (b) Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR): Special Instructions For Case Barbarossa, issued by OKW on, 5/19/1941, With Enclosed, 'Directive for the Conduct of the Troops in Russia'" in Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals Under Control Council Law No. 10. Vol. 10: United States of America v. Wilhelm von Leeb, et al. (Case 12: 'The High Command Case'). US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1951. pp. 990-995.

Translation of Document NOKW-3485, Prosecution Exhibit 9.

[Handwritten] IV Qu,
[Stamp] Matter for Chiefs, Through Officer only,
[Stamp] Top Secret,
OKW/Armed Forces Operations Staff,
Department National Defense (IV Qu),
No. 44560/41,
Top Secret,
Matter for Chiefs,
Fuehrer Headquarters,
5/19/1941.
35 copies--19th copy.

1. OKW/Armed Forces Operations Staff/Dept. National Defense (I) No. 33408/40, Top Secret, Matter for Chiefs, 12/18/1940.

2. OKW/Armed Forces Operations Staff/Dept. National Defense (IV Qu).
No. 44125/41,
Top Secret,
Matter for Chief
3/13/1941.

Subject: Case, 'Barbarossa Special Instructions No. 1 to Directive No. 21 (Case "Barbarossa").

[Handwritten] Original for information to: Qu 1; Qu 3; K; Adm.

I. Area of operations and executive power: The required instructions for East Prussia, the Government General, and the territories to be occupied in the "Barbarossa" area are given in decree No. 2 (forwarded to High Command of the Army, OKW and CinC Air Force only).

II. Food and supplies in the territories to be occupied in the "Barbarossa" area: The special conditions in the "Barbarossa" area necessitate an extensive exploitation of the country under a rigid leadership, especially in the field of food supplies, in order to supply the troops.

The troops must be aware of the fact that every saving in supplies, especially food supplies, will increase the range of the operations.

On the other hand, however, it is necessary to preserve and protect the production of the country, especially in the agricultural sector, so that it may be utilized at the earliest possible date to ensure contribution to the German food supplies.

III. The table of organization and the tasks of the economic organization to be set up in the occupied territories in the "Barbarossa area are contained in enclosure 1. [Reproduced as part of document NOKW-3485, Prosecution Rebuttal Exhibit 9, in section VII E 2, volume XI, of this series.]

IV. Counterintelligence measures of the troops: The High Commands of the branches of the armed forces will make arrangements to have the disciplinary superiors keep a check on the mail after the arrival of the transports and until the beginning of the operations. Troops in the Government General and on foreign soil are, until the beginning of the operations, allowed only to use the army postal service.

V. Passenger traffic and interchange of goods.

VI. Signal communications:...OKW/WFSt/Armed Forces Operations Staff/Dept.

National Defense will order the exact time of the beginning of the communications black-out.

[Handwritten] The time fixed 6/21/1930, hrs passed on to Lt. Col. Martini
[Illegible initial] 6/21/1930 1200 hr.

VII. Administrative provisions for the territories to be occupied in the "Barbarossa" area, effective until the territories are taken over by the armed forces commanders and/or Reich Commissioner.


(1) For directives on booty, requisitioning of supplies and services (private property) in Case "Barbarossa", see enclosure 2.

(2) For directives for the seizure and registration of booty see appendix to enclosure 2.

(3) High Command of the Navy and High Command of the Army will define the authorities of the agencies commissioned with the seizure of ships and cargoes in accordance with the prize laws and will make arrangements to ensure that ships and cargoes seized in accordance with prize laws are also placed immediately at the disposal of the troops, as far as this is required.

b. Billeting of any kind is not to be paid for by the troops billeting certificates are not to be issued.

c. War damages--Damage to person and to property of the indigenous population, inflicted in connection with military operations, is war damage and as such is to be compensated for.

Damage inflicted on the indigenous population which has no connection with military operations will be settled later--after the Reich Commissioners have taken over the territories. The implementation provisions will be issued by the OKW (General Armed Forces Office/Armed Forces Administration).

d. Monetary affairs--The general payment regulation for the armed forces in non-German territories (Decree OKW 59 B/1 General Armed Forces Office/Armed Forces Administration (Xa) No. 5800/41, 2/10/1941) will be effective with the following changes:

(a) The monetary needs will be covered by Reich Credit Bank bonds.

(b) As far as the decree provides for the exchange of service pay, one month's pay may be exchanged.

The currency regulation for armed forces in non-German countries will be effective for the troops marching into the "Barbarossa" area from non-German territories (decree OKW 59 B/ General Armed Forces Office/Armed Forces Administration (Xa) No. 5801/41, 2/11/1941). High Command of the Army 992 [initial] will see to it that the currency needed in the "Barbarossa" area is made available and that exchange offices are set up in the "Barbarossa" area.

The armed forces rate of exchange will be fixed and announced in time by OKW (General Armed Forces Office/Armed Forces Administration).

VIII. For instructions for the conduct of the troops in the "Barbarossa" area see enclosure 3.

IX. A separate decree of the Fuehrer has been issued on the execution of the judiciary power in the "Barbarossa" area and special measures of the troops. [This decree is reproduced below in section B 1.]

X. For provisions regarding army mail service see enclosure 4 (will follow).

XI. For provisions on the treatment of PW's see enclosure 5.

XII. As far as German troops are assigned for the case "Barbarossa", in Rumanian, Hungarian, and Finish territory, the special regulations required there will be given separately.

For the German troops located in Slovak territory, the special regulations issued for this case--OKW/Armed Forces Operations Staff/Dept. National Defense IVQu. No. 00821/41 top secret, 5/3/1941--are effective.

[Handwritten] T. for Finland see OKW/Armed Forces Operation Staff/Dept. National Defense IV/Qu. 44903/41, 6/10/1941. [Illegible initial]

The Chief of the OKW
Signed: Keitel;
Certified:
[Signed] Dissel, Major,
GSC, [initial].

Distribution:

CinC Army (Operations Section): 1st copy;
CinC Army (Generalquartiermeister): 2d-5th copy;
CinC Air Force (Air Force Operations Staff): 6th copy;
CinC Air Force (Generalquartiermeister): 7th copy;
CinC Navy (Naval War Staff): 8th copy;
Chief of the Armed Forces Mission to Rumania, with for Army and Air Force Missions: 9th-11th copies;
Armed Forces Commander in Norway: 12th copy;
OKW--Armed Forces Operations Staff: 13th copy;
Department National Defense, Chief: 14th copy;
Department National Defense (IH, IL, IK, II, IV/Qu, War Diary 1 each): 15th-20th copies; Armed Forces Legal Dept.: 21st copy;
Armed Forces Propaganda: 22d copy;
Armed Forces Signal Communications: 23d copy;
General Armed Forces Office: 24th-26th copies;
Foreign/Counterintelligence: 27th copy;
Counterintelligence III: 28th copy;
Economic Armament Office: 29th copy;
Chief of Armed Forces Transportation: 30th copy
Extra copies (with L IV/Qu): 31st-35th copies.


********************************************

Enclosure 3 to OKW/Armed Forces Operations Staff/Dept National Defense IV/Qu No. 44560/41
Top Secret
Matter for Chiefs,
19th copy.

Directives for the conduct of the troops in Russia:

I:

1. Bolshevism is the deadly enemy of the National-Socialist German Nation. It is this undermining ideology and its supporters at which Germany's struggle is aimed.

2. This struggle demands ruthless and energetic measures against Bolshevist agitators, guerillas, saboteurs, Jews, and the complete elimination of all active or passive resistance.

II:

3. Strictest reserve and utmost vigilance toward all members of the Red Army--including the prisoners--is indicated, since treacherous fighting methods are to be expected. Especially the Asiatic soldiers of the Red Army are obscure, unpredictable, insidious, and callous.

4. Immediately upon capture of troop units, the leaders are to be segregated from the men.

III:

5. In the Union of the Socialist Soviet Republics, the German soldier is not confronted with a uniform population. The USSR is a state structure which is comprised of a multitude of Slav, Caucasian, and Asiatic peoples and which is kept together by the power of the Bolshevist rulers. Jewry is strongly represented in the USSR.

6. A large part of the Russian population, especially the rural population impoverished by the Bolshevist system, is at heart opposed to bolshevism. In the non-Bolshevist Russian, national pride is linked with a deep religious feeling. Joy and gratitude about the liberation from bolshevism will frequently be expressed in a religious form. Thanksgiving services and processions are not to be prevented or to be disturbed.

7. Greatest caution is necessary when talking with the population and in behavior toward women. Many Russians understand the German language without being able to speak it.

The enemy intelligence service will be especially active in the occupied territory in order to obtain information on strategically important installations and measures. Therefore, any kind of thoughtlessness, boasting, and blind confidence can have the most serious consequences.

IV:

8. Any kind of goods of economic value, and military booty, especially foodstuff, fodder, fuel, and clothing are to be preserved and seized. Any kind of prodigality and extravagance is damaging to the troops. Looting will be punished by the severest penalties in accordance with military criminal law.

9. Caution in the consumption of captured foodstuffs! Water must not be consumed unless boiled (typhoid fever, cholera). Any contact with the population carries with it dangers for health. Protection of his own health is the soldier's duty.

10. Reich Credit Bank notes and coins in denominations of 1 and 2 pfennigs as well as 1, 2, 5, and 10 Reich Pfennigs and Renten Pfennigs, are compulsory tender of exchange. Other German money must not be used for payments.

OKW/Armed Forces Operations Staff.

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Post by David Thompson » 11 Oct 2004 10:25

19410520 Document: 1188-PS; Description: Decree of Fuehrer concerning economy in newly Occupied Eastern Territories, 5/20/1941, and attached correspondence from Rosenberg

"Document 1188-PS: Decree of Fuehrer concerning economy in newly Occupied Eastern Territories, 5/20/1941, and attached correspondence from Rosenberg in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Volume III: US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1947. pp. 832-833.

TRANSLATION OF DOCUMENT 1188—PS

20 May 1941
Decree of the Fuehrer Concerning the Economy in the Newly Occupied Eastern Territories

(1) In the newly occupied eastern territories Reichsmarshall Hermann Goering as the Plenipotentiary of the Four Year Plan shall issue all orders concerning matters within his jurisdiction which are essential to the highest utilization of existing stocks, to the highest increase of the industrial capacity, and to the further building up of all economic resources that can be utilized for the German war economy.

(2) In order to accomplish his task, he may also give orders to Wehrmacht agencies.

(3) This decree becomes effective to-day. It may only be published after special authorization.

Fuehrer's Headquarters
The Fuehrer,
The Chief of the German High Command
The Reichsminister and Chief of the Reich Chancellery

832

1188—PS

Remarks

Reichsleiter Rosenberg wants to see no limitations applied to the principle that civil agencies of the newly occupied eastern territories should get orders and directives from nobody else but him. He therefore desires that within these territories he should also be authorized to give orders concerning measures with regard to the Four Year Plan. He is willing, however, to follow those directives which the Reich Marshall, in his capacity as a delegate for the Four Year Plan, has given personally. Rosen-berg, therefore, suggested that the delegate for the Four Year Plan should use the Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories as his Plenipotentiary General for carrying out his tasks in the newly occupied eastern territories. The latter should then receive orders from him (Goering) for that purpose. The Reich Marshall turned down such an arrangement.

In the event that Reichsleiter Rosenberg's suggestion is disapproved by the Fuehrer, Rosenberg at least wants to be able to coordinate measures taken by him as the Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories with those measures taken by the delegate of the Four Year Plan. In order to make sure of that he desires to insert after the word "jurisdiction" [Befugnisse] in Paragraph 1 the words "via the Reich Minister for the Eastern Occupied Territories".

Reichsleiter Rosenberg, furthermore, has misgivings relative to the publication of this decree, since it left no doubt that Germany was only interested in the occupied eastern territories for purposes of extreme economic exploitation. If that became known in these territories the political reaction there will be disastrous.

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Post by David Thompson » 11 Oct 2004 10:27

19410523 Document: *EC-126; Description: Economic Policy Directive for Economic
Organization, East, Agricultural Group, 5/23/1941. (USA 316)

"Document EC-126: Economic Policy Directives for Economic Organization, East, Agricultural Group [partial translation]", in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Volume VII: US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1947. pp. 295-298. (Emphasis in original)

5/23/1941

Economic Staff East, Agricultural Group.

Prior to World War I, Russia was the country with the largest surplus of agricultural products in the world. Situated in the zone of extensive cultivation and extensive cattle production, Russia produced a yearly average during the years 1909-1913 for the world market of: approximately 11 million tons of grain, about 1/3 of the total amount of grain in world markets; 228000 tons of oil seeds; 660000 tons of oil cake; 266000 tons of sugar; 68000 tons of butter; and 218000 tons-5 billion eggs. Today, Russia exports only very small percentages thereof, i.e. annual grain export averaging approximately from 1 to not more than 2 million. At the same time, the territory cultivated in Russia, however, according to their statistics, has increased considerably. For example:

For Grain: From 1913: 94,4 Mill. ha To 1938: 102,4 Mill. ha
Potatoes: From 1913: 3,1 Mill. ha To 1938: 7,4 Mill. ha
Sugar beet: From 1913: 0,6 Mill. ha To 1938: 1,2 Mill. ha
Sun flowers: From 1913: 1,0 Mill. ha To 1938: 3,1 Mill. ha (1928/32 even 4,2 Mill.)
Linseed: From 1913: 0,4 Mill. ha To 1938: 0,4 Mill. ha
Soya To 1938: 0,2 Mill. ha
Fodder: From 1913: 2,0 Mill. ha To 1938: 9,1 Mill. ha
Flax: From 1913: 1,0 Mill. ha To 1938: 1,9 Mill. ha
Cotton: From 1913: 0,7 Mill. ha To 1938: 2,1 Mill. ha
Hemp: From 1913: 0,6 Mill. ha To 1938: 0,9 Mill. ha (1928/32)

Accordingly, the crops have increased according to the Russian statistics.

Grain: 1909/13: 70,0 Mill.t. 1937: 120,3 Mill.t. 1938: 95,0 Mill.t. thereof: (1940: 112,0)
Wheat: 1909/13: 20,6 1937: 46,9
Rye: 1909/13: 18,9 1937: 29,2
Oats: 1909/13: 13,4 1937: 21,9
Barley: 1909/13: 9,0 1937: 10,6
Maize: 1909/13: 1,3 1937: 4,8 (1933)
Potatoes: 1909/13: 20,2 1937: 65,6
Sugar beet: 1909/13: 9,9 1937: 21,9
Flax: 1909/13: 0,5 1937: 0,6 1938: 0,6
Cotton: 1909/13: 0,23 1937: 0,82
Hemp: 1909/13: 0,33 1937: 0,27 1938: 0,84

The explanation for these figures is to be seen in the following:

i. The total population has increased from 140 million in 1914 to 170 and a half million in 1939. In particular, the city population has increased from approximately 10% to approximately 30% of the total population.

ii. The number of pigs has increased from 14.2 million in 1913 to 30.6 million in 1938, and with it the requirement for fodder.

iii. The number of sheep and goats has increased from 74 million in 1913 to 102.5 million in 1938.

* * *

It can be assumed that the present crops are not greater than in the pre-World War I period, despite an expansion of the cultivated areas * * * The grain surplus of Russia is decisively determined not by the size of the crop but by the level of domestic consumption. Even a small decrease of 30 kgms. per person of the population (220 kgms. instead of 250 kgms.) and a decrease of the ration for horses of 25 will create an export surplus equalling almost the amount prevailing in peace-time.

This fact is the key upon which our actions and our economic policy must be based.
For:--

a. Doubtless, war activities will decrease production in the beginning and possibly -- depending upon the amount of destruction -- for many years. An increase in production will require years.

b. Since Germany and Europe, respectively, require surplus under all circumstances, the consumption must be decreased correspondingly. The examples given above show the extent to which the amount of surplus can be increased by a limitation of consumption.

c. Such a decrease of consumption, contrary to the territories so far occupied, is feasible here because the principal food surplus area is clearly separated from the principal deficit area. Contrary to territory under the General Gouvernement, the Protectorate, France and Belgium, here no mixture of deficit and surplus areas such as would prevent a seizure due to black market, or direct contacts between producer and consumer.

The surplus territories are situated in the black soil district (that is, in the south and south-east) and in the Caucasus. The deficit areas are principally located in the forest zone of the north.

Therefore, an isolation of the black soil areas must in any case place greater or lesser surpluses in these regions at our disposal. The consequences will be cessation of supplies to the entire forest zone, including the essential industrial centers of Moscow and St. Petersburg.

* * *

1. All industry in the deficit area, particularly the manufacturing industries in the Moscow and Petersburg regions as well as the Ural industrial region, will be abandoned. It may be assumed that these regions today absorb an annual 5-10 million tons from the food production zone.

2. The Trans-Caucasian oil district will have to be excepted, although it is a deficit area. This source of oil, cotton, manganese, copper, silk and tea must continue to be supplied with food in any case, for special political and economic reasons.

3. No further exceptions with a view to preserving one or the other industrial region or industrial enterprise must be permitted.

4. Industry can only be preserved insofar as it is located in the surplus region. This applies, apart from the above-mentioned oilfield regions in the Caucasus, particularly to the heavy industries in the Donets district (Ukraine). Only the future will show to what extent it will prove possible to maintain in full these industries, and in particular the Ukrainian manufacturing industries, after the withdrawal of the food surpluses required by Germany.

The following consequences result from this situation, which has received the approval of the highest authorities, since it is in accord with the political tendencies (preservation of the "small" Russians, preservation of the Caucasus, of the Baltic provinces, of White Russia to the prejudice of the Great Russians):

I. For the forest belt

a. Production in the forest belt (the food-deficit area) will become "naturalized," similar to the events during the World War and the Communistic tendencies of the war, etc., viz: agriculture in that territory will begin to become a mere "home production." The result will be that the planting of products destined for the market such as, in particular, flax and hemp, will be discontinued, and the area used therefor will be taken over for products for the producer (grain, potatoes, etc.) Moreover, discontinuance of fodder for that area will lead to the collapse of the dairy production and of pig-producing in that territory.

b. Germany is not interested in the maintenance of the productive power of these territories, except for supplying the troops stationed there.
The population, as in the old days, will utilize arable land for growing its own food. It is useless to expect grain or other surpluses to be produced. Only after many years can these extensive regions be intensified to an extent that they might produce genuine surpluses. The population of these areas, in particular the urban population, will have to face most serious distress from famine. It will be necessary to divert the population into the Siberian spaces. Since rail transport is out of the question, this too, will be an extremely difficult problem.

c. In this situation, Germany will only draw substantial advantages by quick, non-recurrent seizure, i. e. it will be vitally necessary to make the entire flax harvest available for German needs, not only the fibers but also the oleaginous seed.

It will also be necessary to utilize for German purposes the livestock which has no fodder base of its own, i. e. it will be necessary to seize livestock holdings immediately, and to make them available to the troops not only for the moment, but in the long run, and also for exportation to Germany. Since fodder supplies will be cut off, pig and cattle holdings in these areas will of necessity drastically decline in the near future. If they are not seized by the Germans at an early date, they will be slaughtered by the population for its own use, without Germany getting anything out of it.

* * *

It has been demanded by the Fuehrer that the reduction in the meat ration should be made good by the fall. This can only be achieved by the most drastic seizures of Russian livestock holdings, particularly in areas which are in a favorable transport situation in relation to Germany * * *

In respect of flax cultivation, too, the German economy will be interested in these territories. On the other hand, if at all possible, it must be attempted to treat these territories leniently, for political reasons: the conflict between White Russians and Lithuanians on one hand against Great Russians on the other. Only the future will show to what extent this is possible.

3. The problem of fisheries

The fisheries in the North constitute a special problem. Germany's aim must be to seize the approximately 100 steam fishing vessels in Murmansk, Kola, etc., in order to utilize them for German benefit in fishing operations based on Norway * * * Thus, there is no question of a development of Russian fisheries, but what is needed is conquest of the Russian fishing fleet.

A destruction of the Russian manufacturing industries in the forest zone is also an indispensable necessity for Germany's more remote peace-time future. Even in Tsarist Russia, the high prices of consumer goods were a device, in addition to taxes, for increasing the grain surpluses of the producing zone. Peasants in this zone were compelled to sell all their produce, except for a subsistence minimum, in order to pay their taxes and buy the consumer goods which they needed. In future, Southern Russia must turn its face towards Europe. Its food surpluses, however, will only be paid for if it purchases its industrial consumer goods from Germany, of Europe. Russian competition from the forest zone must therefore be abolished. It follows from all that has been said that the German administration in these territories may well attempt to mitigate the consequences of the famine which undoubtedly will take place, and to accelerate the return to primitive agricultural conditions. An attempt might be made to intensify cultivation in these areas by expanding the acreage under potatoes or other important food crops giving a high yield. However, these measures will not avert famine. Many tens of millions of people in this area will become redundant and will either die or have to emigrate to Siberia. Any attempt to save the population there from death by starvation by importing surpluses from the black soil zone would be at the expense of supplies to Europe. It would reduce Germany's staying power in the war, an would undermine Germany's and Europe's power to resist the blockade. This must be clearly and absolutely understood. The manufacturing industries in Belgium and France are much more important for Germany and the German war effort than those in Russia. It is therefore much more essential to safeguard food supplies to those countries through surpluses from the East than to make an ambitious attempt to preserve Russian industry in the food-consuming zone. One must always bear in mind that the Great Russian people, whether under Tsarism or Bolshevism, is always an irreconcilable enemy not only of Germany, but also of Europe. From this it also follows that there can be no question of introducing marketing regulations or food rationing in these territories. Rationing would establish a claim against the German administration on the part of the population, and such a claim must be rejected beforehand.

* * *

For the rest, it can be pointed out that even given the best intentions on the part of the German administration to supply the forest zone with the surpluses of the South, such supplies would fail on account of transport conditions alone. The Russian rail network is weak in itself, and will be taxed to capacity by the tasks of supplying the Army and the necessity of exports to Europe.

II. For the black soil belt

* * *

2. The battle for increased production, and the seizure of surpluses, presupposes a retention of large-scale farming units (collective and Soviet farms)....In view of the Russians' mentality an increase in production is only possible by decree from above.... A splitting-up into several millions of individual peasant holdings would make any German influence on production completely illusory. Every attempt to liquidate the large-scale-units must therefore be fought with the most drastic means.

* * *

I. Supplies for the Army

Germany's food situation in the third year of war demands it imperatively that the Wehrmacht, in all its provisioning, must not live off Greater German territory or that of incorporated or friendly areas from which this territory receives imports. This minimum aim, the provisioning of the Wehrmacht from enemy territory in the third year, and if necessary in later years, must be attained at any price. This means that one-third of the Wehrmacht must be fully provisioned by French deliveries to the army of occupation. The remaining two-thirds (and even slightly more in view of the present size of the Wehrmacht) must without exception be provisioned from the Eastern space. This leads to the following particulars:

1. Bread Cereals. The requirements of the Wehrmacht as to bread cereals amount annually to about 1 and a half million tons. France supplies 470000 tons yearly in accordance with the Hague Convention for Land Warfare and the Armistice Treaty. France will have to continue to make such shipments also in the third year. The East will, in future, have to make available under all circumstances about 1 million tons. In furnishing bread cereals to the Wehrmacht, consideration must also be given to the problem of supply of foodstuffs and beer.

2. Oats. The requirements of the army amount to about 1.8 million tons. France and other occupied territories in the West ship approximately 600000 tons. Accordingly, 1.2 to 1.5 million tons would be the quota for the East.

3. Meats. The requirements of the Wehrmacht amount to about 600000 tons annually. France, with Holland and Denmark delivered up to now 200000 tons and will, in the third year of the war, ship 125000 tons at the most. Accordingly, there remain about 475000 tons of meats which the Eastern territories will have to supply, or figured in the exchange of value of grain, 2.4 million tons of grain.

4. Fats. The requirements of the army amount annually to about 100000 tons. France has been up to now unable to supply fats and will in the future also be unable to do so. The entire 100000 tons will have to be shipped by the Eastern territories.

5. Besides, the Eastern territories will have to supply the proportionate requirements of the Wehrmacht as to hay and straw respectively; furthermore, they will have to furnish the requirements as to fruit, vegetables, canned fish, sugar, prepared foodstuffs and legumes.

From this it follows that about 1 million tons of bread cereals, 1.2 million tons of fodder cereals, 2.4 million tons of grain for meat production, or a total of from 4 and a half million to 5 million tons of grain will have to be supplied from the Eastern territories for the requirements of the army, in addition to the shipments of hay, straw, fats, eggs, etc. It is to be noted that hereby the transport situation for exports to Germany from the East and for supplies from Germany will be considerably relieved.

These quantities have by all means to be furnished for the army in the Eastern territories. They will be increased by these amounts by which the French quotas might possibly be reduced.

It cannot be anticipated today what troop transfers will take place during the third.year of war (possibly also demobilization of a considerable number of soldiers). Furthermore, it should not be overlooked that a part of the army, such as for instance, the "Flak" (anti-aircraft batteries), the personnel in training, especially the youngest training age class, etc., will also in the future be permanently stationed in Germany. For all these reasons, the estimated size of the Wehrmacht in the East may be considerably reduced during the third year of war, which would lead to an increase in the number of consumers in Germany herself. Also, in this case, the quantities made available for the estimated 2/3 of the entire Wehrmacht will have to be supplied under any circumstances from the Eastern territories. Obviously the transport situation will hereby be considerably burdened.

II. Supplies for the German civilian population.

1. Only after meeting these requirements of the army which, under any circumstances, will have to be made available from the Eastern territories, can shipments to Germany to cover civilian needs begin. In this matter, any dissipation of energy on side issues must, under any circumstances, be abstained from. First and foremost is the transport to Germany of oil seeds -- particularly of sunflower seeds, but also of flax seed, cotton seed, soya beans -- in order to increase the stocks of fats. For, from the fat stocks in the third year of war there will be a lack of about 150000 tons of oil which Japan and Manchukuo up to now shipped through Russia. Furthermore, the remaining oil seed reserves that are still on hand will be used up in the third year of the war economy. For these reasons, it will be necessary to procure from the East from 400000-500000 tons of oil which must be considered equivalent to about 1.5 million tons of oil seeds. This transport problem must under all circumstances be solved, and in doing so the fact that in the Eastern territories the oil seeds are being pressed to oil will not lead to an alleviation of the situation for the reason that greater Germany can likewise not do without the resulting oil cake. It will be a question of expediency as to whether oil seeds or oil and oil cake should be shipped. The final result must be the delivery of about 400000 tons of oil and 1 million tons of oil cake.

2. Only after the transport of these oil seeds is accomplished, may an export of grain be effected, which of course, is extremely desirable, because greater Germany must at an increasing rate supply the occupied territories and must also herself replenish her reserves after the bad harvest in 1940 and after this year's harvest which, at best, must be expected to be an average one. In any case, the grain surpluses of the newly-annexed border territories and also of regions situated favorably in respect of transportation, must be exported to Germany in order to obtain soon the quantities which the Russians anyway would have supplied voluntarily. In any case, however, if transportation is not possible, all grain surpluses that exist in the Eastern territories above the quota for army requirements, must be secured so that these stocks can be transferred to Germany during the coming year.

3. As the shortening of rations in Germany has already now shown, the weakest point in the German food situation is the meat supply. The relief resulting from the fact that 2/3 of the army is procuring its meat from the Eastern territories, is not sufficient to make good in the fall the cut that was made in meat rations, because Germany's fodder supply situation makes it absolutely necessary to reduce further the stocks of pigs. Therefore, it will be necessary to place quantities of meat, also, from the Eastern territories at the disposal of the Reich.

While, however, the supply to the army must come from all territories in the East (according to the troop contingents stationed in the individual territories), and while the export of oil seeds and grain will for the most part originate in the black soil zone, the procurement of meat for German purposes, even for the purposes of the current requirements of the Wehrmacht, must take place from the forest belt and, in that zone, especially from the White Russian region and the central industrial areas in the vicinity of Moscow.

One has to be entirely clear regarding the following situation: The stocks of cattle in the whole of Russia amount to about 63 million compared with 22 million in greater Germany, the stocks of pigs amount to 30 million compared with 24 million in Germany at the present time. The cattle stocks are more concentrated in the natural pasture-lands; these are the regions north of Moscow, excluding the Baltic provinces, up to Siberia and the Steppe regions in the south-east. The pork larders are situated in the north-west wooded regions as far as Moscow. These territories in the future will, in any case, have to reduce their stocks of cattle very considerably, especially their pig inventories, on account of the interruption in grain deliveries from the black soil zone. In such a situation, the danger exists that if our authorities do not seize the stocks of cattle immediately, in order to supply the army on the one hand and the homeland on the other, the livestock might be slaughtered within a very short time for the purposes of the local population and would therefore no longer be available for German purposes.

What matters, therefore, is not only to prepare making available stocks of cattle for 1 year for 2/3 of the Wehrmacht and to ship to the Baltic Sea ports livestock, especially from the north-west and the central regions, in order to utilize it for German civilian requirements by way of the border slaughter house in the North of Germany, but the decisive point is to assure, as far as possible, meat stocks for the future as well. The problem of preserving meat therefore will be of utmost importance, especially in the northern regions. Everything in tin-plate that is obtainable or can be made in Russia must, therefore, be withdrawn from all other canning purposes and serve in the manufacture of canned meat, which can be stored over a longer period of time only in tin-plate cans. Possible exceptions to this rule, perhaps in the case of canned fish, will only be ordered later as far as it should be necessary. Another important point is to use as well all other methods of preserving food (pickling, freezing and smoking of food). It is necessary for this important purpose to make use of all meat packing houses that are located in these regions. The importance and urgency of this task will have to be pointed out again and again. The interruption in the fodder supply will make it impossible to get hold of the cattle later on.

* * *

IV. Collection: The solution of these problems requires, apart from the maintenance of production in the surplus area, a smooth functioning of collection. For this reason alone the collective farming structure must not be touched, since collection is the easier the bigger each individual farming unit. In conducting collection in the reconstruction areas, i.e. in the surplus-producing districts, the food supplies of the producing peasants and farm laborers will have to be considered, in order to insure maintenance and increase of production in future years. Such considerations will not always be possible, or necessary, in the food consuming areas of the forest zone, except for the special treatment to be accorded the Baltic and, if possible, the White Russian territories. Apart from collecting provisions and supplies for the Wehrmacht, the important thing in the food-consuming areas will be to seize the largest possible portion of the oil seed harvest and to collect the largest possible quantities of grain in order to insure export to Germany. The seizure of livestock which will be needed has already been discussed. In order to obtain barter goods for the peasants in the surplus producing zone, sugar crops will be seized without exception. The same goes for tobacco, alcohol, hides, leather, and fiber crops for the manufacture of textiles, as well as for industrial consumer goods, such as coal, kerosene, etc.

* * *

In conclusion, the principles must be pointed out once more: under the Bolshevik system Russia has, purely out of power motives, withdrawn from Europe and thus upset the European equilibrium based on division of labor. Our task is to re-integrate Russia with the European division of labor, and it involves, of necessity, the destruction of the existing economic equilibrium within the Soviet Union. Thus, it is not important, under any circumstances, to preserve what has existed, but what matters is a deliberate turning away from the existing situation and introducing Russian food resources into the European framework. This will inevitably result in an extinction of industry as well as of a large part of the people in what so far have been the food-deficit areas.

It is impossible to state an alternate in sufficiently hard and severe terms.

* * *

Our problem is not to replace intensive food production in Europe through the incorporation of new space in the East, but to replace imports from overseas by imports from the East. The task is two-fold:

1. We must use the Eastern spaces for overcoming the food shortage during and after the war. This means that we must not be afraid of drawing upon the capital substance of the East.

Such an intervention is much more acceptable from the European standpoint than drawing upon the capital substance of Europe's agriculture. * * *

2. For the future new order the food-producing areas in the East must be turned into a permanent and substantial complementary source of food for Europe, through intensified cultivation and resulting higher yields.

The first-named task must be accomplished at any price, even through the most ruthless cutting down of Russian domestic consumption, which will require discrimination between the consuming and producing zones.

The second task, however, presupposes adequate feeding of the working people, since no production increase is possible without adequate feeding of the men who have to accomplish it.

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Post by David Thompson » 11 Oct 2004 10:27

19410620 Document: *1456-PS; Description: Thomas memorandum 6/20/1941; Keitel consulted about resources of USSR. (USA 148)

"Document 1456-PS [partial translation]" in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Volume IV: US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1947. pp. 21-22.

Berlin, 6/20/1941

Chief of Agency for Armament Economy [Chef Wi-Rue Amt] Colonel Jansen

MEMORANDUM

Following is the new conception of the Fuehrer, which Minister Todt has explained to me and which has been confirmed later on by Field Marshal Keitel:

Par. I.

The course of the war shows that we went too far in our autarchical endeavors. It is impossible, to try and manufacture everything we lack, by synthetic procedures or other measures. For instance, it is impossible, to develop our motor fuel economy to a point where we can entirely depend on it. All these autarchical endeavors ask for a tremendous amount of manpower, and it is simply impossible to provide it. One has to choose another way. What one does not have, but needs, one must conquer. The commitment of men which is necessary one single time, will not be as great as the one that is currently needed for the running of the synthetic factories in question. The aim must also be to secure all territories, which are of special interest to us for the war economy by conquering them.

At the time the 4-year-plan was established, I issued the statement where I made it clear that a completely autarchical economy is impossible for us, because the need of men will be too great nevertheless my solution was always to provide the necessary reserves for missing stocks resp. to secure the delivery in wartime through economic alliances.

Par. II.

In a conference between Todt-Pleiger-Thomas, it was determined:

Matter: "Detailed orders to the mining industries".

Par. III.

Todt suggests the construction of heavy special machinery at Krupp's and Skoda's.

[Signed] THOMAS

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Post by David Thompson » 11 Oct 2004 10:28

19410620 Document: *1058-PS; Description: Excerpt from a speech, 6/20/1941, by Rosenberg before people most intimately concerned with Eastern Problem, found in his "Russia File". (USA 147)

"Document 1058-PS [translation]", in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Volume III: US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: GPO, 1947. pp. 716-717.

Extract from a speech of Reichsleiter Rosenberg before the closest participants in the problem of the East, on 6/20/1941.

The job of feeding the German people stands, this year, without a doubt, at the top of the list of Germany's claims on the East; and here the southern territories and the northern Caucasus will have to serve as a balance for the feeding of the German people. We see absolutely no reason for any obligation on our part to feed also the Russian people with the products of that surplus-territory. We know that this is a harsh necessity, bare of any feelings. very extensive evacuation will be necessary, without any doubt, and it is sure that the future will hold very hard years in store for the Russians. A later decision will have to determine to which extent industries can still be maintained there (wagon factories etc.)- The consideration and execution of this policy in the Russian area proper is for the German Reich and its future a tremendous and by no means negative task, as might appear, if one takes only the harsh necessity of the evacuation in consideration. The conversion of Russian dynamics towards the East is a task which requires the strongest characters. Perhaps, this decision will also be approved by a coming Russian later, not in 30 but -maybe in a 100 years. For the Russian soul has been torn in the struggle of the last 200 years. The original Russians are excellent artistic craftsmen, dancers and musicians. They have certain hereditary talents, but these talents are different from those of the Western people. The fight between Turgnjew and Dostejewsky was symbolic for the nation. The Russian soul found no outlet either way. If we now close the West to the Russians, they might become conscious of their own inborn, proper forces and of the area to which they belong. A historian will maybe see this decision in a different light, in hundreds of years than it might appear to a Russian today.

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Post by David Thompson » 11 Oct 2004 19:20

19410622 Document: 1034-PS; Description: Minutes of discussion concerning Construction and Administration, 6/22/1941.

"Document 1034-PS: Minutes of discussion concerning Construction and Administration, 6/22/1941 [translation]", in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Volume III: US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: GPO, 1947. pp. 693-695.

TRANSLATION OF DOCUMENT 1034—PS

SECRET
Rosenberg Chancellery
Received 22nd June 1941 No. 059

Construction and Administration

Minutes of a discussion with Reichsleiter Rosenberg on Saturday 21st June 1941 from 1100—1200 hours.

693

1034-PS

Present :
Reichsleiter Rosenberg
Gauleiter Dr. Meyer (at the beginning of the discussion)
Landeshauptmann Kolbow
Oberregierungsrat Dr. Albrecht
Brigadefuehrer Girgenson
Burgkommandant Gohdes
Reichsamtsleiter Dr. Leibbrandt
Landespraesident Dreier

Reichsleiter Rosenberg asked how many men in all had so far been made available for employment in the East—Brigadefuehrer Girgenson and Party Member Gohdes stated that the German Labour Front was willing to provide 261 Regional Commissioners and the Storm Troops 144. Oberregierungsrat Dr. Albrecht in-formed him that the Reich Minister of the Interior would provide about 450 officials as Regional Commissioners—that would still leave 200 positions as Regional Commissioners to be filled, and these should, as far as possible, be occupied by personnel from the Schubert staff.

Reichsleiter Rosenberg expressed his willingness to take over politically suitable individuals from the ranks of these specialists. Therefore immediate contact should be made with General Schubert and the Quartermaster General. An order to this effect was given to Oberregierungsrat Dr. Albrecht—Burgkommandant Gohdes wished to ensure that considerable reserves of men in a state of operational readiness should be held at our disposal in the Reich, to provide for unavoidable changes in the theatre of operations.

Gauleiter Dr. Meyer thereupon declared that most of the personnel just mentioned would only be made available gradually, since most of them would first have to be released from the Armed Forces. It was important that lists of the individuals actually available should be made immediately, and that these persons should be placed together in Special Purpose Staffs. Then the question was cleared up as to who was to be responsible to the Reichsleiter for the concentration of the Staffs. Decision: Burgkommandant Gohdes, S.A.—Brigadefuehrer Girgenson and Oberregierungsrat Dr. Albrecht, each of whom made personal suggestions for his own section, would have to deliberate together on the persons who were to form the different Staffs and submit the result of their deliberations to Landespraesident Dreier, who was responsible for this. The political section (Dr. Leibbrandt) would advise Landespraesident Dreier on the subject. It was clear, that

694

1034-PS

Landespraesident Dreier was the Head of the Department in whose hands lay the sole and final responsibility for the composition of the Staffs.

Burgkommandant Gohdes undertook to arm the men to be appointed, and to give them the firing instruction which might be necessary.

With regard to the question of putting the commissioners to be employed into uniform, Dr. Rosenberg stated that the organizations did not wish to give up their own (field-grey) uniforms and badges. The general opinion was that it was impossible for German government officials to enter the Eastern territories in different uniforms; also, the field-grey colour, in which the Armed Forces in the East would have provoked awe and respect for the German people, was held to be indispensable for the successful carrying-out of their government functions. Party Member Gohdes said that Reichsorganisationsleiter Dr. Ley recommended the creation of a new unitary uniform for the Commissioners serving in the East. The Armed Forces were willing to set aside dark-brown cloth for 5,000 uniforms. Reichsleiter Rosenberg took it upon himself personally to submit the question of supplying uniform to the decision of the Fuehrer.

Arising from the question of supplying uniform, it was then discussed whether a special "Ostfuehrers Corps" as an organization of the National-Socialist Party should be created. An organization of this kind would then not only have the right to wear a unitary uniform, but it would imbue its members with the esprit de corps which was necessary for the fulfillment of the tasks which were to be carried out in the East. If the German was to enter the Eastern territory as master, he must be moulded as a unit both inwardly and outwardly. This inner regimental training could exert a certain positive counter-effect above all against the moral danger of "Space-Experience" and the depressing effect of foreign nationality. When this subject had been further discussed, it seemed more urgent than ever to achieve the purpose of creating an Ostfuehrer-Corps of this kind which would be a unit in itself.

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Post by David Thompson » 11 Oct 2004 19:24

19410628 Document 1056-PS: The Organization of the Administration of Occupied Eastern Territories

"Document 1056-PS: The Organization of the Administration of Occupied Eastern Territories [translation]", 6/28/1941, in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Volume III: US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: GPO, 1947. pp. 701-715.

[Found in Rosenberg's files.]

A. Construction.

I. Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories.

The newly occupied Eastern Territories are subordinated to the Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories. By directions of the Fuehrer he establishes a civil administration there upon withdrawal of the military administration. He heads and supervises the entire administration of this area and represents the sovereignty of the Reich in the occupied Eastern Territories.

The Reich Ministry for the occupied Eastern Territories is organized into the following main departments and department under the permanent and general deputy of the Reich Minister

Main Department I: Central Administration.

Main Department II: Policies:

Department II a: Policies,

Department II b: Enlightenment and Press,

Department II c: Labor and Tax Policies

Main Department III: Administration:

Department III a: General Administration

Department III b: Health System,

Department III c: Veterinary System,

Department III d: Law,

Department III e: Finance,

Department III f: Science and Culture.

Main Department I V: Economic-political and Technical Cooperation:

Department IV a: Industrial Economy,

Department IV b: Food and Farming,

Department IV c: Forest and Lumber Economy

Department IV d: Price-fixing and Price-control

Department IV e: Labor,

Department IV f: Technology,

Department IV g: Transportation.

To the Reich Ministry is assigned a deputy of the Reich Leader SS and Chief of the German Police in the Reich Ministry of the Interior.

II. General Territorial Organization.

The Occupied Eastern Territories are organized into Reich Commissariats.

The Reich Commissariat "Ostland" is subdivided into General Districts [Generalbezirke] which are in turn subdivided into Main Districts [Hauptbezirke] and Circuit Districts [Kreisgeiete].

The boundaries of the Reich Commissariats will be established according to political, ethnic, economic and commercial-political aspects. The boundaries of the areas of command of the Wehrmacht commanders correspond to those of the Reich Commissariats.

III. Subordinate Offices.

1. Reich Commissars.

In the Reich Commissariats, Reich Commissars are responsible for the entire civil administration under the supreme authority of the Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories. According to the instructions of the Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories the Reich Commissar, as a functionary of the Reich heads and supervises, within his precincts, the entire civil administration. Within the scope of these instructions he acts on his own responsibility.

Subordinate offices of the Reich Commissar are: General Commissariats, Main Commissariats, District Commissariats.

The boundaries of the General Districts are established by the Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories upon proposal by the Reich Commissar. The boundaries of the Circuit Territories are determined by the Reich Commissar upon proposal by the pertinent General Commissar, in as far as the Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories has not reserved this right for himself in individual cases. Furthermore the Reich Commissar determines -- with approval of the Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories -- the sphere of the Main Commissars.

An administrative staff is subordinated to the Reich Commissar in his Administrative grade. It is organized into:

I. Main Department: Central Administration.

II. Main Department: Policies:

Department II a: Policies,

Department II b: Labor and Tax Policies,

Department II c: Administration,

Department II d: Health system,

Department II e: Law,

Department II f: Finance,

Department II g: Science and Culture.

III. Main Department: Economy:

Department III a: Industrial Economy,

Department III b: Food and Farming,

Department III c: Forestry and Hunting,

Department III d: Price-fixing and Price-control.

IV. Main Department: Technology, Transportation, Labor:

Department IV a: Technology,

Department IV b: Transportation,

Department IV c: Commitment of Labor.

The heads of the Main Departments have the rank of General Commissars. Furthermore a Higher SS- and Police Leader is subordinated directly and personally to the Reich Commissar. In addition one official of the Reich Railways and one of the Reich Post Office are assigned to the Reich Commissar who are at the same time liaison officials with the transport and communications offices of the Wehrmacht commander.

Main Department Heads, Department Heads, and Consultants are appointed and dismissed by the Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories upon proposal by the Reich Commissar. The Reich Commissar appoints one of the Main Department Heads to be his chief of staff. He has the task of assuring the smooth coordination of the individual departments and is responsible for the internal affairs of the office. For this purpose he is entitled to have himself constantly informed about their sphere of activity by the Main Department Heads.

The Higher SS- and Police Leader is directly subordinated to the Reich Commissar. However the chief of staff has the general right to secure information from him also. His official title is: "The Reich Commissar for the Eastern Territory The Higher SS- and Police Leader."

Great stress is to be placed on close cooperation between him, the Chief of Staff, and the other Main Department Heads of the office of the Reich Commissar, particularly with the one for Policies.

Insofar as the Reich Commissar is prevented from performing his duties for a prolonged period of time, a deputy will be provided by the Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories upon his proposal. This deputy signs with the notation: "for the Reich Commissar." The Main Department Heads and Department Heads sign, insofar as the Reich Commissar has not reserved the final signature for himself, or in case it is not a matter of so much importance that it must be signed by the Reich Commissar, with the notation: "By order" [Im Auftrag]. The Main Department Heads regulate the manner of signing for their department and consultant heads. These must likewise always sign with "by order."

2. General Commissars.

The General Commissar forms the administrative office of intermediate appeal. Within his jurisdiction he heads the administration according to the general directives of the Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories and the prescriptions of the Reich Commissar.

His office is organized like that of the Reich Commissar, except that in the place of Main Departments, there are Departments whose spheres of work in turn are organized into Consulting Offices which are collected into Groups according to necessity. The General Commissar appoints one of the Department heads as Chief of Staff who has the corresponding position and corresponding rights of the Reich Chiefs of Staff of the Reich Commissars.

For purposes of representation of the General Commissar in cases of prolonged incapacity, the same provisions apply as for representation of the Reich Commissar.

The SS- and Police Leader assigned to the General Commissar is directly subordinated to him; however the Chief of Staff has the general right of requiring information from him. The SS- and Police Leader employs the following official designation:

"The General Commissar .... The SS- and Police Leader."

Department Heads, Group Heads and Consultants sign with the remark: "By order." The Department Heads regulate the manner of signing for their consultants.

3. Regional Commissars.

The Regional Commissar heads the entire administration of the lower administration office in the Circuit District in accordance with the instructions of the General Commissar and the superior offices. With him therefore lies the main weight of the total administrative setup. The officials to whom the Regional Commissar has granted the right of signing sign with the notation "By order." The leader of the police unit assigned to him is directly subordinated to him.

4. Main Commissars.

Upon recommendation by the Reich Commissar the Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories appoints Main Commissars for Main Districts formed by the consolidation of several Circuit Districts. They are to take care of coordination of administration of the Circuit Districts placed under him by order of the General Commissar. They can have themselves informed concerning all matters by the District Commissars subordinated to them in all decisive points of view of the administration and in urgent cases provide them with instructions. Cautious use is to be made of this right to instruct, as the Main Commissars are not to interpose themselves as a special authority between the District and General Commissars. In every case of instruction to a District Commissar the General Commissar is to be notified in conjunction with an account of the reasons. The Main Commissars are to keep themselves informed of all important matters within the sphere of their authority, by means of numerous conferences, and to inform the General Commissars of important observations. Conduct of business between the General Commissar and the District Commissar takes place directly. General Commissars inform the Main Commissars involved in writing about their orders issued to District Commissars. The same is to take place with bulletins of the District Commissars. The affairs of the Main Commissars are to be elaborated in bulletins.

The responsible office of the Main Commissar requires an understanding of the political and economic-political needs of the region to be supervised, by an exact knowledge of the existing circumstances. The Main Commissar, as representative of the General Commissar, is called upon in his sphere of office to keep Regional and City Commissars spatially in touch with the General Commissar through constant and close liaison with them, and to contribute to the speeding up of necessary decisions, namely such as go beyond the boundaries of the territory. The activity of a Main Commissar, rightly conceived and purposefully conducted, shall and must contribute, to give District and City Commissars increased certainty in their decision, to give the latter a materially and spatially strengthened effect, and to relieve the General Commissar of part of the burden of supervising his subordinated administration. The office of the Main Commissar is politically of special significance. It includes the task of leadership in the official realm subordinated to it.

IV. Relationship of Superiors in the Service.

The Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories is the service superior of the Reich Commissar and the officials and the employees subordinate to them. The Reich Commissar is the superior of all officials and employees of his office and of the offices subordinate to him. The General Commissar is the superior of the officials and employees of his office and of the officials and employees of the offices of the Main and Regional Commissars. The Main Commissar and the Regional Commissar are superior of the officials and employees of their offices.

B. Jurisdictions.

The Reich Commissars, General Commissars, Main Commissars and Regional Commissars (City Commissars) are -- aside from the military agencies -- the only Reich authorities in the Occupied Eastern Territories. Other Reich authorities may not be established alongside them. They handle all questions of administration of the area which is subordinate to their sovereignty and all affairs which concern the organization and activity of the administration including those of the police in the supervision of the native agencies and organizations, and of the population.

The Reich Minister governs the occupied Eastern Territories by order of the Fuehrer. He can make the law for all the territories.

The Reich Commissar directs and supervises the entire German civil administration as well as the existing and reestablished native administration in his Reich Commissariat. He can decree law (ordinances) for his territory, insofar as the law has not been or will not be decreed by the Reich Minister.

The General Commissar directs the administration of his district and supervises the Main and Regional Commissars as well as the native administration.

The Regional Commissar directs the administration of his territory as a subordinate administrative office and supervises the native offices in the lowest and county echelons.

The following are particularly important administrative tasks:

a. Police measures,

b. Making the economic forces of the territory available for the maintenance of the occupation troops and the purposes of the German war economy,

c. Caring for the population,

d. Securing of supplies and installations of all kinds which are important for life and for war,

e. Collaboration with the maintenance as well as reestablishment of inland water communications of rail and postal communications,

f. Supervision of the civil population, collaboration with the counter intelligence [Abwehr], interesting the population in rendering service,

g. Dissolution of enemy organizations which might still exist.

The Armed Forces Commanders exercise the rights of military sovereignty and the territorial power of command in their areas of jurisdiction. Their demands will be carried out in the civilian sphere by the Reich Commissars and their subordinate agencies. The military agencies are neither superior nor subordinate to the agencies of the civilian administration. The Armed Forces Commanders can provide even civilian agencies with directives in urgent cases, however, in accordance with the Fuehrer's decree of 6/5/1941. All agencies of the civilian administration are obligated to inform the military agencies of all affairs which might affect the sphere of their assignments.

Considerable value is to be laid upon a frictionless collaboration. The Commissars are to have themselves thoroughly informed by the Armed Forces Commanders, respectively by the agencies subordinated to them about their observations, experiences, and the measures already taken after taking over the administration. The laws decreed by them and the administrative orders given by them remain in effect insofar as the decrees and ordinances are not abrogated;

The Fuehrer has entrusted Reich Marshal Hermann Goering, as Commissioner for the Four-year Plan, with the supervision of the tasks of the war economy in the Occupied Eastern Territories. The economic inspectorates and economic commands are active there as his representatives (see green folio). These economic inspectorates and economic commands will be substantially absorbed in the agencies of the civil administration after the establishment of the civil administration.

If basic differences of opinion should arise between the agencies of the civil administration and the military agencies or, insofar as they still exist, the economic inspectorates and economic commands, and these cannot be settled in direct conversations, then it is to be reported to the superior civil authority immediately so that the latter can, in cooperation with the superior military agency, bring about an amicable unification.

C. Business Communications.

After taking over the businesses, the current state of affairs is to be reported briefly to the next superior agency, in particular the taking over of the administration from the hands of the agencies of the military administration as well about the state of the population and the capacity for work of any existing native authorities. It is further to be reported which office buildings have been occupied and which lines of communication are available. The Reich and General Commissars will determine the periods at which the subordinate agencies are to report regularly about the general situation without prejudice to the duty to provide individual reports and special delivery reports (at first, at short intervals which can be later lengthened). At first the Reich Commissars will give the Reich Minister for e Occupied Eastern Territories a comprehensive report on the situation in brief form twice a month, on the first and fifteenth of each month. The Reich Minister is to be given a report by the Reich Commissar immediately about incidents of an especially important nature. The General Commissars and Regional Commissars must report directly to the Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories by the quickest means particularly important incidents, as, for example, widespread unrest, more important acts of sabotage and strikes, great natural catastrophes and the like, and at the same time report them to the next superior agency.

The Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories will publish an official gazette under the title "Official Gazette of the Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories" (VBldRM Ost). in which all the decrees of the Reich Minister will be published. At first the official gazette will only appear when necessary. In addition there will appear the "Reich Ministerial Gazette of the Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories (RMBI. dRM Ost)," in which all executive decrees and other administrative directives of general validity will be published.

The Reich Commissars will publish the decree of the Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories, as well as their own decrees and decrees of general interest, in two or more languages according to need in official gazette (Gazette of the Reich Commissar for......).

The General Commissars will publish official papers, likewise in two or more languages, in which they will publish their ordinances and orders of general interest as also the police orders of the Regional Commissars without prejudice to other means of publishing in individual instances.

The title of these official papers will read:

"Official paper of the General Commissar in....."

In cases of doubt the German text of the ordinances, decrees, and orders is valid.

Moreover, all publications of German agencies are to be made known in otherwise usual form, e.g. by publishing in the press which has already been allowed, by placard, public reading, loudspeaker and the like.

The Official Gazette of the Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories is to be kept by all the agencies within the Occupied Eastern territories. The same applies for the gazettes of the Reich Commissars and the official papers of the General Commissars within their official spheres.

"The operation procedure for the Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories" will be valid for the internal conduct of business of the agencies of the Reich Commissars; for communications with secret matters "The directives for secret matters for all administrative authorities."

The last is valid until suitable safes are obtained, with the provision that secret documents may be kept in strong and well locked wooden chests, which are to be kept in rooms which are to be kept locked.

All incoming documents are to be opened by an especially trustworthy official of the Central Administration and/or of the main office and then introduced into the prescribed order of business.

Further orders about the internal operating procedure are to be decreed by the director of the office.

Second Section: Working directives for the Civil Administration

I. General

The first task of the Civil Administration in the occupied Eastern territories is to represent the interests of the Reich. This highest fundamental is to be considered first of all measures and deliberations. It is time the occupied Eastern territories are to be able to lead a certain life of their own in the more distant future in this or that not yet determined form. They remain however parts of the Greater German sphere and are always to be governed from the viewpoint of this main thought.

The regulations of the Hague Rules of Land Warfare which deal with the administration of a country occupied by a foreign armed power are not valid since the USSR is dissolved and the Reich, as a result, has the duty of exercising all the powers of government and the other usual powers of sovereignty in the interest of the inhabitants. All measures therefore, which the German administration deems necessary and suitable for the execution of this comprehensive task are permissible.

II. Political Directives.

(Are being worked on by the political department. See next page).

III. Administration, Law, Finances.

1. Administration.

a. The specially assigned administration of the country will already be broken up upon the beginning }f the Civil Administration. Its representatives will have fled or have been removed by the Soviets. Village Soviets will exist only in individual cases. These are to be dissolved immediately as a rule.

b. The Reich Commissars are to make sparing use of the authority to decree laws above all at first, so that the administration is not choked by red tape. The exact knowledge of the territory and its inhabitants, which naturally is not available at present, is essential for an extensive legislation. Likewise the fewest possible binding ordinances are to be decreed. The higher authorities must rather take the path of work directives which will give the subordinate authorities sufficient leeway for the consideration of the local conditions.

c. As far as the boundaries of the Regional Commissariat are concerned, at first the boundaries of the corresponding Soviet administrative regions are to be the basis, since the population is accustomed to these and bases for any other determination of boundaries are lacking. As soon as another determination of boundaries appears more to the purpose, in the course of time, it can be done later.

d. The handling of cases of sabotage is the concern of the Senior SS- and police leader, of the SS- and Police leader and/or the police leaders of the lower echelon. Insofar, however, as collective measures against the population of a definite region appear appropriate, the decision about them rests with the competent Commissar on the proposal of the Police leader. The calling of the population for the tasks of guarding can be ordered by the Regional Commissar.

The assessment of fines of money or goods, as well as the ordering of the seizure of hostages and the shooting of inhabitants of the territory in which the acts of sabotage have taken place, can only be done by the General Commissar, insofar as the Reich Commissar himself does not intervene. The most sparing use of the seizing of hostages is to be made. Above all it is only to be ordered when the desired result can be forced by this measure and when the case is such that if necessary, in the case of negative results, the consequences of the seizure can be neutralized.

e. In cities, villages, worker settlements, city settlements, etc., the interest of reliable persons is to be acquired as soon as possible. From the ranks of these reliable persons a local commissioner (similar to our Buergermeister) and confidential councillors can later be appointed, so that in this way the local life will be set in motion again and the Regional Commissar will have organs under him who will carry out his orders. Insofar as such commissioners and confidential councillors have already been set up by the military administration, they are to be taken over by the Civil Administration at first. In case financial means are necessary for the fulfillment of urgent tasks within individual communities, they are to be supplied by means of credits. The credits are to be charged to the banking institutions of the country, or, in case this is not possible, to the Reich credit bank.

f. Where an urgent need of the population for provision goods exists, this is to be satisfied within the range of possibility so that famines can be avoided. It may be desired to grant assistance in money and in goods to urgently needy persons (unemployed and the like).

g. With the dissolution of the USSR which accompanied the defeat of this state there is no longer any state structure in the Eastern Regions and consequently no state citizenship for the inhabitants. However, for practical reasons with respect to citizenship the further existence of a common state must be assumed for the time being, so that the inhabitants should not be considered as stateless, which is undesirable for various reasons. The final question of state citizenship can only be decided later since it depends on the state development in the East. Since this problem can only be solved for the whole Eastern Territory, the subordinate authorities must refrain from every independent ruling. At a given time the Reich Minister for the Eastern territories will issue appropriate decrees.

The racial Germans present in the Eastern territories do not become German Reich citizens automatically with the dissolution of the USSR, but rather they are, for the present, placed on a par with the other inhabitants as regards citizenship. Petitions from racial Germans for naturalization are not to be accepted at first, since a general regulation will be executed. Independent of this is that racial Germans, confirmed as such without objection, should already enjoy privileges which are generally granted only to Reich citizens.

h. The prohibition of entering or leaving the occupied Eastern territories which was issued by the Supreme Commander of the Army remains effective even after the withdrawal of the military administration. Exceptions to this prohibition of entering and leaving will be granted by the Permit Office attached to the Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories and Permit Offices attached to the Reich Commissars and if necessary to other authorities of the occupied Eastern territories. Entering and leaving may only be allowed on urgent political, economical or other service reasons.

The following are not affected by the prohibition of entering and leaving:

(1) Members of the Armed Forces and members of the Armed Forces personnel with proper identification and travel orders.

(2) Members of the Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories and of the authorities subordinated to it with valid official identification.

No application need be made to the Permit Office or Permit Branch Offices for minor frontier traffic. By "minor frontier traffic" is meant those journeys which have to be made on account of economic contacts over the frontier with the neighbouring countries on either side and are merely to some place lying not more than 50 km. from the frontier. Only the lower ranking administrative authorities, that is the Regional Commissars, can give permission for frontier traffic.

Permits and frontier traffic passes can be issued for single or several journeys over the frontier. In every case, their validity is limited to a definite period.

The examination of claims, for the issue of permits, is made from political, security police and economic points of view. In cases of doubt, therefore, the Permit Branch Offices attached to the Reich Commissars must obtain the approval of the appropriate department of the Reich Commissars before the permit is issued.

The Permit Branch Offices issue permits merely for journeys from the former territory of the USSR. For journeys into the Occupied Eastern Territories, the Permit Office attached to the Reich Minister is, for the present, the only competent office.

The question, whether a ban on journeys from one Reich Commissariat to another is to be decreed, cannot yet be decided. Only the Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories has the authority to make the decision.

i. The attitude of the German authorities to the native population is determined, on the one hand, by the political and economic aims, and, on the other, by the attitude of the inhabitants to the Germans. Unprovoked severe measures against the population of the country are not desired and must therefore not be taken.

For reasons of security, it may be necessary, especially in towns and cities, to establish a curfew-hour, which means that, after that hour the population may no longer walk the public thoroughfares and squares. As the time of the curfew can be decided only in accordance with local requirements, the Regional Commissar must be made responsible for imposing it on the instructions of the Reich Commissar and/or the General Commissar.

The same applies to the police closing-time, i.e. the time after which taverns may no longer be opened and no guests may remain in the tavern rooms. The establishing of the curfew and of the police closing-time is to be effected by Police Decree and/or Police Order with appropriate threat of punishment. Apart from this, breaking the curfew order is punishable under the Decree concerning the liability for registration and limitation of sojourn.

2. Health

It is of great importance that the health and veterinary services be reestablished as quickly as possible. Doctors, veterinary surgeons or medical personnel on the spot are to be instructed to continue with their work or start it again. In times of emergency, especially in the case of epidemics, a request that doctors, veterinary surgeons and medical supplies be made available is to be sent to the Military Authorities, should it be impossible to overcome the emergency in any other way.

3. Law

The Reich Commissars are responsible for controlling the Special Courts set up and attached to the Reich Commissars. These are also Senior Officials of the Prosecuting Authorities attached to these Courts. The SS Executive and Police Officers and Senior SS Executive and Police Officers are in charge of the Courts Martial.

It is desirable (in the Eastern regions first of all) that the country's own jurisdiction be reestablished, formed of reliable persons where they can be found. This is all the more necessary in that the German Courts, on account of the scarcity of personnel, can pass judgment only on offences which are punishable under German Laws and the punishment of which is of urgent German interest. The punishment of other criminals, however, can only remain in abeyance for a short period. The concerns of the civil administration of justice can remain in the background for the time being and some honorary Courts of Justice may suffice at first. Wherever the country's own jurisdiction is still intact, which may be the case in the East, it is to be instructed to continue its work immediately after unreliable elements have been removed.

Those arrested by the Soviet Legal Authorities on account of sentence which has been passed may only be released after each individual case has been examined.

This examination is to be carried out with the greatest speed in regard to convicted nationalists and other political prisoners. In cases of doubt the opinion of the Political Department attached to the Reich Commissar or the General Commissar or the Executive SS and Police Officer should be obtained.

The District Commissar is responsible for the supervision of all prisons, insofar as the Reich Commissar does not decree otherwise.

As it is impossible at the moment to produce a comprehensive new Penal Code, the Soviet Penal Law (in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania the pre-Soviet Laws) are for the time being still applicable to the country's own courts, nevertheless without those regulations which apply to political offences. This also applies with regard to the Civil Law, the right of voluntary jurisdiction and to the right of procedure.

4. Finance.

It is intended to draw up a unified General Budget for the complete Administration of the Eastern Territories, in other words from the Reich Minister downwards to the District Commissar. Whether there is any point in separating this plan into separate budgets for the various
Reich Commissariats, or whether credit accounts will simply be established for the subordinate administrative bodies, can only be decided after the whole Administration has been set up. The basic principle of this General Budget must be that the cost of the whole administration shall be borne by the country itself. Until such a budget has been drawn up and further regulations have been issued regarding the use of the income derived from taxes and from balances from the State undertakings, the Reich will use credits to cover public expenditure. These credits which will be allotted to the Reich Commissars and from there on to the subordinate offices by the Reich Commissar for the Occupied Eastern Territories are to be administered in accordance with the directives as per printed Appendix.

Until further notice taxes are to continue to be paid by the inhabitants in accordance with the existing Soviet taxation system (in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in accordance with the taxation system of the pre-Soviet era) if nothing is decided to contrary. The taxation officials in question who are still capable of working are to take up their duties immediately and/or continue them. The same applies to the utilization of the balances from the State undertakings.

The country's own authorities are forbidden to dispose of the amounts collected without the permission of the German authorities (for the time being Reich Commissars).

5. Learning and Education.

Schooling will, in most parts of the country, have ceased due to the military events. There is in general no particular need for schooling to be put into operation again quickly, as long as there are other urgent tasks to carry out. In the East the resumption of schooling in the near future should be aimed at, insofar as there are suitable and reliable teachers to hand. For the time being further directives from the Reich Minister should be awaited with regard to Universities and other Academic Institutions and with regard to cultural establishments.

IV. Economic Administration.

As the Reich Marshall in his capacity as Plenipotentiary for the Four-year Plan has been charged by the Fuehrer with the supreme coordination of the Economy of the whole Eastern Region, his directives are applicable to the economic measures which are laid down in the printed collective folder attached. When carrying out these directives the general political aim as laid down in figure 2. of this section should be minutely observed. If in individual cases, the aims of economic policy conflict, in the opinion of the German department dealing with the matter, with this general political goal, the Reich Commissar should be informed, where a matter of principle is involved, and his decision requested.

V. Engineering and Communications.

With regard to urgent constructional measures, particularly the repairing and improving of highways, the necessary directives are likewise given in the "Green file," published by the Reichsmarschall. The departments of the Civil Administration should most emphatically support the carrying out of these directives.

The Reich Railways and the Reich Post Office are under the control of the military departments for the duration of the war. Thus the Reich Commissars and the authorities under their orders have no power to issue instructions to the Reich Railways and the Reich Post Office. Each Reich Commissar, however, is allotted a delegate of the Reich Railways and the Reich Post Office who will hear the wishes of the Civil Administration and submit them to his administration.

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Post by David Thompson » 11 Oct 2004 19:30

19410700 Document: *EC-472; Description: Directives of Reich Marshal Goering concerning economic organization of Occupied Eastern Territories. (USA 315)

"Document EC-472: Directives for the Operation of the Economy in the Newly-Occupied Eastern Territories (Green Folder)

Part I (2nd edition) Functions and Organization of the Economy [partial translation]", in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Volume VII: US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1947. pp. 539-540.

2000 copies

The Reich Marshall of the Greater German Reich
For Official Use Only
Berlin, 7/1941.

THE ECONOMIC ORGANIZATION

A. In General

For the uniform direction of the economic administration in the area of operations and in the areas of the future political administration, the Reich Marshall has created the "Economic Executive Staff, East" which is responsible directly to him and which, in the absence of the Reich Marshall, is directed by State Secretary Koerner. The Chief of the "Wehrwirtschafts- und Ruestungsamts", General of the Infantry Thomas, in his capacity as a member of the Economic Executive Staff, East, acts as a representative of the military interests during the preparation and execution of the military operations.

The orders of the Reich Marshall cover all economic fields, including nutrition and agriculture. They are to be executed by the subordinate economic offices (infra under B).

The orders of the "Economic Executive Staff, East" are transmitted for execution by the Chief Wi Rue Amt to the "Economic Staff, East" which is proceeding into the occupied territory and which, during operations, is located in the immediate vicinity of the OKH/ Gen Qu (High Command of the Army; Headquarters).

B. Economic Organization in the Area of Operations

IV. The particulars of the organization of the economic offices.

1. Economic Staff, East

The Economic Staff, East, as the advance command offices of the Economic Executive Staff, East, is located in the immediate vicinity of the OKH/Gen Qu (High Command of the Army; Headquarters). It has the function of representing, at the OKH/ Gen Qu, the commands directed to it by the Reich Marshall via the Economic Executive Staff, East and the Chief Wi Rue Amt; and it has the function of securing their execution through the channels stated supra under B III.

The Economic Staff, East is sub-divided into:

Chief of the Economic Staff, together with the group of leaders (function: questions of leadership; in addition, assignment of work).

Group La (functions: nutrition and agriculture, the economy of all agricultural products, provision of supplies for the army, in co-operation with the army groups concerned).

Group W (functions: industrial economy, including raw materials and public utilities, forestry, finance and banking, enemy property, trade and commodity transactions.) The special staff of the Plenipotentiary for Motor Transportation is a member of Group W.

Group M (functions: needs of the army, military economy, transportation of economic goods).

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Post by David Thompson » 11 Oct 2004 19:43

19410717 Document: *1997-PS; Description: Decree of the Fuehrer, 7/17/1941, concerning administration of Newly Occupied Eastern Territories. (USA 319)

"Document 1997-PS: Decree Of The Fuehrer Concerning The Administration Of The Newly-Occupied Eastern Territories. Dated 7/17/1941 [translation]" in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Volume IV: US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1947.
pp. 634-635.

Copy of RK. 1071 B.

In order to restore and maintain public order and public life in the newly-occupied Eastern territories I decree that:

Article 1

As soon as the military operations in the newly-occupied territories are over, the administration of these territories shall be transferred from the military establishments to the civil-administration establishments. I shall from time to time determine by special decree, the territories which according to this are to be transferred to the civil administration, and the time when this is to take place.

Article 2

The Civil Administration in the newly-occupied Eastern territories, where these territories are not included in the administration of the territories bordering on the Reich or the General government, is subject to the Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern territories.

Article 3

Military sovereign rights and powers are exercised by the commanders of the Armed Forces in the newly-occupied Eastern territories in accordance with my decree of 6/25/1941.

The powers of the Commissioner for the 4-year plan in the newly-occupied Eastern territories, according to my decree of 6/29/1941, and those of the Reichsfuehrer SS and Chief of the German Police according to my decree of 7/17/1941, are subject to special ruling, and are not effected by the following regulations.

Article 4

I appoint Reichsleiter Alfred Rosenberg as Reich Minister for The Occupied Eastern Territories. He will hold office in Berlin.

Article 5

The parts of the newly-occupied Eastern territories which are subject to the Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories are to be divided into Reich Commissariats, which are to be divided into General Regions [Generalbezirke] and these again into District Areas [Kreisgebiete]. Several "Kreisgebiete" can be joined into a Main Region [Hauptbezirk]. The Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories will issue more detailed instructions on this subject.

Article 6

At the head of each Reich Commissariat will be a Reich Commissar; at the head of each General Region a Commissar-General and at the head of every District Area an Area Commissar [Gebietskommissar]. Where a Main Region is formed, there will be a Head-Commissar [Hauptkommissar] in charge.

The Reich Commissars and the Commissar-Generals will be appointed by me, the heads of the main sections in the bureaux of the Reich Commissars, as well as the Head Commissars and District Commissars will be appointed by the Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories.

Article 7

In cases where Article 3 is not applicable, the Reich Commissars will be responsible to the Reich Minister for Occupied Eastern Territories, and will receive instructions exclusively from him.

Article 8

It is the responsibility of the Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories to legislate for the newly occupied territories under his jurisdiction. He can delegate the legislative power to the Reich Commissars.

Article 9

As regards civil affairs, the Reich Commissars are responsible for the whole administration of their territory.

As long as military operations are in progress, it is the duty of the highest competent authorities of the Reich to guarantee railway and postal services in accordance with the instructions of the Chief of Supreme Command of the Armed Forces. Further ruling will remain pending until the time the military operations cease.

Article 10

In order that the measures taken by the Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories or by the Reich Commissars in their areas may be brought into harmony with the over-all [uebergeordnete] aspects of the interests of the Reich, the Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories will maintain close liaison with the highest Reich authorities. In differences of opinion which cannot be settled by direct negotiations, my decision is to be obtained through the Reich Minister and Chief of the Reich Chancellory.

Article 11

The necessary regulations for carrying out and supplementing this decree will be issued by the Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories in agreement with the Reich Minister and Chief of the Reich Chancellory.

Fuehrer's Headquarters, 7/17/1941
The Fuehrer
Signed: Adolf Hitler

Chief of Supreme Command of the Armed Forces
Signed: Keitel

Reich Minister and Chief of the Reich Chancery
Signed: Dr. Lammers.

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Post by David Thompson » 11 Oct 2004 19:48

19410727 Document: C-51; Description: Order signed by Keitel, 7/27/1941, for destruction of all copies of Order of 5/13/1941 (document C-50) without affecting its validity.

"Document C-51: Military Courts [translation]", in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Volume VI: US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1946. pp. 875-876.

High Command of the Armed Forces WFSt/Dep L (Iv/Qu)
Nr.001590/41
Top Secret.
Fuehrer's HQ.,
7/27/1941 [illegible notations]

24 copies 20th copy

Reference: OKW/TsT/ Dep. L(IV, Qu) Nr. 44718/41 Top Secret S.O. 5/14/1941.

In accordance with the regulation concerning classified material, the following offices will destroy all copies of the Fuehrer's decree of 5/13/1941 issued in the communication mentioned above:

a. All offices upwards to (the ranks of) General Commands inclusive.

b. Group Commands of the armored troops.

c. Army Commands and offices of equal rank, if there is an inevitable danger that they might fall into the hands of unauthorized persons (Rules concerning classified materials No. 58).

The validity of the decree is not affected by the destruction of the copies. In accordance with paragraph III it remains the personal responsibility of the Commanding Officers to see to it that the officers and legal advisers are instructed in time and that only those sentences are confirmed which correspond to the political intentions of the High Command.

This order will be destroyed together with the copies of the Fuehrer's decree.

The Chief of the High Command
[signed] Keitel

Distribution: The same as referred to in the communication above, and Gen. on special mission with High Command Army.
[rubber stamp with hand markings:] Encl to /SKl 17245/init top secret.

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Post by David Thompson » 11 Oct 2004 19:52

19410731 Document: *710-PS; Description: Letter from Goering to Heydrich, 7/31/941, concerning solution of Jewish question. (USA 509)

"Document 710-PS [translation]", in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Volume III: US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1947. pp. 525-526.

The Reich Marshal of the Greater German Reich Commissioner for the Four Year Plan Chairman of the Ministerial Council for National Defense

Berlin, 7/31/1941

To: The Chief of the Security Police and the Security Service; SS-Gruppenfuehrer Heydrich

Complementing the task that was assigned to you on 1/24/1939, which dealt with the carrying out of emigration and evacuation, a solution of the Jewish problem, as advantageous as possible, I hereby charge you with making all necessary preparations in regard to organizational and financial matters for bringing about a complete solution of the Jewish question in the German sphere of influence in Europe.

Wherever other governmental agencies are involved, these are to cooperate with you.

I charge you furthermore to send me, before long, an overall plan concerning the organizational, factual and material measures necessary for the accomplishment of the desired solution of the Jewish question.

signed: GOERING

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Post by David Thompson » 11 Oct 2004 20:06

19410916 Document: *C-148; Description: Keitel Order, 9/16/1941, subject; Communist Insurrection in Occupied Territories. (USA 555)

"Document C-148: Communist Insurrection In Occupied Territories [translation]", in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Volume VI: US Government Printing Office, District of Columbia: 1946. pp. 961-963.

The Chief of the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces

WFSt/Section L(IV)Qu) No. 002060/41
Most Secret
40 copies, 25th copy

Fuehrer's Headquarters 9/16/1941.

1. Since the beginning of the campaign against Soviet Russia, Communist insurrection movements have broken out everywhere in the areas occupied by Germany. The type of action taken is growing from propaganda measures and attacks on individual members of the Armed Forces, into open rebellion and widespread guerilla warfare.

It can be seen that this is a mass movement centrally directed by Moscow, who is also responsible for the apparently trivial isolated incidents in areas which up to now have been otherwise quiet.

In view of the many political and economic crises in the occupied areas, it must, moreover, be anticipated, that nationalist and other circles will make full use of this opportunity of making difficulties for the German occupying forces by associating themselves with the Communist insurrection.

This creates an increasing danger to the German war effort, which shows itself chiefly in general insecurity for the occupying troops, and has already led to the withdrawal of forces to the main centers of disturbance.

2. The measures taken up to now to deal with this general insurrection movement have proved inadequate. The Fuehrer has now given orders that we take action everywhere with the most drastic means in order to crush the movement in the shortest possible time.

Only this course, which has always been followed successfully throughout the history of the extension of influence of great peoples can restore order.

3. Action taken in this matter should be in accordance with the following general directions:

a. It should be inferred, in ever case of resistance to the German occupying forces, no matter what the individual circumstances, that it is of Communist origin.

b. In order to nip these machinations in the bud, the most drastic measures should be taken immediately on the first indication, so that the authority of the occupying Forces may be maintained, and further spreading prevented. In this connection it should be remembered that a human life in unsettled countries frequently counts for nothing and a deterrent effect can be attained only by unusual severity. The death penalty for 50-100 Communists should generally be regarded in these cases as suitable atonement for one German soldier's life. The way in which sentence is carried out should still further increase the deterrent effect. The revere course of action, that of imposing relatively lenient penalties, and of being content, for purposes of deterrence, with the threat of more severe measures, does not accord with these principles and should therefore not be followed.

c. The political relations between Germany and the country in which the disturbance is taking place, are no criterion for the censuring of the military authorities in occupation. Rather, it should be borne in mind and so represented in propaganda, that stern measures also rid the inhabitants of the Communist criminals, and are thus to their own advantage. Clever propaganda of this kind will consequently not result in the severe measures against the Communists having an undesirable reaction on the well-disposed sections of the population.

d. Forces formed from the local inhabitants will generally fail to accomplish such acts of violence. They should on no account receive further support, for this involves increased danger to our own troops. On the other hand, the fullest use can be made of rewards and remuneration for the population, in order to ensure their cooperation in a suitable way.

e. Where, in exceptional cases, court martial proceedings should be instituted in connection with Communist insurrections or other offences against the German occupying Forces, the most severe penalties are indicated. In this connection only the death penalty can constitute a real deterrent. In particular, acts of espionage, deeds of sabotage and attempts to enter the Armed Forces of a foreign power, should as a matter of principle, be punished by death. Sentence of death should also as a general rule, be passed in cases of illicit possession of arms.

4. The Commanding Officers in the occupied territories are seeing to it that these principles are made known without delay to all military establishments concerned in dealing with Communist measures of insurrection.

Keitel [Illegible initial]

Distribution:

Armed Forces Commander South East Copies: 1st with Intelligence
Section, Officer Commanding Serbia: 2nd with Intelligence Section,
Officer Commanding Salonica-Aegean: 3rd with Intelligence Section,
Officer Commanding Southern Greece: 4th with Intelligence Section,
Officer Commander Crete: 5th
Armed Forces Commander Norway: 6th
Armed Forces Commander Netherlands: 7th
Armed Forces Commander Eastern territory: 8th
Armed Forces Commander Ukraine: 9th
Armed Forces plenipotentiary with the Reich Protector in Bohemia and Moravia: 10th
Reich Supreme Command of the Army (Ops Section): 11th
(OQu IV): 12th
(Gen. Qu) with Intelligence Section for: 13th
Military Commander France: 14th
Military Commander Belgium and Northern France: 15th
Military Commander with Government of Poland: 16th
Chief of Army Ordnance and BdE with Intelligence: 17th
Section for Officer Commanding German troops in Denmark: 18th
C-in-C of the Air Force (General staff of the Air Force): 19th
Supreme Command of the Navy (Naval War Staff): 20th
Armistice Commission Wiesbaden: 21st
Foreign Office for the attention of Herr Botsch Ritter: 22nd
Orders staff Frankfurt/O) (Verfuegungstab): 23rd
Orders staff Breslau ) via LIII: 24th
Supreme Command of the Armed Forces Armed Forces Ops Staff: 25th
Section L: 26th-32nd
Armed Forces Propaganda: 33rd
Foreign Department / Abwehr: 34th
Foreign Section: 35th
Abwehr: 36th
Economic Ordnance Dept: (Wi Rue Amt): 37th
General Armed Forces Dept.: 38th
WR[?]: 39th
Admin Officer with Government of Poland Cracow: 40th

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