Anti-Partisan Operations

Discussions on all (non-biographical) aspects of the Kriegsmarine except those dealing with the U-Boat forces.
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Matt Gibbs
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Anti-Partisan Operations

Post by Matt Gibbs » 16 May 2002 10:05

Question:
I have heard and read many times that in combatting the partisans the Germans used many different troops and organisations. One reference always intrigues me which is that Kriegsmarine troops were involved 'somewhere' . Has anyone come across any evidence to suggest this..? I have heard about the various microfilmed records stashed away in various places all over the world but does anyone know if they include operational details and award bestowals..? I would be grateful for any info !

Also, assuming that the combat days were retrospective as written to 1st Jan 1944 there must have been quite a number of troops qualified for the badge straight away on inception. When was the very first presentation made, does anyone know..? Was it perhaps covered by the newspapers of the time..?

Kind Regards

Matt G

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Andy H
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Post by Andy H » 16 May 2002 12:35

Hi Matt

I havn't come across Kriegsmarine units on bloc being involved in Anti-Partisan op's though I have seen references to German riverine and lake units, especially in AG North's area of op's being organised to counter partisan usage of the rivers & lakes. I'm just guessing that some Kreigsmarine personnel may be attached in some role?

:D Andy from the Shire

AndyW
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Post by AndyW » 20 May 2002 19:20

One example:

In Summer 1941, Kriegsmarine was in charge in Libau, organizing the cleansing in cooperation with the SS and local militsia.

Hope this helps.

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Marcus
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Post by Marcus » 20 May 2002 20:27

AndyW wrote:In Summer 1941, Kriegsmarine was in charge in Libau, organizing the cleansing in cooperation with the SS and local militsia.
Interesting, do you have any more details on that?

/Marcus

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Post by AndyW » 20 May 2002 23:17

Source is:

Vestermanis, Margers: "Ortskommandantur Libau" in: Heer/ Neumann (Eds.): "Vernichtungskrieg: Verbrechen der Wehrmacht 1941-1945" pp. 241-260

An area of 10 km along the coastal line was under Kriegsmarine control (in cooperation with Wehrmacht, SS and other occupation admin). Consequentely, Libau - among other Baltic and Soviet coastal towns -were under control of Marine Coastal Defense (Marinebefehlshaber "C") until it was put out of military control (on Sept. 15, 1945).

During that time, 3,000 people had been executed (mostly Jews) only in the Libau area (CiC: Fregattenkapitän Dr. Kawelmacher) ). The diary of a sailor who witnessed those - mostly public [!] - executions of Jews, Hostages, believed Partisansd etc. in the dunes of Libau tells about the great "ballyhoo" of those "events". There is even an amateur movie showing a Marine soldier kicking a victim into the ditch for excecution.

Hope this helps. Let me know if you need more details, I have Vestermanis' essay at hand.

Cheers,

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Matt Gibbs
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Partisan operations book

Post by Matt Gibbs » 25 May 2002 11:46

Anyone read
German Anti Partisan Operations in Europe..? Pub by Schiffer..?
Just wondered what peoples thoughts were on it and whether it was worth having..?

Regards

Matt G

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Post by Peter » 01 Sep 2006 16:56

large peak from 22 to 25 July. This is due to an Aktion by the Arajs Commando, a Latvian SD unit commanded by Viktors Arajs that came from Riga to Liepaja to execute Jews. 42 Remarkably, H. L. Borgert has recently found that this Aktion was initiated not by the German or Latvian SD but by the navy commandant of Liepaja, Fregattenkapitän Dr. Hans Kawelmacher. 43 On 22 July Kawelmacher telegraphed the Navy's Baltic Command in Kiel requesting 100 SS and fifty Schutzpolizei men "for quick implementation Jewish problem.... Here about 8,000 Jews ... with present SS personnel this would take about 1 year, which is untenable for pacification of Libau." On 27 July he followed up with the message: "Jewish problem Libau largely solved by execution of about 1,100 male Jews by Riga SS Commando on 24. and 25.7. SS Commando has left." 44

With the execution dates precisely fixed on 24 and 25 July, we clearly see the time lag between arrest and execution. Mass arrests started on 22 July, the day of Kawelmacher's message, and had nearly stopped on 25 July, the last day of the massacre. The number of victims in the peak, 910 ± 90, is slightly smaller than Kawelmacher's figure of ~1,100, but within the uncertainties of both figures.

The Extraordinary Commission gives the correct dates, 22-25 July, but—consistent with its usual practice—an inflated total of 3,500 victims, much greater than either Kawelmacher's or our figure. (Indeed, the Commission gives a grand total of 29,800 civilian victims in Liepaja for 1941-43, approaching the total population of barely 50,000. This is a nearly five-fold exaggeration, as only ~6,600 Jews were in Liepaja at the beginning of the German occupation and no more than a few hundred non-Jews were executed. Also in the bizarre Soviet tradition of Holocaust denial, the Commission speaks only of "peaceful Soviet citizens," never once using the word "Jew." 45
From the Journal of Holocaust Studies.



Dr Hans Kawelmacher (Naval Academy Class 1910)
born 25 Jun 1891 Koblenz
Kapt zur See 1 Sep 1941
Reichsversorgungsgericht d. Wehrmacht (staend.richterl. Mitglied 1938-Sep 39.
OKW/WVers., Pers.Referent Sep 39 - April 41
Seekommandant, Libau Apr 41-Jan 42
Hafenkpt u. Inselkmdt Milos Sep 42-Sep 43
in OKM Sep 43-Jun 44
Verabschiedet 30 Jun 44
Released from POW Camp 2 Jan 1950

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PT Dockyard
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Post by PT Dockyard » 03 Sep 2006 14:11

Matt,

Look at this thread I started a few years ago on Anti-partisan ops in the Adriatic.

http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic. ... intenfisch

Also, here is an article with pictures on another site.

http://www.wlb-stuttgart.de/seekrieg/ks ... lawien.htm

I ran it through Babelfish and it came out very understandable.

Dave G

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Bjørn from Norway
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Post by Bjørn from Norway » 05 Sep 2006 12:26

Hello!
The KM did indeed participate in anti partisan operations, at least in Norway 1945. There the KM special forces were used.

B.

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Erik E
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Post by Erik E » 08 Sep 2006 19:54

Hallo Matt!

Several small units called "MEK - Marine Einsatz Kommando" operated along the Norwegian coast from late 44 until the end of the war. The first units were engaged in tracking down radiotransmitters and supplybases for British MTB`s along the coast together with Sipo.
As late as 28th April 1945, soldiers from MEK30 and MEK35 at Bergen were involved in fightings with Norwegian resistance in the mountains north of Bergen.
A book I got tells about these units wearing LW paratrooper smocks, G43 rifles and other modern equipment which was quite rare in Norway.

As MEK units were attached to the "Kleinkampf-flottillien", I wouldn`t be surprised if they can be found in other countries like Denmark, Netherlands and France.

Erik

Edward L. Hsiao
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Re: Anti-Partisan Operations

Post by Edward L. Hsiao » 21 Jul 2019 11:03

I'm surprised that Dr. Hans Kawelmacher wasn't tried by the Allies for his crimes after WWII.

Edward L. Hsiao

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genstab
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Re: Anti-Partisan Operations

Post by genstab » 21 Jul 2019 18:19

Hey Matt (or anyone), can you come up with the exact title? I couldn't find it on the OCLC or in Schiffer's search function so can't search it on the bookstore search function.
Thanks,
Bill

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genstab
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Re: Anti-Partisan Operations

Post by genstab » 25 Jul 2019 20:02

Never mind- I found it. German Antipartisan Warfare in Europe 1939-1945 by Colin Heaton. I have it and it's in the Bibliography of my forthcoming book on German ground forces O/Bs, so I must have found some interesting information in it.
Best,
Bill

Sid Guttridge
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Re: Anti-Partisan Operations

Post by Sid Guttridge » 24 Aug 2021 21:12

Hi genstab,

Be very cautious in quoting Heaton as a source. He has published, or tried to have published, two books as fact that are clearly fiction - Prince of Aces and Four War Boer. The former was withdrawn by the publisher prior to issue. The latter he published himself but his subject appears to never have existed, as claimed, in Rhodesia in the 1960s (I checked with Rhodesian special forces veterans). As a result, I consider nothing he writes can be considered reliable without double checking first.

Cheers,

Sid.

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