Japanese Air Force Air-To-Air Bomber Interception Tactics - 1944 & 1945 USAAF Reports

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Richard Stone
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Japanese Air Force Air-To-Air Bomber Interception Tactics - 1944 & 1945 USAAF Reports

Post by Richard Stone » 23 Aug 2023 00:28

The three short attached articles discuss some of the air-to-air bombing methods the Japanese Army and Navy Air Forces tested and used to intercept US bombers during the 1944 and 1945 Pacific campaign.

These articles were printed in the USA professional military reference magazine ‘Military Review’. I’ve posted these articles in the order of their publication and they show the evolution of the interception methods used. The dates of each article publication are August 1944, March 1945 and May 1945.

I posted these articles in the site section ‘WW2 in the Pacific & Asia. I’ve reposted them here to aid researchers of the Japanese armed forces.

Combat Notes - Mil Review1 August 1944 JAAF Air-Air Bmb-1.png
Combat Notes - Mil Review1 March 1945 JAAF Air-Air Bmb-2.png
Combat Notes - Mil Review1 May 1945 JAAF Air-Air Bmb-3.png
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Re: Japanese Air Force Air-To-Air Bomber Interception Tactics - 1944 & 1945 USAAF Reports

Post by MikeMeech » 25 Aug 2023 17:46

Richard Stone wrote:
23 Aug 2023 00:28
The three short attached articles discuss some of the air-to-air bombing methods the Japanese Army and Navy Air Forces tested and used to intercept US bombers during the 1944 and 1945 Pacific campaign.

These articles were printed in the USA professional military reference magazine ‘Military Review’. I’ve posted these articles in the order of their publication and they show the evolution of the interception methods used. The dates of each article publication are August 1944, March 1945 and May 1945.

I posted these articles in the site section ‘WW2 in the Pacific & Asia. I’ve reposted them here to aid researchers of the Japanese armed forces.


Combat Notes - Mil Review1 August 1944 JAAF Air-Air Bmb-1.png

Combat Notes - Mil Review1 March 1945 JAAF Air-Air Bmb-2.png

Combat Notes - Mil Review1 May 1945 JAAF Air-Air Bmb-3.png
Hi

An ISO reprint on a USAAF 1946 report on 'Japanese Aircraft Industry in WW2' has some diagrams of various bombing methods:
Image_20230824_0001.jpg
Image_20230824_0002.jpg
Image_20230824_0003.jpg
Image_20230824_0004.jpg
Image_20230824_0005.jpg
Mike
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Re: Japanese Air Force Air-To-Air Bomber Interception Tactics - 1944 & 1945 USAAF Reports

Post by MikeMeech » 25 Aug 2023 17:48

Hi

Contd. and last one:
Image_20230824_0006.jpg
Mike
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fontessa
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Re: Japanese Air Force Air-To-Air Bomber Interception Tactics - 1944 & 1945 USAAF Reports

Post by fontessa » 27 Aug 2023 12:02

MikeMeech wrote:
25 Aug 2023 17:46
Richard Stone wrote:
23 Aug 2023 00:28
The three short attached articles discuss some of the air-to-air bombing methods the Japanese Army and Navy Air Forces tested and used to intercept US bombers during the 1944 and 1945 Pacific campaign.

These articles were printed in the USA professional military reference magazine ‘Military Review’. I’ve posted these articles in the order of their publication and they show the evolution of the interception methods used. The dates of each article publication are August 1944, March 1945 and May 1945.

I posted these articles in the site section ‘WW2 in the Pacific & Asia. I’ve reposted them here to aid researchers of the Japanese armed forces.


Combat Notes - Mil Review1 August 1944 JAAF Air-Air Bmb-1.png

Combat Notes - Mil Review1 March 1945 JAAF Air-Air Bmb-2.png

Combat Notes - Mil Review1 May 1945 JAAF Air-Air Bmb-3.png
Hi

An ISO reprint on a USAAF 1946 report on 'Japanese Aircraft Industry in WW2' has some diagrams of various bombing methods:
Image_20230824_0001.jpg
Image_20230824_0002.jpg
Image_20230824_0003.jpg
Image_20230824_0004.jpg
Image_20230824_0005.jpg

Mike
Thanks, very interesting. I know No.3 BOMB and "Ta" BOMB. But I never heard of "Parachute Bombing" and "Air to Air Cable Bombing". I can't believe that neither the IJAAF nor the IJNAF used such elaborate tactics. Of course, maybe I just don't know. I think the USAAF Report was based on the eyewitness report of the US military aircrew. I would appreciate it if you could tell me the "when", "where", and "who" of the eyewitness report.
Thank you!

fontessa

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Re: Japanese Air Force Air-To-Air Bomber Interception Tactics - 1944 & 1945 USAAF Reports

Post by ShindenKai » 27 Aug 2023 20:53

Now these devices just need to be added to games like War Thunder, IL2: '46 and more!

:thumbsup:


-Interestingly, those Parachute bombs aren't shown as being released from a larger bomb...were they released from external, hardpoint mounted pods?

-Saito's full name? Unit? Aircraft? Base?

-I need a copy of this report!
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Re: Japanese Air Force Air-To-Air Bomber Interception Tactics - 1944 & 1945 USAAF Reports

Post by MikeMeech » 27 Aug 2023 21:50

fontessa wrote:
27 Aug 2023 12:02
MikeMeech wrote:
25 Aug 2023 17:46
Richard Stone wrote:
23 Aug 2023 00:28
The three short attached articles discuss some of the air-to-air bombing methods the Japanese Army and Navy Air Forces tested and used to intercept US bombers during the 1944 and 1945 Pacific campaign.

These articles were printed in the USA professional military reference magazine ‘Military Review’. I’ve posted these articles in the order of their publication and they show the evolution of the interception methods used. The dates of each article publication are August 1944, March 1945 and May 1945.

I posted these articles in the site section ‘WW2 in the Pacific & Asia. I’ve reposted them here to aid researchers of the Japanese armed forces.


Combat Notes - Mil Review1 August 1944 JAAF Air-Air Bmb-1.png

Combat Notes - Mil Review1 March 1945 JAAF Air-Air Bmb-2.png

Combat Notes - Mil Review1 May 1945 JAAF Air-Air Bmb-3.png
Hi

An ISO reprint on a USAAF 1946 report on 'Japanese Aircraft Industry in WW2' has some diagrams of various bombing methods:
Image_20230824_0001.jpg
Image_20230824_0002.jpg
Image_20230824_0003.jpg
Image_20230824_0004.jpg
Image_20230824_0005.jpg

Mike
Thanks, very interesting. I know No.3 BOMB and "Ta" BOMB. But I never heard of "Parachute Bombing" and "Air to Air Cable Bombing". I can't believe that neither the IJAAF nor the IJNAF used such elaborate tactics. Of course, maybe I just don't know. I think the USAAF Report was based on the eyewitness report of the US military aircrew. I would appreciate it if you could tell me the "when", "where", and "who" of the eyewitness report.
Thank you!

fontessa
Hi
The text that goes with the drawings are all I have:
Image_20230827_0004.jpg
Image_20230827_0005.jpg
Image_20230827_0006.jpg
Image_20230827_0007.jpg
I hope that is of use.

Mike
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Re: Japanese Air Force Air-To-Air Bomber Interception Tactics - 1944 & 1945 USAAF Reports

Post by fontessa » 28 Aug 2023 05:24

ShindenKai wrote:
27 Aug 2023 20:53
Now these devices just need to be added to games like War Thunder, IL2: '46 and more!

:thumbsup:


-Interestingly, those Parachute bombs aren't shown as being released from a larger bomb...were they released from external, hardpoint mounted pods?

-Saito's full name? Unit? Aircraft? Base?

-I need a copy of this report!
タ弾 0.jpg

The top and middle photos (above photos) are Army 3式 40mm 散布弾. It held 30 bullets. Simply saying, it was a cluster bomb. There was also 2式 40mm 散布弾 that held 76. I'm not sure about the photo bottom. It should be noted that the "タ弾 Ta Bullet" was the bullet inside. This was 40mm diameter, 310g weight, and 110g explosive charge-shaped explosive ammunition with a stabilizing wing and rotary wing developed by the Army Aeronautical Research Institute through technical cooperation from Germany. These were stored in the storage cylinder as shown in the photos. It was mainly used in the form of hanging under the wing of a fighter aircraft, and immediately after it was dropped toward the target, the buckle was released by the action of the wire fixed to the aircraft, the belt was removed, the storage cylinder was disassembled and the built-in Spread bullets over a wide area. I believe this was normal usage. It was a very useful weapon if it could be dropped at a precise position, but in Japan, which was not able to develop a proximity fuse, judging the timing of the drop was extremely difficult. So these cluster bombs were rarely used against aircraft targets. However, they were extremely effective against ground targets.

Of course, IJN also used similar cluster bombs.
タ弾 海軍.jpg

fontessa.
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Re: Japanese Air Force Air-To-Air Bomber Interception Tactics - 1944 & 1945 USAAF Reports

Post by MikeMeech » 28 Aug 2023 12:37

Hi
The wartime publication TM-E 30-480 'Handbook on Japanese Military Forces' of 1 Oct 44, on page 58 has a short paragraph on Japanese 'Air-to-Air Bombing':
"a. The use of small air-to-air bombs against Allied bomber planes was first reported in May 1942 in the Southwest Pacific Area. Since that time there have been an increasing number of reports of the use of air-to-air bombs against Allied heavy-bombing formations.
b. Air-to-air bombs dropped by the Japanese are reported to be accurately-timed high explosives combined with some incendiaries. They have been released both singly and in pattern arrangement. The majority of these bombs appear to weigh about 50 pounds each, the explosion, based upon its blast effect on Allied planes, is estimated to be about the same as a heavy antiaircraft shell.
c. The presence of a Japanese "spotter" plane flying at the level of the formation to be attacked is a frequently observed characteristic of Japanese air-to-air bombing."

Mike

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Re: Japanese Air Force Air-To-Air Bomber Interception Tactics - 1944 & 1945 USAAF Reports

Post by fontessa » 28 Aug 2023 17:43

MikeMeech wrote:
28 Aug 2023 12:37
Hi
The wartime publication TM-E 30-480 'Handbook on Japanese Military Forces' of 1 Oct 44, on page 58 has a short paragraph on Japanese 'Air-to-Air Bombing':
"a. The use of small air-to-air bombs against Allied bomber planes was first reported in May 1942 in the Southwest Pacific Area. Since that time there have been an increasing number of reports of the use of air-to-air bombs against Allied heavy-bombing formations.
b. Air-to-air bombs dropped by the Japanese are reported to be accurately-timed high explosives combined with some incendiaries. They have been released both singly and in pattern arrangement. The majority of these bombs appear to weigh about 50 pounds each, the explosion, based upon its blast effect on Allied planes, is estimated to be about the same as a heavy antiaircraft shell.
c. The presence of a Japanese "spotter" plane flying at the level of the formation to be attacked is a frequently observed characteristic of Japanese air-to-air bombing."

Mike
Thanks. The bomb was a Type 3 Bomb. It was used similarly to the cluster bombs already described, they were equally difficult to shoot down the target. But there was one Zero pilot who was good at this. It is 岩村徹三 Iwamura Tetsuzo. He has an outstanding sense of control and shot down 36 planes with the Type 3 Bomb. This was not a joke that anyone can do.
viewtopic.php?f=65&t=256665&p=2338203&#p2338203

Type 3 Bombs had 2 subtypes. One was 二式二五番三号 you quoted as No.3 Bomb and the other was 九九式二五番三号 Iwamoto used.

fonressa

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Re: Japanese Air Force Air-To-Air Bomber Interception Tactics - 1944 & 1945 USAAF Reports

Post by ShindenKai » 03 Sep 2023 01:56

fontessa wrote:
28 Aug 2023 05:24
The top and middle photos (above photos) are Army 3式 40mm 散布弾. It held 30 bullets. Simply saying, it was a cluster bomb. There was also 2式 40mm 散布弾 that held 76. I'm not sure about the photo bottom. It should be noted that the "タ弾 Ta Bullet" was the bullet inside. This was 40mm diameter, 310g weight, and 110g explosive charge-shaped explosive ammunition with a stabilizing wing and rotary wing developed by the Army Aeronautical Research Institute through technical cooperation from Germany. These were stored in the storage cylinder as shown in the photos. It was mainly used in the form of hanging under the wing of a fighter aircraft, and immediately after it was dropped toward the target, the buckle was released by the action of the wire fixed to the aircraft, the belt was removed, the storage cylinder was disassembled and the built-in Spread bullets over a wide area. I believe this was normal usage. It was a very useful weapon if it could be dropped at a precise position, but in Japan, which was not able to develop a proximity fuse, judging the timing of the drop was extremely difficult. So these cluster bombs were rarely used against aircraft targets. However, they were extremely effective against ground targets.

Of course, IJN also used similar cluster bombs.

fontessa.
The top and middle photos are not the same pod.

-The top photo is the longer "10 pod" laying on the aperture side (it's left side) with its nose pointing to the right side of the photo.
Mystery 10 pod bottom view.jpg
10 aperture pod features:

-10 access doors (along the bottom of pod, facing down-but facing the viewer in the pic) that might also being doing double-duty as small bomb-bay doors.
-All doors have three stamped stiffening ribs.
-All doors also appear to have two springs (the tails of each spring are faintly visible, on the hinges), to assist in keeping the doors closed...
-All doors have one small hole in each corner which is probably an access hole for a tool to latch the doors or arm devices...
-All of the doors are hinged along the edge that is laying on the table, which also happens to be the side with 10 large "apertures".
-All doors are held shut by one large black latch (one of which is either broken or not engaged, 2nd from right)
-All of the numbered apertures have a pronounced doubling ring (easily visible in the 3rd pic, in which both types of pods are shown), to reinforce the hole/aperture from wear...for yet another larger tool or because a device is being fired through the hole via a powder charge?


-The middle photo is a "30 pod" laying on its right side with the nose pointing to the left side of the photo.
Mystery 30 pod bottom view.jpg
30 aperture pod features:

-30 small doors: 15 doors per side/row (along the bottom of pod, facing down- but facing the viewer in the pic), each door is hinged along the outer edge of pod, allowing doors to open outward but each also appears to be spring loaded, in the closed position...
-All doors have an access or firing/launching hole similar to the access holes on the "10 aperture pod"...
-All doors are latched along the center line (a small cover for the latching mechanism is missing, 5th from left)
-There is a pull-ring laying flush inside a recessed pocket for it under the nose cone, it appears to be held flat with a small round magnet, the recessed pocket also has a slot cut-out just big enough for the pull-ring to pass through, most likely for removal of nose cone for maintenance/reloading/arming...
Mystery 10+30 Pods side view.jpg
A few more things:

The 10 pod has what appears to an access hole at the top of the nose cone, possibly for the same type of electrical cord that appears to be coiled atop the 30 pod...the hinge line is clearly visible along the bottom edge, spring tails or twisted wire from the hinge are also visible. This pod has a lot more depth (but also narrower and longer) than the 30 pod...for longer ordnance? (if dropped vertically...)
The doubling rings are visible and labeled, 1-10 (or are they simply view ports to confirm loading?)

The 30 pod has what appears to an electrical cord coiled on top. Each of the compartments/chambers/doors are numbered and we can presume that the opposite side is numbered 2,4,6,8 and up to 30. Door hinge line is again visible along bottom edge.

Each pod is numbered from the rear of the pod, this also makes sense in terms of ordnance that can be triggered/released in series/sequentially...you want the weight aft of the center of gravity to be released first. In the case of these pods I doubt that it would be that significant but it could still be felt by the pilot.

In summary these two pods were not hastily and crudely made cluster bombs. These were meant to be retained and reused. They're far too complex to be disposed of in a single sortie. Also their shape is all wrong for dropped ordnance, there are no stabilizing fins, they would tumble erratically with random deployment of whatever is inside. Making them less effective than the cluster bombs shown below.


The pic below is of two different cluster bombs, the corrugated appearance is due to the outer shell being stamped to hold the fins of the internally held bomblets, when the metal banding is released the stamped panels fall away and the bomblets scatter. Very basic, very few man-hours needed to make.
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Re: Japanese Air Force Air-To-Air Bomber Interception Tactics - 1944 & 1945 USAAF Reports

Post by fontessa » 03 Sep 2023 06:31

ShindenKai wrote:
03 Sep 2023 01:56
fontessa wrote:
28 Aug 2023 05:24
The top and middle photos (above photos) are Army 3式 40mm 散布弾. It held 30 bullets. Simply saying, it was a cluster bomb. There was also 2式 40mm 散布弾 that held 76. I'm not sure about the photo bottom. It should be noted that the "タ弾 Ta Bullet" was the bullet inside. This was 40mm diameter, 310g weight, and 110g explosive charge-shaped explosive ammunition with a stabilizing wing and rotary wing developed by the Army Aeronautical Research Institute through technical cooperation from Germany. These were stored in the storage cylinder as shown in the photos. It was mainly used in the form of hanging under the wing of a fighter aircraft, and immediately after it was dropped toward the target, the buckle was released by the action of the wire fixed to the aircraft, the belt was removed, the storage cylinder was disassembled and the built-in Spread bullets over a wide area. I believe this was normal usage. It was a very useful weapon if it could be dropped at a precise position, but in Japan, which was not able to develop a proximity fuse, judging the timing of the drop was extremely difficult. So these cluster bombs were rarely used against aircraft targets. However, they were extremely effective against ground targets.

Of course, IJN also used similar cluster bombs.

fontessa.
The top and middle photos are not the same pod.

-The top photo is the longer "10 pod" laying on the aperture side (it's left side) with its nose pointing to the right side of the photo.

Mystery 10 pod bottom view.jpg

10 aperture pod features:

-10 access doors (along the bottom of pod, facing down-but facing the viewer in the pic) that might also being doing double-duty as small bomb-bay doors.
-All doors have three stamped stiffening ribs.
-All doors also appear to have two springs (the tails of each spring are faintly visible, on the hinges), to assist in keeping the doors closed...
-All doors have one small hole in each corner which is probably an access hole for a tool to latch the doors or arm devices...
-All of the doors are hinged along the edge that is laying on the table, which also happens to be the side with 10 large "apertures".
-All doors are held shut by one large black latch (one of which is either broken or not engaged, 2nd from right)
-All of the numbered apertures have a pronounced doubling ring (easily visible in the 3rd pic, in which both types of pods are shown), to reinforce the hole/aperture from wear...for yet another larger tool or because a device is being fired through the hole via a powder charge?


-The middle photo is a "30 pod" laying on its right side with the nose pointing to the left side of the photo.

Mystery 30 pod bottom view.jpg

30 aperture pod features:

-30 small doors: 15 doors per side/row (along the bottom of pod, facing down- but facing the viewer in the pic), each door is hinged along the outer edge of pod, allowing doors to open outward but each also appears to be spring loaded, in the closed position...
-All doors have an access or firing/launching hole similar to the access holes on the "10 aperture pod"...
-All doors are latched along the center line (a small cover for the latching mechanism is missing, 5th from left)
-There is a pull-ring laying flush inside a recessed pocket for it under the nose cone, it appears to be held flat with a small round magnet, the recessed pocket also has a slot cut-out just big enough for the pull-ring to pass through, most likely for removal of nose cone for maintenance/reloading/arming...

Mystery 10+30 Pods side view.jpg

A few more things:

The 10 pod has what appears to an access hole at the top of the nose cone, possibly for the same type of electrical cord that appears to be coiled atop the 30 pod...the hinge line is clearly visible along the bottom edge, spring tails or twisted wire from the hinge are also visible. This pod has a lot more depth (but also narrower and longer) than the 30 pod...for longer ordnance? (if dropped vertically...)
The doubling rings are visible and labeled, 1-10 (or are they simply view ports to confirm loading?)

The 30 pod has what appears to an electrical cord coiled on top. Each of the compartments/chambers/doors are numbered and we can presume that the opposite side is numbered 2,4,6,8 and up to 30. Door hinge line is again visible along bottom edge.

Each pod is numbered from the rear of the pod, this also makes sense in terms of ordnance that can be triggered/released in series/sequentially...you want the weight aft of the center of gravity to be released first. In the case of these pods I doubt that it would be that significant but it could still be felt by the pilot.

In summary these two pods were not hastily and crudely made cluster bombs. These were meant to be retained and reused. They're far too complex to be disposed of in a single sortie. Also their shape is all wrong for dropped ordnance, there are no stabilizing fins, they would tumble erratically with random deployment of whatever is inside. Making them less effective than the cluster bombs shown below.


The pic below is of two different cluster bombs, the corrugated appearance is due to the outer shell being stamped to hold the fins of the internally held bomblets, when the metal banding is released the stamped panels fall away and the bomblets scatter. Very basic, very few man-hours needed to make.
Thanks for the comments. As you pointed out, the 1st and 2nd pictures show the different bombs. I have missed it. And I noticed the Kanas are ト弾, not タ弾. But IJA didn't adopt ト弾. They seem to be some kind of prototypes. Instead, I found the photos of タ弾. The Kanji in your bottom photo is タ弾. I apologize for making you do extra work.

タ弾 新 0A.jpg

タ弾 新.jpg

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Re: Japanese Air Force Air-To-Air Bomber Interception Tactics - 1944 & 1945 USAAF Reports

Post by ShindenKai » 03 Sep 2023 22:21

fontessa wrote:
03 Sep 2023 06:31
Thanks for the comments. As you pointed out, the 1st and 2nd pictures show the different bombs. I have missed it. And I noticed the Kanas are ト弾, not タ弾. But IJA didn't adopt ト弾. They seem to be some kind of prototypes. Instead, I found the photos of タ弾. The Kanji in your bottom photo is タ弾. I apologize for making you do extra work.
fontessa
No apologies needed Fontessa. We're all looking for answers.

I agree that they're most likely prototypes as well. They do seem a likely candidate for the container to drop the parachute bombs with different sizes of 'chutes...but IDK.

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Re: Japanese Air Force Air-To-Air Bomber Interception Tactics - 1944 & 1945 USAAF Reports

Post by fontessa » 04 Sep 2023 02:26

:thumbsup:
ShindenKai wrote:
03 Sep 2023 22:21

No apologies needed Fontessa. We're all looking for answers.

I agree that they're most likely prototypes as well. They do seem a likely candidate for the container to drop the parachute bombs with different sizes of 'chutes...but IDK.
Thanks. About "ト弾 To-bullet", I remembered "To-2 Bomb" which was already uploaded. According to them, To-2 was a 4lb bomb that contained usually 10 clusters. It was invented by Colonel Saito in 1937. And finally, “further To-2 development was stymied by the great repute of the Ta bomb”

I think it is suspicious. In 1935 or 1937, IJAAF used Ki-27, and didn’t expect a large-scale bombing raid like Fig Y by a large bomber formation. But I also think ト弾 of the photo you showed is something related to To-2, and Fig Y was made "in hindsight" by the author of the report. What do you think?

To-2 Bomb 1.jpg
To-2 Bomb 2.jpg

Addition
It is said that Colonel Saito invented the To-2 Parachute Bombing Tactics. I think the trajectory of the bomb was highly dependent on the wind, making it extremely difficult to hit the target. Even with the Noi.3 Bomb, which was less susceptible to the effects of wind, only a pilot like Iwamoto with excellent control sense could achieve success. So I feel Fig Y is doubtful.

No.3 Bomb.jpg

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Re: Japanese Air Force Air-To-Air Bomber Interception Tactics - 1944 & 1945 USAAF Reports

Post by ShindenKai » 12 Sep 2023 06:07

fontessa wrote:
04 Sep 2023 02:26
:thumbsup:
Thanks. About "ト弾 To-bullet", I remembered "To-2 Bomb" which was already uploaded. According to them, To-2 was a 4lb bomb that contained usually 10 clusters. It was invented by Colonel Saito in 1937. And finally, “further To-2 development was stymied by the great repute of the Ta bomb”

I think it is suspicious. In 1935 or 1937, IJAAF used Ki-27, and didn’t expect a large-scale bombing raid like Fig Y by a large bomber formation. But I also think ト弾 of the photo you showed is something related to To-2, and Fig Y was made "in hindsight" by the author of the report. What do you think?

It is said that Colonel Saito invented the To-2 Parachute Bombing Tactics. I think the trajectory of the bomb was highly dependent on the wind, making it extremely difficult to hit the target. Even with the Noi.3 Bomb, which was less susceptible to the effects of wind, only a pilot like Iwamoto with excellent control sense could achieve success. So I feel Fig Y is doubtful.

fontessa
I don't know. It is rather frustrating that these 3 pics of the mystery pods seem to be the only ones that exist.

The report definitely seems to be a mix of U.S. crew eyewitness reports and Saito's statement. It seems several of the devices were probably improvised "in-the-field" in desperation/expedience. I could see Fig Y being the intended dropping arrangement, but as you stated: winds would greatly affect the pattern. I would imagine that the parachute bombings were quickly cancelled, due to their extreme ineffectiveness in actual use. They would/could be easily spotted and dodged by the bombers.

It would be great if we could somehow find the individual reports by U.S. crews. I would imagine some of the cable, from the cable bombs had also fouled/become entangled with U.S. aircraft on occasion.

I also find it interesting that it appears the same camera was used to photograph the Ki-94-I mock-up... A rather long time to keep an experimental and ineffective ordnance pod (if it really was deployed in '37). It would be great if we could somehow discover the identity of the photographer. -A dream, I know-

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