Here are my two cents on this. My grandfather was a chief Electric Engineer of and responsible for power supply in a division at ZIS in Moscow (now ZIL - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ZiL) from October 1941 until the end of the war. He told us that:LWD wrote:I'm not an expert but I'd suggest several things:
1) Soviet equipment was often less complex and built to looser tolerences.
2) The Soviets did have more raw resources and access to yet more.
3) I think you underestimate the effect of LL. While LL supplied equipment may not have been appearing in volume some stuff did start appearing as early as 41. Furthermore the promise of LL let the Soviets specialize in some areas because they could expect the west to fill in the gaps. This let them plan more efficiently. LL also supplied a lot of critical raw materials.
4) The Soviet worker knew that his life was on the line. This could be a very motivating factor. Furthermore the survival of Lenningrad and Moscow meant that he had some hope with the implication that what he was doing could make a real difference to the survival of him/her as well as family.
5 Note the him/her above. The Soviets made extensive use of the female portion of the labor pool. This greatly increased the number of available workers (and soldiers).
1) Most of the workers at the factory in 1941-1942 were women, school-age teenagers and older men not eligible for the Army serivce. My grandfather was not drafted into the Army because of his very poor eyesight. The shortage of male workers/specialists was severe, but the people were very motivated to work. Besides, the food rations for workers were much better than for those who did not work.
2) The factory worked non-stop in three shifts. While the rank and file left for home after their shifts, the managers and educated specialists like my grandfather were required to be on duty 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. They ate and slept at the factory. My grandfather recalled an incident when an unexploded aerial bomb got stuck in the roof. On the manufacturing floor they fenced off the area under it, but the rest of the floor kept on working. In the morning sappers came and removed the bomb. I don't know how long the factory worked in this 3-shift regime, but, apparently, it was so in 1941-1942.
3) In 1941 their chief output was assembled lend-lease trucks because most of the manufacturing had been evacuated. Along with assembling the trucks they set up production of domestic ZIS trucks in the Fall of 1941, but very simplified: only one headlight, simple plywood cabins, minimum complex molded/pressed exterior shell parts, etc. Things like driver's comfort/ergonomics were the last concern. The goal was to churn out as many as possible useable and simple to repair trucks.
I also know numerous stories when the evacuated factories were set up and running in mere weeks in new places East of Urals. Soviet people pushed the work hours/loads to the extremes because many people perceived it a matter of the nation's survival. Many workers had their husbands/brothers/sons at the front or relatives in the occupied territories, so it was a big motivating factor.
At the same time, Germans employed a lot of slave/forced labor at their factories, which made for a different morale. I've been doing a research on Rheinmetall Borsig in Berlin which employed many Ostarbeiters. A Russian former Ostarbeiterin recounted in her interview taken in late 90's how the girls at Borsig used to sabotage the production by being sloppy and mishandling the tools, which caused them to wear faster or break down. The supervisors couldn't keep track of everyone and everything.