'Inner Mongolian' Air Force

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UncleBourbon
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'Inner Mongolian' Air Force

Post by UncleBourbon » 19 Jun 2021 19:48

For a while now I've been fascinated with the Inner Mongolian aspect of Japan's Empire, and I'm hoping to find more information particularly on an obscure aspect of the Suiyuan Campaign in 1936; that of the 'Inner Mongolian' Air Force.

In Rays of the Rising Sun, Volume 1 by Philip Jowett, the 'Inner Mongolian' Air Force is briefly touched on on pages 54 and 55, reportedly being composed of Japanese planes with Japanese insignia and Japanese pilots; roughly 28 planes in all with 3 bombers, 8 fighters, and 5 scout planes at Changpei Air Base, with 10 other aircraft split in Pailingmiao and Shangtu referenced, although not classified by model. Reportedly, by December 4th, 1936 four of these aircraft had been shot down by Nationalist anti-air.

I was wondering if anybody has any information on the models or serial numbers of planes used in this force/during this campaign, names of the pilots, or photos of these aircraft at their respective airbases in 1936 or their wrecks downed during the campaign?

Likewise, I'd be particularly interested if any air wing was set up for the Mengjiang by 1945.
Any input would be appreciated!

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Re: 'Inner Mongolian' Air Force

Post by UncleBourbon » 21 Jun 2021 15:22

Having dug around the forum a bit more, I found at least one aircraft; a Mitsubishi G4M1 serial numbered 860.
Full credit to Sewer King and Taki.

Mitsubishi G4M1 報国-860 第一蒙古號 Houkokugo is an aircraft donated for the navy '1st-mongol' seens one intended for te service in Inner Mongolia..jpg
Messages on bombs says 'A gift for Chiang Kai-shek' and 'May the one hit the target'..jpg
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Akira Takizawa
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Re: 'Inner Mongolian' Air Force

Post by Akira Takizawa » 22 Jun 2021 02:11

> Seems one intended for the service in Inner Mongolia.

It is a mistake. Mitsubishi G4M1 is navy plane. IJN had never served in Inner Mongolia. This photo was taken during Darwin bombing in the Pacific War. It was not serving in Inner Mongolia.

"1st-mongol" means that this plane was donated from Inner Mongolia. Probably, Japanese in Inner Mongolia donated it to IJN.

Taki

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fontessa
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Re: 'Inner Mongolian' Air Force

Post by fontessa » 22 Jun 2021 10:23

Akira Takizawa wrote:
22 Jun 2021 02:11
"1st-mongol" means that this plane was donated from Inner Mongolia. Probably, Japanese in Inner Mongolia donated it to IJN.

Taki
In June or July 1942, the naming ceremony for the following donated airplanes was held at 張家口蒙古神社境内 the precincts of Zhangjiakou Mongolian Shrine. 蒙古号 was adopted from the name of the shrine. The 第1蒙古号 Betty was used in 705th Naval Air Group (705-377).
報国 - 860 第1蒙古号 1st Mongol (Betty)
報国 - 861 第2蒙古号 2nd Mongol (Val)
報国 - 862 第3蒙古号 3rd Mongol (Val)

On 4 November 1942 the naming ceremony for the following airplanes donated by 朝日新聞 Asahi Newspaper was held at 共立講堂 Kyoritsu Auditorium in Tokyo.
報国 - 1004 第53全日本号 53rd All Japan (Betty)
報国 - 1005 第54全日本号 54thAll Japan (Betty)
報国 - 1006 第55全日本号 55th All Japan (Betty)
報国 - 1007 第56全日本号 56th All Japan (Betty)
報国 - 1008 第57全日本号 57th All Japan (Betty)
Among them, 報国 - 1006 Betty was also used in 705th Naval Air Group (705-379).

報国-1006.jpg

fontessa
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UncleBourbon
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Re: 'Inner Mongolian' Air Force

Post by UncleBourbon » 23 Jun 2021 17:28

Akira Takizawa wrote:
22 Jun 2021 02:11
It is a mistake. Mitsubishi G4M1 is navy plane. IJN had never served in Inner Mongolia. This photo was taken during Darwin bombing in the Pacific War. It was not serving in Inner Mongolia.

"1st-mongol" means that this plane was donated from Inner Mongolia. Probably, Japanese in Inner Mongolia donated it to IJN.
Sorry for my confusion. However, why was the plane in Inner Mongolia to begin with if the plane is a Japanese Navy plane? Was it privately owned by a Japanese Navy man living in Inner Mongolia, or were there civilian versions I'm unaware of?
fontessa wrote:
22 Jun 2021 10:23
In June or July 1942, the naming ceremony for the following donated airplanes was held at 張家口蒙古神社境内 the precincts of Zhangjiakou Mongolian Shrine. 蒙古号 was adopted from the name of the shrine. The 第1蒙古号 Betty was used in 705th Naval Air Group (705-377).
報国 - 860 第1蒙古号 1st Mongol (Betty)
報国 - 861 第2蒙古号 2nd Mongol (Val)
報国 - 862 第3蒙古号 3rd Mongol (Val)
Thank you very much for the background history on this aircraft.



Looking into it a bit further, the bombers used in Suiyuan were likely K-1 Type 93s. I have no photographs or serial numbers for those that may have been involved, though.

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fontessa
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Re: 'Inner Mongolian' Air Force

Post by fontessa » 23 Jun 2021 19:40

Hello UncleBourbon,
UncleBourbon wrote:
19 Jun 2021 19:48
I was wondering if anybody has any information on the models or serial numbers of planes used in this force/during this campaign, names of the pilots, or photos of these aircraft at their respective airbases in 1936 or their wrecks downed during the campaign?
What I have now:
Kwntung Army organized Tenporal Independent Air Unit and dispatched it to Shangtu in November of 1936.
Composition of Temporal Independent Air Unit
Type88 Light Bomber No.5: Miyazaki (Pilot) / Watanabe (Engineer)
Type88 Light Bomber No.17: Shinshi (Pilot) / Takahashi (Engineer)
Type88 Light Bomber No.616: Ito (Pilot) / Nakama (Engineer)
Type88 Light Bomber No.1054: Uda (Pilot) / Wa (Engineer)
Type91 Fighter No.139: Nakahata
Type91 Fighter No.215: Shindo
Type91 Fighter No.283: Yasutae
Type91 Fighter No.513: Kobayashi


fontessa

UncleBourbon
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Re: 'Inner Mongolian' Air Force

Post by UncleBourbon » 23 Jun 2021 22:18

fontessa wrote:
23 Jun 2021 19:40
What I have now:
Kwntung Army organized Tenporal Independent Air Unit and dispatched it to Shangtu in November of 1936.
Composition of Temporal Independent Air Unit
Type88 Light Bomber No.5: Miyazaki (Pilot) / Watanabe (Engineer)
Type88 Light Bomber No.17: Shinshi (Pilot) / Takahashi (Engineer)
Type88 Light Bomber No.616: Ito (Pilot) / Nakama (Engineer)
Type88 Light Bomber No.1054: Uda (Pilot) / Wa (Engineer)
Type91 Fighter No.139: Nakahata
Type91 Fighter No.215: Shindo
Type91 Fighter No.283: Yasutae
Type91 Fighter No.513: Kobayashi
Hi fontessa, thank you very much for the information!

Using the models you provided, I found a book corroborating them; The Bitter Peace: Conflict in China 1928-37 mentions on page 411 that Colonel Kowaida Yoshiaki's 2nd Kawaida Squadron supported the Inner Mongolians with 4 Type 91s, 2 Type 88s, 6 'Super Universal Transports,' and 1 De Havilland DH80. The only thing unaccounted for would be two of the Type 88s.

This definitely helps a lot; both with your provided serial numbers as well as names, including the commander of the small 'air force.' Unfortunately trying to gather further info on Colonel Kowaida Yoshiaki in English isn't very fruitful, and I'm unsure what his name would be in kanji.

Is it possible you could find out which planes of the ones you listed were lost over Suiyuan? Perhaps by checking returning and missing serial numbers if the unit was ever reorganized?

Thank you again!

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Akira Takizawa
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Re: 'Inner Mongolian' Air Force

Post by Akira Takizawa » 24 Jun 2021 04:54

> However, why was the plane in Inner Mongolia to begin with if the plane is a Japanese Navy plane?

The plane has never been in Inner Mongolia. Only a money for making it was collected in Inner Mongolia. The plane made with collected money was distributed to air unit in the Pacific War.

Taki

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fontessa
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Re: 'Inner Mongolian' Air Force

Post by fontessa » 30 Jun 2021 06:57

Hello UncleBourbon,

You may be interested in knowing that Temporal Air Company was organized in 満州航空株式会社 Manchukuo National Airways. Manchukuo National Airways was established on 26 September 1932 and started business on 3 November 1932. It was virtually under the control of Kwantung Army and provided support under its command regarding air transport and reconnaissance. Because Kwantung Army Air Group lacked airlift units, the former was particularly beneficial.

With the Kwantang Army Order on 5 December 1935 form Kwantang Army Commanding Officer 南次郎 Gen Minami Jiro to Manchuria Aviation Vice President 児玉常雄 Kodama Tsuneo, the organization and dispatch to Doloon of Temporal Air Company were ordered. After engaging in reconnaissance there, (1st) Temporal Air Company returned to Mukden on 25 December 1935.

(1st) Temporal Air Company
Commander: Kawaida Yoshitada 河井田義匤 (Mukden Provincial Superior)
- Pilot x 4
- Flight Engineer x 4
- Maintenance x 11
- Ground Support x 10
- Fokker single-engine transport aircraft (Supper) x 3
- Fokker three-engine transport aircraft (3M) x 1
All personnel were Manchuria Aviation employee.
All airplanes were owned by Manchuria Aviation.
UncleBourbon wrote:
23 Jun 2021 22:18
This definitely helps a lot; both with your provided serial numbers as well as names, including the commander of the small 'air force.' Unfortunately trying to gather further info on Colonel Kowaida Yoshiaki in English isn't very fruitful, and I'm unsure what his name would be in kanji.
He was Kawaida Yoshitada 河井田義匤 (28). I don't have any idea which is correct, Yoshiaki or Yoshitada, as the reading of Kanji 義匤.
In these days the status of the air units deployment in Manchuria was kept secret. So the personnel of the officers cannot be known from the Army documents. The beloww is my guess about his military record:
(CPT)
10th Independent Air Company Commanding Officer: 22 September 1931 - 6 June 1932
4th Company of 11th Air Battalion Commanding Officer: 6 June 1932 - ???
Unknown Company of 6th Air Regiment Commanding Officer: ??? - 22 October 1932 (1932.10.24.Frm.3)
(MAJ)
Waiting Orders: 22 October 1932 (1932.10.24.Frm3)
*******
Joined Manchukuo National Airways: ???
Operational Section Chief: Confirmed with the Company Directory dated 31 December 1933
Mukden Provincial Superior: Confirmed with the Company Directory dated 1 July 1933 and 1 March 1936
Company Director / Operation Department Director: Confirmed with the Company Directory dated 11 April 1942
The third picture shows Kawaida Yoshitada 河井田義匤, Manchukuo National Airways.
UncleBourbon wrote:
23 Jun 2021 22:18
Is it possible you could find out which planes of the ones you listed were lost over Suiyuan? Perhaps by checking returning and missing serial numbers if the unit was ever reorganized?
I would like to show the Composition of Temporal Independent Air Unit again with additional information. (2nd) Temporal Independent Air Unit organized with the Kwantang Army order issued on 19 October 1936.

(2nd) Temporal Independent Air Unit
Commander: Kawaida Yoshitada 河井田義匤 (Mukden Provincial Superior)
- Pilot x 10
- Flight Engineer x 5
- Maintenance x 31
- Ground Support x 15
Type88 Light Bomber No.5: Miyazaki 宮崎 (Pilot) / Watanabe 渡辺 (Engineer)
Type88 Light Bomber No.17: Shinshi 進士 (Pilot) / Takahashi 高橋 (Engineer)
Type88 Light Bomber No.616: Ito 伊藤 (Pilot) / Nakama 中間 (Engineer)
Type88 Light Bomber No.1054: Uda 右田 (Pilot) / Wa 倭 (Engineer)
Type91 Fighter No.139: Nakahata 中畑
Type91 Fighter No.215: Shindo 進藤
Type91 Fighter No.283: Yasutake 安武
Type91 Fighter No.513: Kobayashi 小林
Super Universal Transport No.1: Mizumoto 水本 (Pilot) / Ishikawa 石川 (Engineer)
De Havilland Puss Moth: Kanamaru 金丸
All personnel were Manchuria Aviation employee.
All airplanes including Type88 Light Bombers and Type91 Fighters were owned by Manchuria Aviation.
(Type88 Light Bombers and Type91 Fighters were used for the training of employee crew.)

Deprted Mukden 10 November 1936.
The safe planes gathered at Suiyuan on November 11th
One Type88 Light Bomber was lost by accident.
The Company engaged in bombing missions.
Super Universal Nos. 2 and 3 arrived at Suiyuan as reinforcement on November 16th.
Super Universal Transport (No.1?) was shot, and Flight Enjineer 渡辺 was KIA. The airplane managed to return.
Super Universal No. 4 arrived at Suiyuan as reinforcement on unclear date.
The Company carried out demonstration flight on 18 January 1937.
The Company returned to Mukden by air and rail for three waves from late February to early March 1937.


満州航空_1.jpg

満州航空_2.jpg

河井田義匤_満州航空.jpg

fontessa
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Eugen Pinak
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Re: 'Inner Mongolian' Air Force

Post by Eugen Pinak » 30 Jun 2021 10:59

fontessa wrote:
30 Jun 2021 06:57
You may be interested in knowing that Temporal Air Company was organized in 満州航空株式会社 Manchukuo National Airways. Manchukuo National Airways was established on 26 September 1932 and started business on 3 November 1932. It was virtually under the control of Kwantung Army and provided support under its command regarding air transport and reconnaissance. Because Kwantung Army Air Group lacked airlift units, the former was particularly beneficial.
...
Fontessa - thank you! Even after all those years I'm still astonished by the amount of your knowledge.

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Re: 'Inner Mongolian' Air Force

Post by UncleBourbon » 01 Jul 2021 01:35

fontessa wrote:
30 Jun 2021 06:57
He was Kawaida Yoshitada 河井田義匤 (28). I don't have any idea which is correct, Yoshiaki or Yoshitada, as the reading of Kanji 義匤.
In these days the status of the air units deployment in Manchuria was kept secret. So the personnel of the officers cannot be known from the Army documents. The beloww is my guess about his military record:
(CPT)
10th Independent Air Company Commanding Officer: 22 September 1931 - 6 June 1932
4th Company of 11th Air Battalion Commanding Officer: 6 June 1932 - ???
Unknown Company of 6th Air Regiment Commanding Officer: ??? - 22 October 1932 (1932.10.24.Frm.3)
(MAJ)
Waiting Orders: 22 October 1932 (1932.10.24.Frm3)
*******
Joined Manchukuo National Airways: ???
Operational Section Chief: Confirmed with the Company Directory dated 31 December 1933
Mukden Provincial Superior: Confirmed with the Company Directory dated 1 July 1933 and 1 March 1936
Company Director / Operation Department Director: Confirmed with the Company Directory dated 11 April 1942
The third picture shows Kawaida Yoshitada 河井田義匤, Manchukuo National Airways.
Hello fontessa. Thank you so very much for the additional information!
That's fascinating that the so called 'Inner Mongolian' Air Force was composed of planes and staff from Manchukuo National Airways!! Thank you for the photograph of Kawaida Yoshitada/Yoshiaki as well.
Is it known what happened to him in and after 1945 when the Soviets invaded Manchuria?
fontessa wrote:
30 Jun 2021 06:57
(2nd) Temporal Independent Air Unit
Commander: Kawaida Yoshitada 河井田義匤 (Mukden Provincial Superior)
- Pilot x 10
- Flight Engineer x 5
- Maintenance x 31
- Ground Support x 15
Type88 Light Bomber No.5: Miyazaki 宮崎 (Pilot) / Watanabe 渡辺 (Engineer)
Type88 Light Bomber No.17: Shinshi 進士 (Pilot) / Takahashi 高橋 (Engineer)
Type88 Light Bomber No.616: Ito 伊藤 (Pilot) / Nakama 中間 (Engineer)
Type88 Light Bomber No.1054: Uda 右田 (Pilot) / Wa 倭 (Engineer)
Type91 Fighter No.139: Nakahata 中畑
Type91 Fighter No.215: Shindo 進藤
Type91 Fighter No.283: Yasutake 安武
Type91 Fighter No.513: Kobayashi 小林
Super Universal Transport No.1: Mizumoto 水本 (Pilot) / Ishikawa 石川 (Engineer)
De Havilland Puss Moth: Kanamaru 金丸
All personnel were Manchuria Aviation employee.
All airplanes including Type88 Light Bombers and Type91 Fighters were owned by Manchuria Aviation.
(Type88 Light Bombers and Type91 Fighters were used for the training of employee crew.)

Deprted Mukden 10 November 1936.
The safe planes gathered at Suiyuan on November 11th
One Type88 Light Bomber was lost by accident.
The Company engaged in bombing missions.
Super Universal Nos. 2 and 3 arrived at Suiyuan as reinforcement on November 16th.
Super Universal Transport (No.1?) was shot, and Flight Enjineer 渡辺 was KIA. The airplane managed to return.
Super Universal No. 4 arrived at Suiyuan as reinforcement on unclear date.
I can't thank you enough for this extra information!
If this is the case, it would seem that claims on the number of planes shot down by Chinese were exaggerated.
I'm a bit confused, though; you listed Watanabe 渡辺 as Engineer for Type88 Light Bomber No.5, but said he was killed when Super Universal Transport No.1 was shot. Did he transfer to the Super Universal Transport at sometime between arrival and his death, or was this a mistake?

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fontessa
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Re: 'Inner Mongolian' Air Force

Post by fontessa » 01 Jul 2021 05:06

Hello UncleBourbon,
UncleBourbon wrote:
01 Jul 2021 01:35
Thank you for the photograph of Kawaida Yoshitada/Yoshiaki as well.
Is it known what happened to him in and after 1945 when the Soviets invaded Manchuria?
He left Manchukuo National Airways in 1943 and returned to the mainland. Some said he was disgusted with the situation that the company was more and more dominated by Kwantung Army. He was training young crew members as Chikugo Aircraft Crew Training Center Director (located Kurume, Kyushu). He was a pilot who was called a "master of somersault flight" during his active career in the Army. This name reminds us of the "good old airplane era". He may then return to Manchuria and be mobilized there. In the turmoil that the Soviet Union invaded, he commanded Kwantung Army Headquarters Air Unit. He survived the war. There may have been a lot of things, but few records remain.
UncleBourbon wrote:
01 Jul 2021 01:35
If this is the case, it would seem that claims on the number of planes shot down by Chinese were exaggerated.
It's a matter of what the book you quoted relies on. (Chinees Action Report?)
I relied on Manchukuo National Airways Corporate Histories;
- 満州航空史話
- 満州航空史話 (続編) Sequel
河井田 contributed to these after the war.
UncleBourbon wrote:
01 Jul 2021 01:35
I'm a bit confused, though; you listed Watanabe 渡辺 as Engineer for Type88 Light Bomber No.5, but said he was killed when Super Universal Transport No.1 was shot. Did he transfer to the Super Universal Transport at sometime between arrival and his death, or was this a mistake?
Perhaps the combination of planes and crew was flexible. The crew when Watanabe died in the war were as follows;
- 中畑 Nakahata (Pilot)
- 右田 Migita (Pilot) and 渡辺 Watanabe (Engineer) Probably for bomb drop work.

fontessa

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Re: 'Inner Mongolian' Air Force

Post by UncleBourbon » 03 Jul 2021 06:24

fontessa wrote:
01 Jul 2021 05:06
Hello UncleBourbon,

He left Manchukuo National Airways in 1943 and returned to the mainland. Some said he was disgusted with the situation that the company was more and more dominated by Kwantung Army. He was training young crew members as Chikugo Aircraft Crew Training Center Director (located Kurume, Kyushu). He was a pilot who was called a "master of somersault flight" during his active career in the Army. This name reminds us of the "good old airplane era". He may then return to Manchuria and be mobilized there. In the turmoil that the Soviet Union invaded, he commanded Kwantung Army Headquarters Air Unit. He survived the war. There may have been a lot of things, but few records remain.

Perhaps the combination of planes and crew was flexible. The crew when Watanabe died in the war were as follows;
- 中畑 Nakahata (Pilot)
- 右田 Migita (Pilot) and 渡辺 Watanabe (Engineer) Probably for bomb drop work.
Hello fontessa,
I can't properly convey my gratitude. I truly appreciate all this information! Thank you so very much again.
fontessa wrote:
01 Jul 2021 05:06
It's a matter of what the book you quoted relies on. (Chinees Action Report?)
I relied on Manchukuo National Airways Corporate Histories;
- 満州航空史話
- 満州航空史話 (続編) Sequel
河井田 contributed to these after the war.
Come to think of it, Philip Jowett doesn't cite any sources for the downed aircraft...
Thank you very much for providing your sources, however!

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