Central European railways
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Berlin, 15 October 1942
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The French v railways in 1941
News from the club area D eut 6 ch 1 and: Reichsbahn Director President Honold, Stuttgart, retired. - Hundred Years of Railways Leip-zig-Altenburg - State Secretary Dr Ganzenmüller, President of the Reioh Test Office for Senior Civil Engineers
Sweden: Future development. In Sweden, taking account of competition from other means of transport Sunny news Other European countries: the organization of the commercial service of the Spanish national railways Bücherschau
The French railways in 1941
From Vice President Münzer
L General overview
By the advance of the German troops from the end of May 1940 progressively larger areas of the French railway network had been laid. At the time of the armistice, public transport was interrupted by more than two-thirds of the entire French network. The armistice agreement obliged the French transport authorities to resume their work immediately. How this was done under the leadership of the German army, and what was done in the months that followed until the end of 1940 must be reserved for the warlike representation. In the course of 1941, too, the development continued on an ascending line, with leadership and steering in the occupied part of the country being reserved in accordance with the war conditions of the Wehrmacht. The extent to which this has acted in the various fields of the railway system is neither to be emphasized nor explained in detail in this article. V v
In any case, the development and performance of the Franconian railroad is brought to the fore as the German soldier and railwayman judge things.
II. The ratio of railways to the French government.
The National Railway Federation (SNCF)
The Entyridklujig of the relationship of state railways has been in France during the last years under the sign of the permanent strengthening of the state influence. Already in the Convention of 31 August 1937, in which the five major French railway companies went to work in favor of a mixed-economy company (the SNCF), the State received 51% of the shares and the required majority of votes in the General Assembly of the SNCF. The law of October 10, 1940, which amended the composition of the board of directors, was reduced by the number of members from 33 to 12, six of which were appointed by the state, including the chairman, who, in the case of a tie Decides - are; A further five representatives are dispatched by the former company's railway companies, while the 12th member is appointed by the state from SNCF personnel. The Board of Directors shall be held only in the presence of a governmental JHK & kers,
The final decree in this development is the decree of 11 December 11, 41. This Act regulates the supervision of the State of the Elsen and the transport on the roads and waterways. The motive of the Act was as follows:
On the one hand, railways form a company in the public interest whose regular operation the government has to ensure; On the other hand, the financial management of the enterprise can have a repercussions on public finances. The state control is exercised
1. from the Secretary of State for Transport in the administrative and technical terms;
2. in economic and financial terms by the Secretary of State for Transport, in agreement with the Secretary of State for Finance.
In carrying out these monitoring tasks, these ministerial bodies are once used by the Directorate-General for Transport, which in turn is supported by the general building management, in the case of technical or administrative tasks. The economic and financial affairs are monitored by the Directorate-General for Transport and the Director of the Treasury. Both also design the decision to be taken by the Finance Minister. In order to ensure a proper link between the two Secretaries of State, a Ministry of Finance task is attached to the State Secretariat for Transport, which is to be consulted on all important issues and which has a broad right of scrutiny.
For ongoing information, the SNCF provides this mission and the government with all the necessary information. In particular, the SNCF submits a budget estimate each year with the necessary justifications; It must have its programs approved for the works, the rolling stock and, in general, its expenditure on installations, and may only issue expenditure on the construction and purchase of rolling stock and machines within the limits set. Without approval, she can neither assign her equipment (railroad tracks, workshops, etc.) or her equipment, nor the material which she thinks she can no longer use. No supply contract or agreement of any significance may be concluded without the consultation of an official committee, the contract commission.
The control of the technical operation covers everything relating to the management, the construction of the lines and the maintenance thereof, the signaling, the operational safety, the procurement and maintenance of the vehicles, the carrying out of the transport, the drawing, the speed and the schedule of the road Related. V
The control dos commercial dionstos includes nlto tariff ask and forecastinghohoho, so. Domestic and inter-state transport.
It is not particularly necessary that, in the importance of the railways, the State exercised special rights with respect to the obligations imposed on France by the armaments treaty.
(A) Development of the public passenger timetable for internal transport.
While in the period following the cease-fire, the construction of the journeys for travelers had to be changed frequently as a result of the altered circumstances caused by the war, the year 1941 showed a much quieter and steadier development. The neces- sary connections could be agreed with the neigh- bouring authorities and coordinated and thus be better suited to the traffic requirements.
• At the beginning of 1941, the kilometers reached about one third of the peace plan (summer schedule 1939).
Of the total services for France, approximately 70% were occupied and 30% were occupied by the unoccupied area. This ratio remained quite the same, except for slight variations in the various stages of development.
I In 1941, the proportion of electric train transport in the tourist sector increased by 15% before the war. The number of travelers per train was much higher in 1941 than in 1939, because the stabilization of the economic situation led to an increased need for travel.
Particularly in Paris suburban traffic, the number of persons transported approaches the prewar level, while the operating performance of this development can not follow.
(B) Development of travel services
With the neighboring France
In the intercourse with Germany, at the beginning of 1941, only the transit to Strasbourg and Mezieres-Charleville-Luxemburg, which was important for travel, was not yet accessible. The timetables for the continuous trains on these routes were, however, already prepared, so that when the route to Straßburg had been put into operation, the transit traffic between Paris and Southern Germany was at the end of March 1941. The daily trains Paris-Nancy were likewise conducted up and down Strasbourg with connections to Karlsruhe -Stuttgart, Frankfurt and Berlin.
With the timetable change on 5 May 1941, the direct rapid transit Paris-Luxembourg with connections to the Moselle was restored. 6
In the 'connections with the Reich, a new pair of express trains was set up from Paris via Frankfurt to Berlin, with' traveling class cars and sleepers Hendaye-Paris-Berlin. The Reiserauer Paris-Berlin could be improved by about 21 hours.
The area of Dijon was connected to the traffic with the Reich by a pair of express trains from Dijon to Karlsruhe. In order to relieve the traffic from Paris to the north of France and France, a continuous connection between Paris and Brussels was established. The schedule for the winter timetable brought another course and sleeping car service to Hendaye-Paris-Frankfurt (M) -Berlin.
The thoroughgoing connections from France to Modane, already introduced in the winter of 1940
To Italy, in 1941 there was no further expansion except for some changes in time. The Paris-Turin parcels were carried out to and from Rome. Breil and Mentone are allied with passenger trains. The traffic with Switzerland via Bellegarde-Geneva was resumed on July 25th with two transit routes from Paris via Bellegarde to Geneva and Lyon via Bellegarde to Geneva.
The 1941 summer schedule contains a continuous link from Geneva (Eaux-Vives) via Valenee to Port Bou with connections to and from Spain.
In connection with Spain, Madrid-Hendaye, following the reintroduction of accelerated fast-
Hendaye - Paris, in which also the Hendaye (Berlin) trains have created favorable train connections, the connections made in the summer motorhome improved and a connection to the aforementioned train from Madrid to Hendaye to and from Lisbon reached.
Also 1 over the passes Canfranc, Puigcerda-La Tour de Carol, Gerbere-Port Bou, the connections were improved .; ^
(C) The development of the speed characteristics of the eccentric tracts
The traveling speed of the express trains was further improved in 1941. It reached 80% of the peace performance on the lines not affected by war events; The top speed is generally limited to 100 Inn.
(D) Restrictions on private travel
There have been no restrictions on the regulations. The tariff measures will be discussed later.
In front of major festivals, Christmas, Easter, Pentecost, the French national festival, radio and press articles were used to denounce the necessity of travel. For the Christmas traffic, admission tickets were issued for the first time for trains departing from Paris.
(E) A ctio n of th e co ntio ns and Vesturopean c o n s Time •,
After the armistice, the Central European Summer Time (CEST), the. 2 hours. While in the occupied territories the. MES $, the return to the Western European summer time was arranged for the unoccupied France with the timetable change on 6 October 1940. This resulted in a time difference of one hour between the occupied and unoccupied territory of France. With the change of timetable on 5 May 1941 the CEST was reintroduced in the unoccupied France for the duration of the summer timetable and thus the time difference for this period from May 5 to October 4, 1941, was eliminated.
When the timetables were drawn up, these circumstances were taken into account, which did not affect the traffic between the occupied and unoccupied areas.
IV. The carriage of goods
The main line of the emerging trend is in freight transport, which is characterized by a strong increase in the performance of the entire railway network.
(A) Internal freight transport
For this traffic sector, a much smaller car park was available compared to the pre-war period. In addition,
(Crashed crutches, destroyed installations), the wagon's circulation was seriously worsened. The availability of the wagon was therefore not sufficient to satisfy all traffic regulations, especially in the first months of the year, when very severe difficulties caused by frost and cold affected the handling of the works, and the whole of the traffic was interrupted by liquefying inland waterways and motor vehicles Railway. The introduction of emergency levels in the Reichsbahn for several years in exercise * has therefore also been necessary in the SNCF area; It was self-evident that it was necessary to meet the demands of military service. The next good was, of course, the Kohl®. It should be borne in mind that France, Whose own coal production could not meet his own needs at peace times, was now essentially dependent on his own production. In addition to the coal mines in the departments of Nord and Pas de Calais, only the pits of the Center et Midi, which were located along the demarcation line, were available: careful planning and distribution of all these coal reserves was therefore the prerequisite for the start-up of economic life. Because of their outstanding importance for. The whole of the war economy was taken over by the German military administration in the distribution of coal to the various stakeholders, and in monthly programs. The railways and inland waterway transport were subject to scheduled discharge. Now essentially depended on its own production. In addition to the coal mines in the departments of Nord and Pas de Calais, only the pits of the Center et Midi, which were located along the demarcation line, were available: careful planning and distribution of all these coal reserves was therefore the prerequisite for the start-up of economic life. Because of their outstanding importance for. The whole of the war economy was taken over by the German military administration in the distribution of coal to the various stakeholders, and in monthly programs. The railways and inland waterway transport were subject to scheduled discharge. Now essentially depended on its own production. In addition to the coal mines in the departments of Nord and Pas de Calais, only the pits of the Center et Midi, which were located along the demarcation line, were available: careful planning and distribution of all these coal reserves was therefore the prerequisite for the start-up of economic life. Because of their outstanding importance for. The whole of the war economy was taken over by the German military administration in the distribution of coal to the various stakeholders, and in monthly programs. The railways and inland waterway transport were subject to scheduled discharge. In addition to the coal mines in the departments of Nord and Pas de Calais, only the pits of the Center et Midi, which were located along the demarcation line, were available: careful planning and distribution of all these coal reserves was therefore the prerequisite for the start-up of economic life. Because of their outstanding importance for. The whole of the war economy was taken over by the German military administration in the distribution of coal to the various stakeholders, and in monthly programs. The railways and inland waterway transport were subject to scheduled discharge. In addition to the coal mines in the departments of Nord and Pas de Calais, only the pits of the Center et Midi, which were located along the demarcation line, were available: careful planning and distribution of all these coal reserves was therefore the prerequisite for the start-up of economic life. Because of their outstanding importance for. The whole of the war economy was taken over by the German military administration in the distribution of coal to the various stakeholders, and in monthly programs. The railways and inland waterway transport were subject to scheduled discharge. Because of their outstanding importance for. The whole of the war economy was taken over by the German military administration in the distribution of coal to the various stakeholders, and in monthly programs. The railways and inland waterway transport were subject to scheduled discharge. Because of their outstanding importance for. The whole of the war economy was taken over by the German military administration in the distribution of coal to the various stakeholders, and in monthly programs. The railways and inland waterway transport were subject to scheduled discharge.
The mass transport, which had been strongly trained in peace in France, with large-scale freight cars in closed trains for fixed targets was re-established. In the same way as the coal, the transport of the iron ore was developed from the various regions of the country. Which was partially smelt in France itself. The transport of the other goods, as far as they were of economic importance, were also used for special transport programs. In so far as these goods were included in programs, they enjoyed the advantage of a preferred carriage, insofar as they did not fall below them, they were ranked among the remaining goods in the last position if they were not, according to their nature, like food and other perishable goods Priority enjoyed, Which, in view of its urgency, placed it above the program goods before the other goods. It goes without saying that this classification was not a rigid system in terms of urgency, but was subject to considerable fluctuations, depending on the season and the supply situation. This change was particularly evident in the covered wagons, where a special urgency had to be given to fertilizers, then to certain foodstuffs, or to goods of great importance to war economy, while the order of coal, mines, and ores remained fairly constant . But was subject to considerable fluctuations depending on the season and the supply situation. This change was particularly evident in the covered wagons, where a special urgency had to be given to fertilizers, then to certain foodstuffs, or to goods of great importance to war economy, while the order of coal, mines, and ores remained fairly constant . But was subject to considerable fluctuations depending on the season and the supply situation. This change was particularly evident in the covered wagons, where a special urgency had to be given to fertilizers, then to certain foodstuffs, or to goods of great importance to war economy, while the order of coal, mines, and ores remained fairly constant .
(B) T he traffic between Germany and France
The interweaving of the German war economy with the French industry and agriculture, which had once more set in motion, led to a great deal of exchange between these two countries during the course of 1941. As the free exchange of traffic between the two countries was initially blocked, the necessity to set up programs for this traffic was established at an early stage. These programs were regularly agreed with the responsible German authorities and agreed on the rail and waterway performance.
(C) Transit traffic between the Spanish - French frontier and Germany and the neighboring countries
This transport of goods required careful care because of the technical limitations arising from the different gauge of the railroad at the border crossings. The spanish lane with 1.674 m and the French standard track must be bridged by transhipment of all transitions. According to an old state treaty, each country had to drive the trains to the border station of the neighboring country, so that the goods imported from Germany at the Spanish stations in Irun and Port Bou and the goods coming from Spain and Portugal on the French border stations Hendaye and Gerbère were. In order to prevent congestion at these border stations, intercontinental traffic had to be carefully coordinated with each other by means of admission permits. In this case, it was necessary to consider not only the prospective total vehicle entry, but also the type of vehicle - open or covered - and finally the different space of the cars. The wagons are generally only 10 t. Considering finally the period which elapses from the granting of the admission permit to the arrival of the wagons at certain collection stations, it becomes clear that, despite the fact that transports which have been concluded for a short period of time have not been completed, there is no congestion at the border stations Was always to be avoided. A temporary restriction of the transports or even intermittent traffic barriers had to be accepted occasionally. And finally to take into account the different compartments of the cars. The wagons are generally only 10 t. Considering finally the period which elapses from the granting of the license to the arrival of the wagons at certain collection stations, it becomes clear that, despite the fact that the transports are closed, the traffic is not congested at the border stations Was always to be avoided. A temporary restriction of the transports or even intermittent traffic barriers had to be accepted occasionally. And finally to take into account the different compartments of the cars. The wagons are generally only 10 t. Considering finally the period which elapses from the granting of the license to the arrival of the wagons at certain collection stations, it becomes clear that, despite the fact that the transports are closed, the traffic is not congested at the border stations Was always to be avoided. A temporary restriction of the transports or even intermittent traffic barriers had to be accepted occasionally. It was not always possible to avoid a traffic jam at the border stations, despite the fact that transports, which had been closed for themselves, A temporary restriction of the transports or even intermittent traffic barriers had to be accepted occasionally. It was not always possible to avoid a traffic jam at the border stations, despite the fact that transports, which had been closed for themselves, A temporary restriction of the transports or even intermittent traffic barriers had to be accepted occasionally.
(D) Reconstruction of public goods traffic
In 1941, various orders were made to deal with the intercourse between the empire and occupied France and vice versa, as well as to free the traffic between occupied and unoccupied France. By arrangement, dated 16 May 1941 for the export of goods from the occupied to unoccupied France # and Regulation of 9 August 1941, the export from occupied France to the Empire approval as ajl-
Jointly granted. It was only in the traffic of the occupied French territory with Alsace and Lorraine that certain restrictions had to be maintained. On 19 August 1941, the permit was granted without difficulty on a license issued by the head of the civil administrations in Alsace and Lorraine.
The public freight traffic between Germany and France was expanded in 1941. He expanded the freight train timetable, allowing him to pick up the express freight and cargo transport between the two countries from 15 July 1941 onwards. Only the express freight transport remained unchanged. Because there was no significant need for this. In order to avoid fragmentation, freight transport was restricted to certain French - Belgian and French - German transitions. To the; New French border stations, the customs clearance of the goods was transferred to French inland terminals.
The traffic also developed considerably with the other two neighboring countries, Italy and Switzerland. Between the unoccupied area and Italy, direct traffic had begun in November 1940, both for stucco and carloading, as well as for express cargo and cargo. On January 7, 1941, traffic was also recorded between the occupied territory and Italy via the two transitions, Modane and Mentone. The development in traffic with Switzerland was similar. On January 7, 1941, traffic from unoccupied France was taken over St Gingolph south of Lake Geneva, which was extended by Geneva on 1 August 1941 with regard to traffic from occupied France.
(E) Freight service
The armistice treaty gave the French government the opportunity to bring back into the occupied territory the quantity of rolling railway material which corresponded to the normal conditions of peace in the individual districts. After the execution of this arrangement, and after the handing-over of rental cars to the Reich as well as of the carriages on Alsace, Lorraine, and Luxemburg, the SNCF still had a sufficient number of freight cars, according to French terms. Until the outbreak of the war, the SNCF lived in an abundance of freight cars. It operated a stock economy in the largest roundabout. The altered conditions therefore forced us to go completely new ways. In itself the car disposition at the SNCF is more complicated than at the German Reichsbahn. The union of the five large railway administrations to the National Society did not lead to a merger in 1941, so that by a tight central management the wagon service reached the highest degree of profitability. The object was to gradually improve the wagon distribution process and the degree of utilization
To increase the freight wagon in order to be able to cope with the development of freight transport. The implementation of the traffic, which is preferably to be handled, required the introduction of emergency stages. Each car order was classified according to the degree of urgency in one of the four priority stages
(B) .Programme transports,
(C) Priority transport and
D) Commerciaux transptets. . As shown in Fig.
The allocation of the wagons according to this rank order initially ensured the removal of the consignments in the German interest. ,
In the course of 1941 the vigorous military and commercial traffic would mean that the outflow of French wagons to the empire became more and more intense. At times, the number of wagons in France (occupied and unoccupied) declined in such a way that breakdowns even occurred during the program transports. It must be borne in mind that a large proportion of the wagons remaining in France are not transitable. The return of French wagons to the greater extent of the empire was repeatedly necessary to meet the demands of traffic. Therefore, the SNCF 's measures to speed up the. Wagon circumference They resemble those in the kingdom. Reduction of loading, deadlines, increase of the wagon balance, compulsion of the Sunday discharge, utilization of the wagon up to 5% in the exchange traffic and up to 10, % Of the weight of the load in the case of domestic transport, the transfer to the destinations by the last transfer station to the notification of the consignee before the arrival of the wagons, the granting of premiums for premature unloading and the removal of wagons Calls to the staff and by means of handbooks to the carriers, measures for the reduction of the stock of harmful vehicles and the acceleration of the disinfection have produced a considerable success. T Lively advertising by means of calls to the staff and by means of handbooks to the carriers, measures to reduce the damage to the wagon and to accelerate the disinfection have brought a considerable success. T Lively advertising by means of calls to the staff and by means of handbooks to the carriers, measures to reduce the damage to the wagon and to accelerate the disinfection have brought a considerable success. T
(F) Use of the large-capacity wagons
After the cease-fire, numerous difficulties arose from the fact that the French large-scale wagons had been removed from the traffic in which they had previously run regularly. They were mostly taken up by the local heavy industry, in the area they had been exposed to, and were thus deprived of their original purpose. The consequence of this was that no large-scale wagons were available for the facilities of a part of the heavy-duty heavy traffic. By the French State Law of October 15, 1940, with the corresponding regulations, the administration of all the French large-capacity wagons of a French company for large-capacity wagons was transferred. In addition,
The mission was to distribute the large French wagons, which had been destroyed by the war, to the areas involved. This task was completed in 1941. For the use of large - capacity French vans in the area of North - East France • Belgium - Luxembourg - Lorraine - Saar, the place of deployment for large - volume goods vehicles was established in Saarbrücken. The task of this body is to determine the revolutions with large-capacity wagons and to determine which wagons are used in these circuits. The stakeholders in the above areas were grouped together in a "Brussels-Saarbrücken co-operation group".
The above-mentioned difficulties have been compounded by the distribution and the above-mentioned measures for the uniform operation of the French authorities. Space car repaired. The German organizations are cooperating with the French company, for large-capacity vehicles.
V. The Tariff Design
^ Passenger, baggage and express service
1. Domestic transport
In accordance with the warfare-related regulation of passenger train connections, tariff measures had to contribute to the reduction of passenger and luggage traffic where possible. This was mainly the result of the abolition of almost all reductions in the price of domestic transport in France. A tariff increase, the necessary w to cover operating statements of French railways r ar, contributed equally to the reduction of passenger traffic. The. Tariff increase was 20% in passenger and baggage traffic; A further increase is too. expect. About
The tariff policy of the French railways for the transport of travel in 1941 did not affect the respect for other means of transport. In the occupied territory of France, the competition for farmed animals was almost entirely eliminated. In the unoccupied French territory, bus transports are still quite significant, especially on the French Riviera, where numerous buses with wood gas generators are used. In Paris suburban transport tariff measures have been taken which exclude competition between the means of transport involved, namely the railway, the subway and the bus. The passenger tariffs introduced for the Parisian pre-American transport introduced in 1941 provide for an adjustment of the rail tariffs for the railways to the prices of other means of transport, In particular the subways. For social reasons, the prices of workers' weekend parking in the Paris suburban area were not increased.
• Fi * 13 * 6 unification of Prbise was also int Schlafwagenverkelir the International Sleep - 'done' 9gengcsellschaft. The visual-
1T '% T d -! T more staggered by distance. The amount of these charges is the same for all French routes.
And so far increased prices have been applied to the routes to the south of France and the Riviera, which are preferably used by travelers.
2. International traffic
The international passenger and baggage tariffs with France's neighbors, which had been suspended as a result of the war, were re-established in the light of the present circumstances. Particular emphasis was placed on restricting the elaboration of tariff measures to the truly necessary transports. For the "traffic between Germany and France via Belgium, a passenger and baggage tariff appeared as early as 1940. In 1941 a similar tariff for the traffic between Germany and France followed on Alsace and Lorraine, and the latter tariff had to be altered The tariffs of the German railroad in Alsace and Lorraine were introduced in the course of 1941, and the French section therefore had to be shortened. Passenger and baggage allowances for German-French transport have received detailed regulations concerning the transport of foreign workers employed in Germany. The necessary tariff provisions were enacted to these workers to their recreational leave. In special trains to the homeland. New passenger and baggage allowances were also issued for the transports with Belgium, Italy and Switzerland. The transports with Holland and South-East Europe via Germany and Italy were regulated in provisional tariff packages. In special trains to the homeland. New passenger and baggage allowances were also issued for the transports with Belgium, Italy and Switzerland. The transports with Holland and South-East Europe via Germany and Italy were regulated in provisional tariff packages. In special trains to the homeland. New passenger and baggage allowances were also issued for the transports with Belgium, Italy and Switzerland. The transports with Holland and South-East Europe via Germany and Italy were regulated in provisional tariff packages.
In 1941 the expedited goods traffic between Germany and France was received in only a few connections. A much fuller-tariff regulation is currently supported from r working.
(B) Freight transport 1.External transport
The tariff measures in freight transport were primarily aimed at stimulating the French economy. Freight transport, therefore, and particularly because of its general economic importance in terms of warship, was particularly marked in comparison to passenger and baggage traffic. A price increase could not be avoided in view of the general price increase in France, also in freight transport. It was, however, limited. Up to now, the increase in the tariffs has only been set at 10%, in order not to give the economy any incentive for price increases.
The economic upheaval, which was also sought in the tariff system by all means, encountered considerable difficulties because the number of existing freight cars was initially only sufficient for some of the transport wishes. As a result of tariff measures, this helped to accelerate the circulation of the wagon and to ensure better utilization of freight wagons. In addition, tariff regulations were issued which favored the transfer of traffic to inland navigation.
For example, reduced rates have been provided for the dressing after various water handling stations. These tariffs are particularly applicable to ores and provide an incentive to use the railway waterway. ' Another new tariff heading allows the railroad to shift the goods to the car if there is not enough freight wagon space.
Just as in Germany, numerous funds were lifted in France because their purpose had become obsolete.
2. International traffic
The French transit tariffs, as far as they were concerned before the war, were to be carried on the French railways with the competition routes. Or to overthrow them, have lost their functions through the events of the war, and the barriers of many borders. They were consistently abolished in 1941.
On 1 August 1941 the rates of the German railroad were generally introduced in Alsace and Lorraine. In connexion with France, at that time for Alsace and Lorraine, the old French sentences still applied. The tariffs and announcements involved were amended accordingly.
The direct tariff for the transport of Spain, introduced in the autumn of 1940, was extended in 1941, both as regards the types of cargo involved, as well as the means of transport and border crossings used; And the International Tariff for the Transport of Coal and Coke from Germany to Italy via Modane appeared in a new version.
In other international traffic, no direct tariffs have been introduced. Rather, tariff disclosures have been issued which contain only the regulatory provisions and are based on the prices of the tinned tariffs. These announcements have fulfilled their purpose-and have proved their worth. Such announcements also appeared for the traffic from France to Belgium, Holland, Italy and Switzerland. In view of the current situation, it is not possible to derive direct tariffs for the above-mentioned transports That such tariffs would be subject to continual changes and additions and would require a disproportionate amount of work without equivalent benefit. Within the framework of the announcement, favorable rates for mass transports, especially for ores, gained particular importance.
VI. Operations and management
(A) Line length and operating performance
At the end of 1941, the length of the French railways was around 40,000 km, of which 814% were equipped for electric trains
are. The ratio of single-track to double-track and multi-track is about 1: 1.
The annual result of 1941 in driven trains is around 250 million, of which around 176 million are accounted for by freight transport.
If a comparison is made in the year 1937, which has been a top performance since 1930, the volume of the entire freight train company in 1941 exceeds the result of 1937 by almost a quarter. In 1941 the Zugkm services in the passenger train service reached only one third of the level of 1937.
(B) General progress in the interven- tion and improvement of operations
I. Increasing the load on the goods trains
The war conditions required measures to improve the utilization of the train units. -It was forbidden to drain demand and special cargo trains without sufficient load. In order to achieve a better utilization of the nigh freight trains on less important routes, they were only allowed to operate these trains only three days a week.
Furthermore, the number of regular goods was reduced to the strictly necessary level. This prevented trains with an underload from being operated only because they were provided in the timetable as control trains. To the extent that not all cargoes could be trafficked with these few regular goods trains, the demand for special goods trains was carried out on a case-by-case basis, in close co-operation with the involved train services - Postes de Commandement. The French train lines work so closely together with the neighboring train lines, the stations and dumps, that the greatest possible economic exploitation of the units is ensured.
2. Measures in the moving service
Owing to the frequent shunting losses, special attention was paid to shifting service. In general, the French railways are heavier than the Deutsche Reichsbahn. In many cases, the carriages handled by the runway are only pre-braked and are not caught in the directional tracks by means of stifling shoes. Since the track brake systems often do not work properly, the cars run on the car groups standing in the directional tracks and cause damage. Frequently, the charges or parts of the cargoes 4n interfere with the railway gaps and make the work of the servant more difficult. Furthermore, in many railway stations, the lack of shunting personnel is particularly noticeable by well-working strollers. In addition, the personnel are forced to work on braking or restraining devices,
The corresponding experiences of the Deutsche Reichsbahn have been used to remove these deficiencies.
V 3. Closed trains at long distances
In order to accelerate the circulation of the wagon, to reduce the number of marshalling operations in the shifting stations, and to improve the supervision of the German transport services, the already preferred system of closed trains has been further developed in France. These closed trains, now pass through France routes of an average of 800 to 1200 km in length. As a result of the fluctuating volume of traffic, these trains could be provided as needs, only in individual traffic connections does a regular traffic develop. Accurate monitoring of these trains with pre-registration under password has achieved good results.
VII. Operating machinery
In 1941, the SNCF operating machinery also faced difficult tasks. The SNCF for the occupied and unoccupied France in 1941 remained about 3 A of the peace stock by depositing the locomotive for the regions of Alsace, Lorraine, and Luxembourg, and upon delivery of freight trains to the German Reichsbahn. The above-mentioned additional services were now to be met with a considerably smaller standard of solubility. Only two measures could help and have led to success.
1. Reduction of the repair level,
2. Increase * of locomotives.
The repair stand was reduced to 17-18%, including repair work in the workshops. Although the use of the locomotive was increased, the provisions of the French service regulations set limits. The exceptionally severe winter of 1941/42 brought about difficulties in the company's service, but these were removed. In the course of the summer of 1941, it was possible to increase the consumption of coal in the course of the summer of 1941, so that in the winter months it was possible to maintain the operation to the full with increased coal consumption. As a result of these recurring problems with the locomotive coal, the SNCF has received increased attention from the electric train transport.
Electricity is by far the largest in the district of the South-West region, which, like the other four regions, has about one-fifth of the total traffic and covers more than half of the traffic in the district. As a result, the SNCF's total traffic is about one-tenth. In the last two years, the volume of electric traffic has increased despite the general traffic restrictions, which mainly concern steam operation. The hydroelectric power is still on
As the main source of energy, and the powerful power plants are powerful enough to supply the overall demand as well as industrial power.
As regards technical wagons, a phenomenon is worth mentioning after the end of the armistice. As a result of the lack of the car inspection service on the border crossing stations, a great deal of damaged French wagons were running into the realm. On the other hand, traffic was repeatedly repeated in the traffic direction Belgium-France, Luxembourg-France and Alsace and Lorraine-France; Wagons that did not meet the conditions. For the reasons mentioned above, the technical car inspection at the border stations was resumed. The attacks were thus eliminated
VIII. Vehicle maintenance
The restoration work of the SNCF for vehicle maintenance, which had been impaired by the effects of the war, could be regarded as concluded at the beginning of 1941. In practical terms, the SNCF provided all facilities with a capacity corresponding to that of the last peace year for the repair of rolling stock.
On the whole, the workforce of all repair centers in 1941 must also be regarded as satisfactory, since the slight failure by prisoners of war can be neglected. The latter has only more or less appeared in some special groups of craftsmen.
Thus, while these two factors can be compared with the circumstances before the outbreak of the war, the disposition over the vehicle improvements to be carried out during the course of 1941, and thus also the total capacity, has been significantly influenced by the following facts:
1. Take over the repairs on SNCF vehicles, which are temporarily used in the operation of the German Reichsbahn.
2. The contingency of the most important materials, introduced at the beginning of 1941 throughout France.
For the maintenance of vehicles in the interests of the SNCF's service in France, the three main groups of locomotives, passenger cars, and freight cars can be said to have been moving within normal limits throughout the year, despite the above mentioned remarkable external influences. The resulting increase in the vehicle exit at the repair centers has been achieved mainly by means of organizational measures.
The taking over of the repairs for the
German railroad running vehicles
To a performance increase in the entertainment service.
This had to be achieved primarily by the SNCF itself, since the capacity of the private industry available for the same tasks was restricted by new building contracts which had been transferred to these works by the Deutsche Reichsbahn. For example, in 1941, the same number of large locomotive improvements as in 1938 were carried out by the private industry in comparison to 1938, which was 20% lower than in 1938, mainly due to the large number of companies involved in this industry New construction contracts. In the course of 1941 the dispositions in vehicle maintenance were more and more influenced by the ever-sharpened quotas of all important materials, primarily iron, wood, and paints. These measures, which were unfamiliar to French circumstances, also created considerable difficulties for SNCF in practical implementation throughout the railway service. The pressure on economical management of all materials has inevitably led to the extent to which the most important shortcomings can be replaced by new materials. The experiences of the German Reichsbahn with new materials in the field of vehicle maintenance have been immediately used up, or an exchange of experience has been initiated. Worth mentioning are the introduction of three - storey bearings for. Locomotive and trolley for the saving of red brass, carried out attempts to save tin - bearing bearing metal, use of plastics for axle bearing sliding jaws and other vehicle parts, etc. . .
. The management of the tasks entrusted to the SNCF's car entertainment service in 1941 must, on the whole, be regarded as satisfactory. It was precisely during vehicle repairs that a mutual exchange of experience became necessary through the award of vehicles to the Deutsche Reichsbahn. In the technical field, there have been much closer links between the involved railway administrations than they have hitherto been through the known international agreements. The questions already discussed have given an outlook on the tasks which still need a solution in a future much more intensive European traffic.
In 1941, the SNCF developed a brisk building activity to remove the damage to the railway sector. Major tasks were, in particular, the SNCF reconstruction service, which was set up specifically for the restoration of the art buildings, for the year 1941. At the beginning of the year under review, 542 destroyed railway bridges, tunnels and overpasses 74 were finally restored, a figure that increased by 347 to 421 during the year. Since the restoration of 33 structures because of their
Meaningless for the operation of the SNCF provisionally "is not planned, the percentage for the restored art constructions alone for the year 1941 is calculated at 68%. These figures do not include the work for new construction or dismantling, of temporary bridges. On average, 240 construction sites ran with an average level of around 8,000 workers.
The speed of restoration was by no means detrimental to the quality of the performance. When it was a question of partial destruction, the buildings were restored to their old condition. The completely destroyed bridges were usually rebuilt in reinforced concrete, as the iron concrete in France enjoys great popularity because of the variety and speed of its use. As far as the iron bridges were concerned, the bridge and steel parts, which had been found, had been used, as far as possible, had been able to reuse entire superstructures up to a total weight of 700 tons by means of sensible lifting constructions.
The reconstruction of the service buildings destroyed by the war could not, of course, take the same step as the restoration of the buildings of architecture, with the usually less important importance of these buildings. After all, most of the buildings necessary for carrying out a faultless operation were restored in 1941. In the case of interlocks and freight sheds, the percentage is 75.
Taking into account the difficulties and inhibitions that the restrictive measures are causing during the war, the result of reconstruction in the year 1941 appears to be very satisfactory. It was also possible, through a central (management of all the forces involved in the construction work and a central recording and distribution of the necessary building materials.) During restoration, the SNCF worked closely with the German authorities responsible for the planning, Procurement of building materials and labor (German and French railway pioneers), which created the prerequisite for the successful reconstruction of SNCF in 1941.
In addition to the restoration of demolished bridges and buildings, SNCF was striving to improve railway facilities. The main focus here was on the reconstruction of moving platforms, the expansion of factories and repair shops. The projects which were usually generous in their planning were only partially started in the year under review. Even before the war launched construction projects were also only continued with selection or brought to a certain conclusion.
In Western civilization, the Western campaign in 1941 had an effect only to the extent that the bathing activities which had been neglected in the previous year by the war events had to be carried out. The reduction in train speeds and the shortfall in gross tonne kilometers allowed the SNCF certain savings in its maintenance.
So that the railway maintenance program provided for 1941 and also almost completely carried out can be regarded as a normal program. In the course of the railway program, the SNCF, similar to the Deutsche Reichsbahn, used the measurement results of the superstructure trolleys used to assess the track layout. The gauge of the superstructure trolley is also an essential factor in railway maintenance in France. ^
Of the SNCF main lines, about 24% of a "revision-integral" (thorough processing) and about 36% of the "revision reduite" (small track maintenance) were undertaken in 1941. "
"SN & F Integral" means the thorough repair or overhaul of superstructure and substructure. The "revision reduite" aims to preserve the operational condition of a track position, above all, during the period between two thorough workings.
The stopper required for the production of an impeccable and stable track is replaced by the "soufflage mesure" (underfill procedure) at SNCF //
Also the track renewal was corresponding to the material position. resumed; Old upper-building materials came to a larger scale than before.
X. Fuse and telecommunication
In the field of signaling and signaling, in 1941, as a major innovation, the unified "iS ignal order" (regulations general de securite concemant les signais) came into force. This service provision of the SNCF replaces the signaling regulations of the individual companies and now defines uniformly the terms and application of all signals. Existing deviations from this and the specificities of the various regions are gradually eliminated.
SNCF made a widespread advance in 1941 through the uniform regulation of telecommunications and security services (Service Electrique et Signaux SES). Up to now, this service has been divided into different branches in the different regions: electrical interlocks, mechanical interlocks, telecommunication systems, high - voltage power for light and power, the entertainment staff often being assigned to central services. Were not sufficiently familiar with the technical stuff. The following applies as a principle: approximation of the districts of telecommunications and security services to those of the technical service department (district and department) - allocation of the SES's representatives to the civil engineering service. . Since the administrative staff are freed from many administrative tasks, they are able to deal in more detail with their purely technical tasks. The SNCF already believes that by this regulation of the entertainment a reduction of the accident numbers can be observed, despite the additional work, which is for numerous servants
The conversion into a new activity for them.
The SNCF m \ U Hecht is cautious in the unification of the technical equipment. It does not intend to standardize the facilities tested by the companies and are familiar with the staff at all costs. On the contrary, it seeks to harmonize the individual components, whose simplification is in accordance with the general principles of standardization. In addition to the uniform shaping of certain components of the mechanical systems, the unification of the self-contained block and seal signal systems is the main focus , To arrive at a circuit which is as simple as possible and thus reliable in operation. At the moment, around 4000 km of track (= 20% of the two-track lines) are equipped with a self-service block.
A train control with forced braking is not introduced by SNCF. One is satisfied with the repetition of the signaling on the locomotive, whereby only the fixed contact between the rails, the so-called "crocodile", is used with the contact brush on the locomotive. This facility will continue. In particular, to ensure operating safety even in winter with the risk of icing.
There were also numerous attempts at unification in the Chamber 1, often in line with the methods used and tried in the French postal administration. Particularly, the variety of cable type has been limited to a small number of uniform cable sizes, uhd types. In 1941, "Permanenee K command posts" were set up with special telephones and the consignment of the dispatching traction networks continued. At present, around 11,300 km of lines (55% of the total two-track lines) are equipped with dispatching special telephone lines, a further 400 km are under construction.
A further step towards unification was made by the SNCF in 1941 by issuing various regulations on the maintenance of its facilities. In doing so, the procedures customary in the various regions were thoroughly examined and finally the best solution for general introduction was arranged.
* In 1941, the reconstruction work "of the telephone and signal systems during the war events in 1940" was a special achievement. The extensive damage caused by the extremely violent snow storm in February was made more difficult. The consequences - some 300 km of gesture trees - were removed in collaboration with German construction companies and French genius groups in gionatelanger work again.
XI. Human Resources
(A) Staffing At the end of the year under review, SNCF's staff (excluding Alsace and Lorraine) amounted to 403080 heads, a figure of more than 80,000 heads below the level before the start of the war The number of the year 1935.
Pe rsona 1 best ind de
Central Services and
Directories of networks. .
Central Services and
Regional directories. .
Operation and transport. . . .
Machinery and workshop-
service . . . . . . ...
Railway construction and railway subway
96 976 432 472
97 527 403 080
For a comparative description of the number of persons employed in the labor market, it was given in the above overview of 1935 because this was the last year in which the introduction of the. 40-hour-week (as of January 1, 1937).
B) Working time 1 uhg
'Deceived during the year, the Secretary of State for Transportation, based on a law of r set October 3, 1940, by a decree of 16 June 1941, the Ärbeitszeitdausr boei rail on 2408 hours per year. The service regulations corresponding to this regulation had already entered into force on 1 August 1940 at the SNCF.
This rule has essentially been inferred from the provisions adopted before the introduction of the 40-hour week. The development of the working time question over the last few years provides the following picture: 1
1. Period up to 1 January 1937 with a certain transitional arrangement from June 1936 - daily work duration of 8 hours. .
The annual Zahj of the working days amounted to 298,. • | .da a claim apf 52 rest days, and 15 days holiday consisted. The annual working
'Thus carried 2384 hours.
2. From -1. January 19 & 7 to. 1: (September 1939 (War Outbreak) Application of the 40-hour-the-week
3; From September 1, 1939 to August 1, 1940, as a measure of war "-the introduction of the 60-hour-week.
Already since August 26, 1939, the SNGF's entire operation had been available to the state for the purpose of warfare, which meant that the working time regime in force up until then ceased. The introduction of the 60-hour week was then particularly confirmed by a law of 6 October 1939.
4. Since August 1, 1940, confirmed by the Ordinance of the Secretary of State for Transport of 16 June 1941 - Re-definition of the annual working hours to 2408 hours.
As in the case of other railways, especially in the German Reichsbahn, there are also special provisions for the duration of the service strata, which depend on four average pure working hours of five hours establish. Such regulations have been in force since 1 August 1940
(A) the staff of the stationary botri, plant and material service,
(B) the train crew,
(C) the locomotive crew and
(D) the staff of railway construction and railway maintenance.
The basic principles of this length of service principle correspond essentially to the principles applied by the Deutsche Reichsbahn,
C) Social welfare
In the year 1941, the SNCF also paid special attention to the social care of its staff. The difficulties of the supply situation and possible adverse effects have, as far as possible, been countered. Has been established.
1. Health service
SNCF employees receive free medical treatment; About 2500 doctors are available. Special nurses for the social service are assigned to visit the families of the staff and to give them help and advice in every way. Children of health-endangering children, as well as those whose fathers are in a difficult social situation, are accommodated in holiday colonies.
2. Supply of economic goods
In four regions, there are consumer sales points selling certain items of consumption, in particular foodstuffs, to the staff. In the 5th region, there are reciprocal substitutes for reciprocity which fulfill the same task.
The establishment of kitchens for the supply of meals to the staff has also been tackled. The numerous canteens continue to fulfill their very difficult task under present circumstances.
3. Pension Fund and Pension Fund
The Pension Fund, which is charged with the payment of pension rights, old-age and invalidity pensions of permanent staff, widows 'and orphans' pensions for employees who have died as a result of an accident or more than a year's membership of the pension fund, Their revenues were composed in 1941;
BIO OOO 000 frs - Employees' salary - 716 000 000 frs - Proceeds from the fund's investment funds - *
1 867 000 000 frs - SNCF contributions.
For the benefit of the sickness fund of the family members, the savings fund is responsible for the most part of the costs of medication and hospital treatment for the sickness of the staff and the same costs. Their receipts consist of the contributions of the staff, but the SNCF also makes significant contributions.
D) General Care
The SNCF also manages or supports special educational establishments for the children of its staff, libraries, health resorts and recreation centers, as well as by the associations established by the staff.
XII. The financial service
The shortfall of previous years and the general price increase in 1941 prompted the SNCF to raise its tariffs. As of July 28, 1941, the pensions were increased by 20% and the wages were increased by 10%.
The conclusion of the accounts for the. 1941 - the account for the occupied and unoccupied area is not separated and is not subject to the control by German organs - shows the following result:
The following operating expenditure is attributable to the individual services:
Branch of business
In CHF million
Head office. . .
Transportation and transport
Track and construction. .
Vehicle park .....
Ferry service .... . . ,
Others. As shown in Fig.
Operating profit therefore amounted to a surplus of CHF 782 million. The operating figure in 1941 stood at $ 96.3,
Revenues rose to CHF 21 610 million.
They get together
From revenue of passenger transport. ; ......... m
It 4 806 = 22.3%
From revenue of goods transport ..........., i
, 11998 = 55.5%
From subsidiary revenues of the Per-. And freight transport
, 4 283 = 19.8%
523 jhfc 2.4%
21 610 million Fr
The operating expenses were
For personal expenses
11 309 = 54.3%
For factual ""
9519 = 45.7%
20 828 Mio Fr
As in previous years, the income statement contains a deficit. The excess of the operating income of CHF 782 million was far from sufficient to cover liabilities. The loads were for
J ) Expenses for nominally fixed interest rates and repurchase (repayment) of the issued shares in a nominal amount of approximately 1409 million Swiss francs.
2 ) The annual amount of interest and the repayment (annuity) of various bonds and treasury notes with a nominal value of 6629 million Swiss francs.
Shares 1 ). As
88 million Fr
Debt securities. .
, Annual payments 2 ) .....
649 9 I
Other loads ......
317 & quot; & quot;
4634 million Fr
The loss (thus amounts to CHF 3,852 million for the financial year 1941).
The balance sheet for 1941 is not available.
The SNCF is still an unprofitable business. The profit and loss accounts had the following loss amounts:
The SNQF has probably been able to reduce the loss amounts from year to year, but it can not yet develop into a profit-making company.
For the fiscal year 1941 3852 million Fr
I "" 1940 3950 "■
"" "1939 4049 "|
"" 1938 7643 I ■
French Railways - Mitteleuropäischer Eisenbahnverwaltungen article
Discussions on the economic history of the nations taking part in WW2, from the recovery after the depression until the economy at war.
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