Manchuria 1931-1932

Discussions on all aspects of the Japanese Empire, from the capture of Taiwan until the end of the Second World War.
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Peter H
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Post by Peter H » 31 Jul 2006 10:19

Infantry pause.
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Post by Peter H » 31 Jul 2006 10:26

Marching in.
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Post by Peter H » 31 Jul 2006 10:34

Military burial.
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Post by Peter H » 31 Jul 2006 11:29

Somewhere in Manchuria
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Post by Peter H » 31 Jul 2006 11:37

Another infantry photo
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Post by Peter H » 31 Jul 2006 11:43

Armoured cars.
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Post by Peter H » 01 Aug 2006 09:30

Regimental flagbearer in the lead.
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Post by Peter H » 01 Aug 2006 09:39

Group shot.Note second from right with Chinese sword.
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Winter campaign in Manchuria 1931-32

Post by asiaticus » 08 Oct 2006 05:28

After doing some research on this little campaign I think the photos in winter were from the Oct. Nov. 1931 expedition against Ma Zhanshan/Ma Chan-shan in Heilongjiang Province, or the early January attack on Chinchow, or the late Jan. early Feb 1932 one against Harbin defended by the Chinese general Ting Chao.

Apparently the Japanese forces in the all three campaigns were commanded by Lt. General Jiro Ta-mon (commander of 2nd Division).

Gleened this from a series of old Time Magazine articles posted on the net. An interesting step back in time reading these:

vs Ma Chan-shan

http://www.time.com/time/magazine/artic ... -1,00.html
Boycott, Bloodshed & Puppetry
From the Oct. 26, 1931 issue of TIME magazine

"Basis of Righteousness." Stubbornly, for obvious diplomatic reasons, the Japanese Government insisted that they were not at war with China last week. But in Manchuria, which is part of China, acts of war continued:

Japanese planes bombed three trainloads of Chinese soldiers at Tahusan on the Peiping-Mukden Railway.

In Tokyo War Minister General Minami said that Japan has "no bombing planes" in Manchuria, explained that from "scout planes" Japanese airmen drop "not bombs but three-inch shells" which nevertheless explode. Continuing these technicalities, Japanese Ambassador Debuchi announced in Washington that Japan has withdrawn "all fighting planes" from Manchuria.

After bombing Chinchow, field headquarters of the ousted Chinese Governor of Manchuria, Chang Hsueh-liang (TIME, Sept. 28), Japanese planes swooped low to drop explanatory handbills. Text:
"The Imperial Japanese Army, which strives to uphold the rights of the masses on the basis of righteousness, will under no circumstances recognize Chang Hsueh-liang or the authority of his provisional government at Chinchow. The army is now compelled to resort to positive action to destroy his base."

Six Japanese troop trains, preceded by an armored train and escorted by bombing planes, moved westward out of Mukden, occupying the "Heart of Manchuria."

Rashly approaching Mukden, 1,000 Chinese soldiers were met by Japanese five miles outside the city, skirmished bravely for nine hours, were routed, fled.

Three out of a caravan of 50 Koreans straggling across Manchuria reached Mukden alive. Said they: "Our comrades were butchered by Chinese troops."

Egged by Japanese General Honjo, now seeking to set up a puppet Chinese regime in Manchuria, puppet Chinese General Chang Hai-peng advanced last week upon Tsitsihar, held by loyal Chinese General Ma Chan-shan who offered peacefully to give up the old walled town.
Advancing cautiously to accept General Ma's surrender, General Chang's advance guard was set upon with orthodox Oriental treachery by General Ma, fought savagely, but was sent flying for its life.

C. Out of dim Mongolia appeared the Dar Khan, barbaric Prince of the Blood, friendly to Chinese. In Peiping he vowed that Japanese agents had offered him bribes to declare the independence of Inner Mongolia and become its puppet ruler, protected by Japan.


http://www.time.com/time/magazine/artic ... 07,00.html
Two War Lords
from Time Magazine Monday, Nov. 16, 1931

In Washington the President and Statesman Stimson talked Manchuria for a solid hour, after Japanese Ambassador Debuchi had explained to the State Department that last week's principal armed clash in Manchuria (a three-hour battle in which 135 were killed ) was due to a misunderstanding."

The Clash. Japanese investors, who hold what amounts to a mortgage on the Nonni River bridge near Tsitsihar in northwestern Manchuria, were sorely vexed some weeks ago when it was blown up.
The Japanese General Staff determined to repair the bridge. Last week a Japanese repair crew, guarded by 800 Japanese soldiers, went briskly to work. Near by were 2,500 Chinese troops under anti-Japanese General Ma Chan-shan. As to how the battle began there were indeed "misunderstandings." Each side charged the other with opening fire without provocation. For three hours there was a battle, but of the peculiar Manchurian kind. Only 15 Japanese were reported killed as their comrades slew 120 Chinese, advanced and drove General Ma's remaining troops flying before them toward Tsitsihar. Later General Ma returned to the attack with a much larger force, dislodged Japanese from their advance positions but did not recapture the bridge, which Japanese continued to repair.
Swelling with pride General Ma, who represents only his own army, next declared "war" on Japan "in the name of the Chinese people."
When Wall Street heard Ma say "war" stocks rose in price an average of $3 each.

In Geneva pained League of Nations statesmen talked of invoking Article XV of the League Covenant, began a juridical investigation to see just what can be done under Article XV. Possibly League States can be asked to withdraw their Ambassadors and Ministers from Tokyo in a body, but Geneva was not sure.

Japanese occupation of Manchuria continued unchallenged by any Great Power. In Mukden, Capital of Manchuria, a puppet "Chinese Government" protected by Japan and headed by Chinese General Yuan Chin-kai last week proclaimed "severance of relations" between the three Manchurian provinces and the rest of China. Lest Japan set up the ex-Emperor of China as a puppet ruler of Manchuria, a Chinese patriot sent "Emperor" Henry Pu Yi a basket of fruit containing a bomb. Henry took the basket, thanked his Heavenly Ancestors for their protection when the bomb did not explode.

"Minor Disorders/' Manchuria lies outside China proper, outside the Great Wall. Last week Japan carried the rattle of her machine guns and the boom of her field pieces inside the Great Wall.

At Tientsin, second largest Chinese port, a Chinese mob of 2,000 clashed with Chinese police near the borderline between the Chinese City and the Japanese Concession. Arrested mobsmen swore later that they had been paid $40 Mex. ($10) each by Japanese agents provocateurs. However this might be the Japanese garrison commander repulsed rioters from the vicinity of the Japanese concession with a warning burst of machine gun fire, then unlimbered his field pieces and dropped 40 small explosive shells in the Chinese quarter of Tientsin.

In the Occidental quarter of Tientsin the U. S. business community was well guarded last week by 500 U. S. soldiers of the 15th Infantry. Their commander, Col. James D. Taylor, declared a War Department spokesman, "is a man of enough experience not to be upset by minor dis- orders."

From Washington to Tokyo a secret note was sent by Secretary of State Stimson. Japanese sent a secret reply, also charged publicly that a League of Nations representative in Shanghai has spent $120,000 Mex. ($30.000) in the past few weeks cabling the Chinese Government's point of view to the detriment of Japan.


http://www.time.com/time/magazine/artic ... -2,00.html
From Time Magazine | Foreign News Monday, Nov. 23, 1931
Hero Ma

China has lost every war she has tried to fight since the 18th Century. But Chinese General Ma Chan-shan, who personally declared war on Japan fortnight ago (TIME, Nov. 16), still stuck to his guns and his trenches last week, became a towering hero to the Chinese people. From Newark, N. J. for example the Chinese Merchants' Association cabled $2,000 to Hero Ma. To report the heroic struggles of General Ma, star correspondents rushed by plane and train towards his remote war base, Tsitsihar.

Battles. Japanese last week dominated every capital of Manchurian provinces except Tsitsihar. Conflict raged in a series of short battles and hot skirmishes up & down the Nonni River and the roughly parallel Taonan-Angangki Railway. Facing Tsitsihar, the Japanese field commander, Major General Hasebe, had the sluggish river on his left, the railway on his right. Wide swamplands made the Japanese left wing impregnable against Chinese attack. But against the exposed Japanese right wing General Ma flung his cavalry in charge after Chinese charge. On the centre of the battle front both armies were entrenched, fought each other with every modern weapon except poison gas.

General Ma, despite his frontal resistance and spirited efforts to turn the Japanese right flank, was forced slowly back upon Tsitsihar. Miles behind the Japanese lines during the week and safe from Chinese capture was the famed Nonni River Bridge*, almost captured by General Ma in his first assaults. Under grim Japanese guard and directed by Japanese engineers, docile Chinese coolies completed repairs to the dynamited bridge, made possible the further advance of chuffing Japanese armored trains.

Red Aid? First white correspondent to reach General Ma was small, dark, alert Fred Kuh (pronounced "coo") who had dashed 6,000 mi. overland from Berlin where he is Bureau manager for United Press. In crossing the entire breadth of Russia, passing the Soviet frontier, coming on to Tsitsihar, experienced Correspondent Kuh saw no evidence of Red Army troop movements or war preparation of any kind by the Soviet Union.

While Japanese papers saw Red, while the Japanese General Staff in Manchuria "proved" to correspondents by showing them dead Russians in Chinese uniforms that Moscow was aiding Ma, Correspondent Kuh asked the Japanese Consul at Tsitsihar (who was just leaving for Harbin) his opinion. Flatly the Consul said that Moscow was not aiding Ma.

Kuh & Ma. Short, slender and serene is Hero Ma. He looks almost exactly like the late, great Manchurian War Lord Chang Tso-lin under whom he learned to fight. Like Marshal Chang's mustache, the mustache of General Ma is thin, black and drooping. Like Chang's head. Ma's head is closely shaven, glistens. As small Marshal Chang used to be small General Ma is the terror of a General Staff composed exclusively of tall, strapping, exceedingly respectful Chinese officers. They bent their large bodies over staff maps last week while General Ma in silken house slippers but wearing a fur-collared military great coat affably received Correspondent Kuh.
Seated beside the General on a sofa, Guest Kuh surveyed four rubber plants in pots, four cuspidors, a large German clock, sumptuous Persian rugs, rich curtains, and a table on which tea was sumptuously laid in a silver service, complete with biscuits, fruit, cakes and a bucket of cracked ice surrounding French champagne.

"I am convinced that we face a great offensive immediately," said General Ma, stirring his tea. "We have lost more than 400 killed and 300 wounded since Nov. 5 and now the Japanese have handed an ultimatum to me. I know we are not strong enough to fight. But we must hold our own," cried Hero Ma with a fine flourish, "until Death!"

Uncorking the champagne, Host Ma proposed and sipped "a toast to America!" and "a toast to China!"

"Rumors that Moscow is helping me," he continued, "must be due to the fact that while I was Chief of Police of the Town of Sakhalin-Ula I used to dine twice a year with the Soviet officials. I can swear that no foreigners have given or are giving me guns, munitions, supplies or money! I want the League of Nations to fulfill its duty. I want it to force the Japanese to withdraw from Northern Manchuria. If I am forced to abandon Tsitsihar I intend to retire into the back country."


http://www.time.com/time/magazine/artic ... 49,00.html
Rout of Ma
From the Nov. 30, 1931issue of TIME magazine

Rout of Ma

Thermometer mercury scrooched down in its tubes, showed 4° below Zero. Across the bleak Manchurian steppes just south of Tsitsihar snowflakes scudded in a driving blizzard that nipped soldiers' noses, soldiers' ears. Well-publicized Chinese General Ma Chan-shan with 23,000 Chinese troops was about to make his heroic last stand against 3,500 prosaic but efficient Japanese soldiers.
On two convenient hills, each some 150 ft. high and admirably placed by Nature behind the fighting lines, stood the respective Chinese and Japanese General Staffs. Somebody had to start the battle. Afterwards, the Japanese Press spokesman accused Chinese soldiers of having begun the fray with "unbearable taunts."

Japanese cavalry were first in the charge. Riding down the Chinese front line they cut a swath into which Japanese infantry poured pell mell, yelling. General Ma's right flank held at first. Chinese cavalry tried to encircle the Japanese right, but Japanese field guns and bombing planes stopped that. A lone Chinese anti-aircraft gun atop an armored car waggled and wobbled, frantically failed to hit even one of six Japanese planes. Nine Chinese field batteries blazed valiantly, but along a five-mile front superior Japanese armament turned the battle's tide. Chinese units broke, fled for their lives across the frozen steppes.

The panting retreaters threw away their rifles, coats, hats, canteens, valuable extra pairs of officers' high boots, to run the faster. In the utter Chinese rout General Ma, who had begun the day by promising " I will fight so long as one Chinese stands by my side!" ended it safely some 30 miles ahead of the main retreat. For the rest of the week he skulked north of the walled City of Tsitsihar which Japanese took as their prize.

At news of her father's defeat, pretty Miss Ma Shu-chin, 19, quit her girls' hoarding school at Tokyo and sailed for Manchuria, serenely confident that the gallant Japanese military would pass her through their lines to General Ma.

''My brother wrote me to come," explained Miss Ma, "and he knows best." Seven other Manchurian schoolgirls sailed home with Ma's daughter.

Bumping along a shell-strewn road near Tsitsihar two days after the battle, Correspondent Frederick Kuh of United Press reported freezing corpses gnawed by carrion, piteous wounded, and short, fat, half-bald Japanese General Jiro Tamon who "punctuated his description of the Japanese victory with derogatory references to the League of Nations" (see col. 2).

General Honjo Digs In. With the capture of Tsitsihar (which Japanese estimated cost 300 Japanese lives, 3,000 Chinese) the Japanese forces in Manchuria under General Shigeru Honjo controlled all three Manchurian provincial capitals, Mukden (General Honjo's base) Kirin and nese had already dug in by establishing puppet Chinese governments at Mukden and Kirin. Last week they established Chinese Puppet Chang Chin-hui at Tsitsihar. To demonstrate the independence of these Chinese regimes General Honjo called attention to the fact that the Chinese Government of Southern Manchuria at Mukden had just adopted a budget of their own diligent devising. When correspondents asked the puppet Chinese for a copy of this budget they were told, "Come back tomorrow and you can have it. It has not yet been translated out of Japanese."

Seemingly all effective Chinese resistance to Japan in Manchuria had been crushed last week. Only at Chinchow, far to the south of Manchuria and near China proper, was there any large group of Chinese soldiers who might do battle. To hearten them Chinese President Chiang Kaishek at Nanking-1,000 miles south announced in the flamboyant vein of General Ma that he would personally rush north "to direct the offensive and avenge China's honor." But President Chiang did not stir out of Nanking last week.





Chinchow

http://www.time.com/time/magazine/artic ... 08,00.html
From the Magazine | Foreign News
"Run Amuck"
From the Dec. 7, 1931 issue of TIME magazine

Wrathfully one day last week almost every shimbun (newspaper) in the Japanese Empire front-paged a picture of U. S. Secretary of State Henry Lewis Stimson. Scorching captions declared that in Washington he had "insulted the Imperial Japanese Army by charging, with ignorant presumption, that it has run amuck."

Excited Japanese devoured the captions, cursed Statesman Stimson by the million, spat by the thousand upon his inoffensive likeness. Even at the Japanese Foreign Office, where velvet politeness is an iron rule, Press Spokesman Shiratori Toshio snapped: "If a man in Mr. Stimson's position loses his head at such a critical moment in the affairs of Japan, the consequences would be very grave indeed. . . . Mr. Stimson says the Japanese Army in Manchuria 'ran amuck.' This is considered a very bold statement indeed."
In Washington that cautious and conservative old Manhattan lawyer, Statesman Stimson, had of course made no such bold statement. To one of his press conferences had come a group of correspondents, vaguely hopeful that the State Department's sphinx might say something and permit quotation. What did Mr. Stimson think, they asked, of reports that the Japanese Army had just launched a major offensive against Chinchow, the last Manchurian stronghold still in Chinese hands? Were the League of Nations and
President Hoover going to let Japan snatch the whole of Manchuria? Had the Secretary of State anything to say?
Mr. Stimson had nothing to say for quotation. But speaking informally he let quite a cat out of his diplomatic bag. He revealed the drift of an exchange of notes with the Imperial Government which he had asked the Japanese to keep secret and which they had kept secret. The striking part of Mr. Stimson's revelation was that he had received assurances not only from Japanese Foreign Minister Baron Shidehara but also through him further assurances from Japanese War Minister General Jiro Minanmi and from the Chief of the Japanese General Staff. These assurances were such, declared Mr. Stimson, that he could not "understand" reports of the Japanese advance against Chinchow. Next day the Secretary of State said that by "understood" he meant "credit" and further informed correspondents that he meant "credit" in the sense of "believe." Thus he originally meant to say that he could not "believe" reports of General Honjo's offensive against Chinchow, but what he did say was that he could not "understand" those reports in view of the assurances he had received.
Not permitted to quote Mr. Stimson's original words, each correspondent had had to make what he could of them. The Associated Pressman came to the conclusion that, since Mr. Stimson could not "understand" the advance of the Japanese Army contrary to so many assurances, State Department officials doubtless credited widespread reports of a feud between the peaceably inclined Japanese civil Cabinet and pugnacious independent Japanese militarists like General Honjo. "Officials were given the impression," wired the A. P. in summarizing Mr. Stimson's press conference, "that the Military party, which is not under complete control of the civil Government, had simply run amuck."

In Tokyo the Japanese Rengo Agency (which later admitted "full responsibility" for the mixup) took the A. P. cable to mean that Mr. Stimson had actually said "run amuck." For two days until everyone could be soothed, harsh words flew. "On what basis," demanded the Japanese Foreign Office spokesman, "did Mr. Stimson see fit to fly into fulminations?"

Fortunately all this rumpus began just after the Japanese War Ministry and General Staff had taken the most important decision of the entire Manchurian affray: General Minanmi and his associates decided, for reasons which they considered military secrets, to recall the offensive launched against Chinchow by General Honjo who had already despatched from Mukden 10,000 soldiers in 13 armored trains escorted by a squadron of bombing planes.

In dead of night this formidable host, having advanced to within 30 mi. of Chinchow, received the order to retreat, obediently retreated. Two facts seemed adequate to explain:
1) Reports had been circulating for several days in Tokyo that since part of the railway over which General Honjo's offensive was launched is partly British owned, the British Government had resolved to rush Tommies to protect it in case of hostilities.

2) A tempting Chinese proposal, which would leave Japan indefinitely in control of most of Manchuria and save faces all round, had just been received by the Japanese Government from the French Embassy in Tokyo, who had it from the newly appointed Foreign Minister of China's Nanking Government, famed Dr. Vi Kuyuin Wellington Koo.

Dr. Koo, twice Premier (1922-24; 1926-27) of the later defunct Chinese Republic at Peking, once Minister at Washington, proposed last week a modified form of the League of Nations proposal for a "neutral zone" to be established as a sort of buffer between China proper and Manchuria pending a future China-Japanese peace conference. Negotiations on Dr. Koo's proposal began last week not at Nanking or Tokyo but in Peiping between the local Japanese consul and Marshal Chang Hsueh-liang, former War Lord of Manchuria but ousted by Japan (TIME, Sept. 28). Previously young Marshal Chang has breathed almost daily defiance to Tokyo but last week he seemed suddenly enthusiastic for the scheme of his friend Dr. Koo. Dec. 15 was mentioned tentatively as the date for establishing the neutral zone, extending roughly from the Great Wall 100 mi. to Chinchow.

In Tokyo the touchy Japanese War Office closed the week with two flat denials: 1) that Mr. Stimson had in any way brought about the retreat from within 30 mi. of Chinchow; 2) that the War Office had ever given any positive assurance that an attack on Chinchow would not or may not later be launched. If Mr. Stimson thought he had received any such positive assurance, declared the War Office, a mistake had evidently been made by the Japanese Foreign Ministry or the U. S. Embassy in Tokyo.


http://www.time.com/time/magazine/artic ... 42,00.html
"Home By New Year's"?
From the Dec. 14, 1931 issue of TIME magazine


Tap, tap, tap League of Nations typists wrote about Manchuria last week in Paris.
They gossiped, chattered, primped their hair. The portable League Secretariat, pitched like a gypsy camp in the spacious salons of the French Foreign Office, settled down as though for a long winter in cubicles formed of red burlap screens six feet high. Every afternoon there were two kinds of tea — tea with vintage port for League Councilmen, and tea with port. Efforts to cajole Japanese troops out of Manchuria had practically ceased.

Instead Council Chairman Aristide Briand, after consulting U. S. Observer General Dawes, strongly urged Chinese Delegate Dr. Alfred Sze to advise his Government that the only thing left to do was for Chinese troops to evacuate Chinchow and retire south of the Great Wall, thus withdrawing entirely from Manchuria, abandoning it to Japan.

"Never!" retorted Dr. Sze. "China will defend Chinchow to the Death!'' Not quite sure of himself, however. Dr. Sze cabled his resignation to Nanking, was requested to withdraw it, settled down at the League tea party.

In Nanking much the same quaint course was followed by Chinese Foreign Minister Dr. Wellington Koo who, last fortnight, broached to Japan a proposal for evacuation of Chinchow and establishment of a "neutral zone'' between China proper and Manchuria (TIME, Dec. 7). Last week Chinese students, who have already beaten up one Chinese Foreign Minister for his "weak policy" this year, massed in Nanking and menaced Dr. Koo. Promptly he took the line that China would not evacuate Chinchow, then resigned.

Chinese President Chiang Kaishek, who announced three weeks ago that he would go north and tight Japan (TIME. Nov. 30), held prayer meetings in Nanking last week, did his best to calm the students, persuaded Dr. Koo to withdraw his resignation.

In Tokyo the Imperial Japanese Army once again asserted itself, perhaps to the discomfort of the Japanese Civil Cabinet which advocates in public a policy of peace and nonaggression. Fortnight ago Foreign Minister Baron Shidehara could point to Japan's "peaceful" withdrawal of a Japanese offensive already launched against Chinchow (TIME. Dec. 7). But last week War Minister General Jiro Minanmi impressed on even the Foreign Office his "realistic" viewpoint. Announced the Foreign Office press spokesman: "As the withdrawal of the Japanese Army toward Mukden, after the operations in the direction of Chinchow. was due to the assurance that the Chinese were prepared voluntarily to withdraw their troops within the Great Wall, Nan king's reported rejection of the proposed neutral zone may, it is feared, have a most unfortunate effect on Japanese mili tary authorities, who regard it as an act of bad faith on China's part."

Next day both Foreign Office and War Ministry said that a second Japanese offensive against Chinchow was being pre pared, would be launched if Chinese did not evacuate. In Mukden. Field Commander General Honjo joked: "I want to get our Japanese boys home by New Year's, but that depends on the Chinese!"


http://www.time.com/time/magazine/artic ... 20,00.html
"Strong Policy"
from the Dec. 28, 1931 issue of TIME magazine

Within 72 hours a new Japanese offensive was launched in Manchuria, characteristically at 4 a. m. and unquestionably under direct control of the Sublime Emperor represented by Field Marshal Prince Kanin. From Mukden, the Japanese base in Manchuria, brigade after brigade advanced southward in the dead of night, to be followed at 9 a. m. by roaring squadrons of Japanese bombing planes. Clearly the Japanese objective was to force the Chinese Army to evacuate Chinchow, the only major stronghold in Manchuria not already held by Japanese.

"We will fight to the Death!" General Yung Chen told correspondents. They, remembering the recent headlong flight of Chinese General Ma after he promised to fight to the Death (TIME, Nov. 30), skeptically remarked to each other, "Oh. yeah?"

At the Japanese G. H. Q. in Mukden, tight-lipped General Shigeru Honjo insisted his troops were moving out "to clear the country of bandits," but added that Chinese evacuation of Chinchow "is now absolutely imperative." Seemingly he thought that Chinchow might be taken without bloodshed, the Chinese soldiers merely scattering like chaff. Cheerily a Japanese aid-de-camp spoke of "taking over Chinchow by Christmas."


http://www.time.com/time/magazine/artic ... 91,00.html
Jaunting Juggernaut
From the Jan. 4, 1932 issue of TIME magazine

Japan's juggernaut, clanking slowly across frozen South Manchuria toward Chinchow last week, was chauffeured by the Empire's prodigiously popular hero of the hour, Lieut. General Jiro Tamon. Month ago he broke the power of China in North Manchuria by routing fleet General Ma Chan-shan and capturing Tsitsihar (TIME, Nov. 30). That was easy. General Ma had no effective artillery and only 23,000 Chinese soldiers. Chinchow last week looked hard—that is if its 84,000 Chinese defenders would fight. Japanese scouting planes reported two separate systems of Chinese entrenchments defending Chinchow, complete with 58 pieces of artillery strategically placed. The Chinese "First Line," a series of trenches 20 mi. north of Chinchow, aimed to stop the Japanese advance at the Taling River Bridge on the Peiping-Mukden Railway. Should the juggernaut break through, the Chinese "Second Line" consisted of earthworks and entrenchments completely encircling Chinchow. In the city (Japanese estimated) were 8,000,000 rounds of ammunition which Chinese might fire. During the week Lieut. General Tamon's forces cautiously advanced south from Mukden, easily brushing aside Chinese skirmishers in a series of minor clashes, and prepared to meet and crush the first serious Chinese resistance, expected at Kowpangtze, 50 mi. north of Chinchow.

Japanese troops camouflaged as snow men in long white gowns crawled forward eleven miles fighting every inch of the way. The temperature was 30 below zero. Japanese scouting planes reported a force of at least 3.000 Chinese "bandits" waiting to defend Panshanhsien. Total Japanese forces in Manchuria did not exceed 25,000 last week, though, seven Japanese transports landed an unrevealed number of fresh troops at Dairen.

Meanwhile in Mukden the Japanese G. H. Q. of General Shigeru Honjo feted a distinguished and most welcome guest. Guest General Jiro Minami started the Japanese push into Manchuria when he was Minister of War (TIME, Oct. 12, et seq.). Last week he offered a quaint description of the outburst of Chinese banditry which followed Japan's overthrow of the Chinese Government of Manchuria at Mukden. "A revolution has overtaken Manchuria." General Minami said. In Tokyo the Japanese Diet met briefly, passed a resolution "in appreciation of the Army's efforts in Manchuria," adjourned over the holidays.


Harbin

http://www.time.com/time/magazine/artic ... 57,00.html
Flight of Ting
From the Feb. 15, 1932 issue of TIME magazine

All Manchuria was Japan's last week. Harbin, last important city not occupied by Japanese troops, fell before the fierce frost-bitten fighters of General Jiro Ta-mon. Winter was Harbin's best defender. For seven days the fur-hatted Japanese columns struggled north over a frozen desolate country in a temperature of 30° below zero. Finally they closed in on the city from the west and south.

Harbin is in the Russian sphere of influence in Manchuria. It is the headquarters of the Soviet-dominated Chinese Eastern Railroad. Some 25,000 Russians, Red and White, live there. But last week Russia made no overt move to protect the city whose defense was left to spry little General Ting Chao. General Ting Chao fought a 17-hour battle which Harbin's shivering but fascinated inhabitants watched from their roofs. Possibly in an effort to embroil Russia. Ting Chao's artillery was posted squarely in front of Russian offices of the C. E. R. But Russia was not embroiled. Ting Chao's men finally broke under a withering fire from Japanese guns and airplanes while the General himself scuttled out of town, pursued by Japanese bombing planes. Harbin's Japanese and White Russian inhabitants cheered lustily from the housetops. Within a few hours the occupation was complete. Japanese soldiers rushed about with great buckets of paste, posting notices that the city was under martial law, that its inhabitants were not to be molested.
Last edited by asiaticus on 09 Oct 2006 02:19, edited 1 time in total.

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asiaticus
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more pics of the Manchurian Incident

Post by asiaticus » 08 Oct 2006 06:22

From:
http://www.jewsofchina.org/JewsOfChina/ ... 57&fid=201

Mukden Incident, 1931
8 photos.
Note the snow on the ground, and armed train

Harbin occupation (new link) 6 photos
http://www.jewsofchina.org/JewsOfChina/ ... 51&fid=199

BTW what is that aircraft in the last photo? Looks like a transport or comercial aircraft.

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Post by Peter H » 08 Oct 2006 11:05

Towards Mukden
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Post by Peter H » 08 Oct 2006 11:07

Train transport
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Post by Peter H » 08 Oct 2006 11:08

Infantry
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Post by Peter H » 08 Oct 2006 11:09

Artillery
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Post by Peter H » 08 Oct 2006 11:11

Infantry platoon
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